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Vietnam: Ho Chi Minh Trail 5: Strategic Position - begin of Ho Chi Minh Trail - resistance against France and criminal "U.S.A."

described by Khi and Gii

Viet Minh troops taking over Hanoi in 1945    Ho Chi Minh portrait of 1930 appr.   Dien Bien Phu battle,
                          Vietnamese with bike konvoy   Vietnamese victory in Dien Bien Phu
                          against criminal French "Christians"
                          on May 7, 1954, with the Vietnam Republic
Viet Minh troops taking over Hanoi in 1945 [13] - 
Ho Chi Minh portrait of 1930 appr. [9]
Dien Bien Phu battle, Vietnamese with bike konvoy [42]

Vietnamese victory in Dien Bien Phu against criminal French "Christians" on May 7, 1954, with the Vietnam Republic flag [47]

Ho Chi Minh trail with elephant konvoy   Ho Chi Minh trail: officers of the North
                        Vietnam Army are on their way on foot in 1969    Ho
                      Chi Minh trail: Russian and Chinese lorries
                      crossing a river on a ford - 1972   Ho Chi Minh trail: Russian and Chinese
                            lorries passing a kiosk where lorries are
                            counted as a control - 1973
Ho Chi Minh trail with elephant konvoy [61] -
Ho Chi Minh trail: officers of the North Vietnam Army are on their way on foot in 1969 [62]

Ho Chi Minh trail: Russian and Chinese lorries crossing a river on a ford - 1972 [66]

Ho Chi Minh trail: Russian and Chinese lorries passing a kiosk where lorries are counted as a control - 1973 [65]

presented by
Michael Palomino (2013 - photos 2023)



from: The H Ch Minh Trail; Hong Khi and Th Gii Publishers 2008; English translation; first edition 2001; second edition 2008; printed in Vit Nam; VN - TG - 6.149-1
5  <The strategic position of the Trung Son Range and the origin of the Ho Chi Minh Trail>

[Traditional resistance zone]

<Innumerable resistance zones were established in the Trung Son Range during different historical periods, feudal, colonialist and imperialist. They offered us a great deal of experience in relying on the topographical conditions (rivers, mountains, grottoes and water currents, etc.) to build bases, to organize long-lasting resistance forces, and to open a supply line to fight the US invaders.> (p.43)

Map of Vietnam, Laos, and
                          Cambodia with the mountain range of
                          "Trung Son", with indications added
                          by Michael Palomino (2013)  
Map of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia with the mountain range of "Trung Son", with indications added by Michael Palomino (2013) [1]

[Installation of Truong Son Trail / Ho Chi Minh Trail]

<We can say that each line has its own origin, history, and life. The Trung Son or Ho Chi Minh trail has a fairly long history of development. As early as August 1945, President Ho Chi Minh had paid attention to the strategic importance of the Trung Son trail for a long resistance war throughout the country.> (p.43)

Map of the Ho Chi Minh trail
Map of the Ho Chi Minh trail [2]

[Supplement on Vietnam 1940-1945: Criminal French-"Christians" and Japanese-"Red Suns" in Vietnam - Vietnamese with Communists
-- French troops were Vichy troops from 1940 - and Vietnam was then occupied by Japanese soldiers, and Vichy troops were calmly agreeing to the Japanese co-occupation [web01]

Hanoi 1940
                          approx. with passenger taxis, bicycles and
                          cars   Hanoi 1940 approx. with
                          transport on the shoulder   Vietnam: invasion of
                          Japanese troops in September 1940, the French
                          troops offer hardly any resistance
Hanoi 1940 approx. with passenger taxis, bicycles and cars [6] - Hanoi 1940 approx. with transport on the shoulder [7] Vietnam: invasion of Japanese troops in September 1940, the French troops offer hardly any resistance [8]

-- but the Vietnamese were rebelling against the Japanese: the criminal "Christians" of the French colonial forces then helped the criminal Red Sun Japanese and put down two anti-Japanese uprisings in 1940 -- "in Baxon County in the north of the country and in the central county of Dyolong."
-- now the Vietnamese had to realize that they had BOTH criminal colonial parties as enemies, the Japanese AND the French, thus Vietnamese politicians formed the patriotic organization "Vietnam Independence League" in May 1941, with the Communists taking a key role [for as a backbone there was only the Communists of China to support them against the criminal "Christians" and "Red Suns". Henceforth, a partisan struggle developed] [web01]
-- this Vietnam Independence League (Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội), abbreviated Việt Minh, was founded in the northern province of "Cao Bang" in the city of "Pc B", during the 8th Congress of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, held from March 10-19, 1941 [web04]
-- "The Việt Minh (simplified Vietminh, in full Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, Hn Nm 越南獨立同盟會, in English: "League for the Independence of Vietnam") was formed in 1941 from various factions to secure the independence of Vietnam. They consisted of nationalist and communist groups. The political leader and a founder of the Vietminh was Mr. Hồ Ch Minh. The military leadership was under the leader of the nationalist movement Mr. V Nguyn Gip. Other founders were L Duẩn and Phạm Văn Đồng." [web05]

                        Chi Minh portrait 1930 appr.  
Ho Chi Minh portrait 1930 appr. [9], birth name "Nguyen Sinh Cung", the father was Confucian, at the age of 10 he was renamed "Nguyen Tat Thanh" according to Confucian tradition, he received a French education in the town of Hue, he was always treated badly in Europe + in the "USA", he became a member of the communist Comintern, but then lost his post there + was then in "Pc B" in 1941 and gave himself the name Ho Chi Minh (the illuminator for the Vietnamese) [9]

Gen V Nguyn Gip, portrait 1930 appr.
Gen V Nguyn Gip, portrait 1930 appr. [10], born in Hanoi in 1911, son of a teacher, became a teacher of history + geography himself, guerrilla fighter, he was exiled to the prison island of "Poulo Condor" in 1939, he emigrated to China, became a politician as a co-founder of the "Viet Minh" in 1941, had to experience how the French committed clan imprisonment and killed his family in prison in 1941-1943 (wife,  daughter, father, stepsister, stepbrother), he became leader + General of the Viet Minh troops, 1946-1977 Secretary of the Military Commission of the CPVietnam and 1948-1980 Minister of Defense and Commander-in-Chief of the Vietnam Army against the criminal "Christians" of France and "USA", and he defeated the world terrorism of the "West" with his tactics [web06]

                        Duẩn, portrait 1940 appr.
L Duẩn, portrait 1940 appr. [11]: L Duẩn is from central Vietnam, was a railway worker, 1930 founding member of the CPIndochina, 2x imprisoned by cr. French "Christians", then joined the Việt Minh. From 1945 under Hồ Ch Minh influential member of the Central Committee with the August Revolution, since 1946 in the underground in the cadre of the underground organization Cochinchina, since 1951 its leader. Even after 1954 he remained underground, only in 1960 first secretary of the party and thus officially the most important figure in the party after Hồ Ch Minh. From 1964 advocate of the Tet offensives, opponents were sidelined, then successor of Ho Chi Minh. After unification of Vietnam in 1976 and the party was restructured, L became the party's general secretary. [web07]

Phạm Văn Đồng, portrait 1940 appr.
Phạm Văn Đồng, portrait 1940 appr. [12] became a member of the Vietnamese youth movement "Ho Chi Minh" in 1926, which later became the Communist Party of Vietnam; imprisonment in the time of the criminal French "Christians" 1929-1936; from 1945 Minister of Finance, then Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of North Vietnam, in 1954 head of the delegation of the Viet Minh in Geneva at the Indochina Conference; Prime Minister in 1955. In the 1970s, peace negotiations with mass murderers Johnson and Nixon. Resignation for reasons of age - calls against corruption in Vietnam. [web08]

-- from 1941 to November 1943, the criminal French-"Christians" fought the Viet Minh partisan rebels, then from November 1943, the Red Sun Japanese joined the French-"Christians" to fight the Viet Minh rebels [web01]
-- "US" OSS diplomats also installed themselves in Vietnam, had ties with Gip, among others, but then dropped the Vietnamese and allowed the return of the criminal French "Christians" as colonialists [web06]
-- on December 22, 1944, Vietnamese commanders formed the first detachment of a Vietnamese army, commanded by a Vietnamese language teacher Vo Nguyen Ziap [Giap], "a graduate of the University of Hanoi and a former teacher of the French language"- later he was called in the "West" a "Red Napoleon" [web01]

[Supplement on Vietnam 1945: Japanese disarming the French - Vietnamese expelling Japanese to S-Vietnam - Ho Chi Minh proclaims the "People's Republic of Vietnam" on Sep 2, 1945
-- after the liberation of France in Europe and the fall of the Vichy regime, the Japanese troops in Vietnam captured the French troops on March 9, 1945, including disarmament
-- for irrational reasons to save the "French honor," soldiers and officers of the 5th regiment of the Foreign Legion also attacked China, but suffered heavy losses
-- now the Vietnamese had only one colonial army in front of them, the Japanese: Vietmin launched an offensive on August 13, 1945, took over Hanoi on August 19, 1945 and was able to drive the Japanese to South Vietnam by the end of August 1945

Viet Minh troops taking over Hanoi
                          in 1945
Viet Minh troops taking over Hanoi in 1945 [13]

-- "On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh, at a rally in liberated Saigon, announced the creation of a new state - the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. On that day, Vietnam took control of almost all the cities in the country."] [web1] - [that was the final action of the "August Revolution"]

Hanoi: declaration of
                        independence of Ho Chi Minh      Hanoi: declaration of independence of Ho
                          Chi Minh on the micro on Sep 2, 1945
Hanoi: declaration of independence of Ho Chi Minh [14] - on the micro on Sep 2, 1945 [15]

On September 2nd 1945, more than 400,000 Vietnamese – double the usual population of Hanoi – gathered in Ba Dinh Square in the capital to hear the proclamation, drafted by Ho Chi Minh. Ho’s proclamation quoted extensively from the 1776 United States Declaration of Independence, citing the values of freedom and self-determination – but correctly predicting that the struggle for Vietnam was not over:

“All men are created equal; they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights; among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. This immortal statement was made in the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America in 1776. In a broader sense, this means: All the peoples on the earth are equal from birth, all the peoples have a right to live, to be happy and free. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of the French Revolution made in 1791 also states: All men are born free and with equal rights, and must always remain free and have equal rights. Those are undeniable truths … Viet-Nam has the right to be a free and independent country, and in fact, it is so already. The entire Vietnamese people are determined to mobilize all their physical and mental strength, to sacrifice their lives and property in order to safeguard their independence and liberty.” [web09]

[Supplement on Vietnam 1945: Criminal "Christians" from England help criminal "Christians" from France to get the power again since Sep 6, 1945
Churchill (Jewish network) helped De Gaulle (criminal "Christian") in Vietnam with troops:
-- Churchill's army organizes a troop landing with soldiers from India in Saigon: The 20th Division landed at Saigon from 6 to 11 September 1945 [web01]
-- British Major General Douglas Gracie (also written: Douglas Gracey) was the commander of this 20th division. He arrived in Saigon on September 13, 1945 and did not recognize the national government of Vietnam, but he wanted to help the criminal "Christian" colonialists from France back to power in Vietnam [web01]

GB General Douglas
                          Gracey (also written: Gracie)  
GB General Douglas Gracey (also written: Gracie) [21]

-- the Japanese army surrendered in Saigon the same day, September 13, 1945: symbolically a British lieutenant was handing over a saber [web10]

Japanese army surrendered in Saigon the
                        same day, September 13, 1945: symbolically a
                        British lieutenant was handing over a saber  
Japanese army surrendered in Saigon the same day, September 13, 1945: symbolically a British lieutenant was handing over a saber [20]

-- the Vietnamese with Ho Chi Minh had expected peace from the British, Americans, China and Russians, but from the British they only got new war] [web01]

[Supplement on Vietnam 1945: The criminal French "Christians" take over Saigon
-- the British troops liberated the French troops
-- on September 22, 1945, the French and the French government took control of Saigon, the Vietnamese responded with strikes and riots in the city

Saigon Sep 22/23, 1945: French invasion  
Saigon Sep 22/23, 1945: French invasion [16]

-- the British commander Gracie (Gracey) then had captured Japanese regiments rearmed in order to suppress the Vietnamese
-- [the criminal "Christian" General De Gaulle of] France sent the "Sixth Colonial Regiment" to Vietnam, which arrived in Saigon on October 15, 1945
-- on October 15, 1945, the criminal French "Christians" staged a military parade in Saigon [web10]

Saigon Oct 15, 1945: French
                        military parade
Saigon Oct 15, 1945: French military parade [17]

-- from October 15, 1945, "the British and Japanese expelled the Vietmin detachments from Saigon and occupied the cities of Thuduk, Bien Hoa, Thuzaumoti, and Suanlok and Benkat. And the French paratroopers of the Foreign Legion, led by Lieutenant Colonel Jacques Massouux [...] took the city of Mitho."
-- the criminal French "Christians" acted against Vietnamese with all possible arrogance and brutality, the English advisor to Lord Mountbatten, Mr. Tom Driberg, mentioned "extreme cruelty" and "shameful revenge scenes comitted by French degenerates" [web01]

Mr. Tom Driberg, GB agent and
Mr. Tom Driberg, GB agent and journalist [22]

-- [the same criminal "Christian" General De Gaulle of] France sent another criminal "Christian", Mr. Raoul Salan, to Vietnam, he arrived in Vietnam on October 29, 1945 and took command of the criminal "Christian" French troops in Tonkin [North Vietnam] and Indochina [the rest of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia] [web01]

Raoul Salan, a criminal
                            "Christ" and General of France in
Raoul Salan, a criminal "Christ" and General of France in Vietnam [23]

-- Mr. Raoul Salan was one of the most criminal French "Christians" first with destruction in Vietnam and then in Algeria [web02 - link].
-- October 1945 appr.: China invaded Vietnam from the north: with the 200th Kuomintang army [web01]
-- on January 6, 1946, Vietnamese National Assembly decided to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. [web03]

[Supplement on Vietnam 1946: The criminal "Christian" British hand over power to the criminal "Christian" French
-- Saigon Jan 28, 1946: The criminal "Christians" of British and French organized a joint military parade in front of the Jesus-Fantasy-Cathedral (!)
-- the English commander and General Gracie (Gracey) symbolically hands over to the French General Leclerc two Japanese swords, which he had received from the Red Sun Japanese command
-- the English commander Gracie (Gracey) left Vietnam now relieved, because now the criminal French "Christians" should deal alone with the stronger and stronger communists in Vietnam
-- the last two British-Indian battalions [Gourkas, Gurkhas] left Vietnam on March 30, 1946] [web01]

Gurkha soldiers from Nepal in Burma
                        in 1941   Gurkha soldiers Saigon presenting
                          themselves before criminal French
                          "Christen" General Leclerc 1945  
Gurkha soldiers from Nepal in Burma in 1941 [24] -
Gurkha soldiers Saigon presenting themselves before criminal French "Christen" General Leclerc 1945 [25]

[Supplement about Vietnam 1946: Ho Chi Minh expels Chinese troops + tries to re-establish his state as DRV on March 6, 1946 + the French rearm
-- Ho Chi Minh tried to negotiate, but then saw only the military solution:
"Ho Chi Minh tried to negotiate for a long time, even turning to President Truman for help. After exhausting all possibilities of a peaceful solution, he ordered to attack the Anglo-French troops in the south and the Kuomintang troops in the north. On January 30, 1946, the Vietnamese army defeated the Kuomintang troops and on February 28, the Chinese fled in panic to their territory [back to China]." [web01]

-- seeing how strong Ho Chi Minh's Vietnamese army was, the criminal French "Christians" accepted the independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) on March 6, 1946 - but this was ONLY A FAKE.
-- the lawyers from the criminal "Christian" General De Gaulle in Paris now invented an "Indochina Federation" and a "French Union" where the DRV should be a part of it [web01]
-- the recognition of the DRV's independence was done only FOR THE SAME PURPOSE, to have time to bring new troops from Africa, Syria and Europe to Vietnam, including the Foreign Legion, "four infantry and one armored cavalry regiments of the Legion, two parachute battalions (which later became regiments), and its engineers and engineer units." [web01]

[Supplement: Criminal Foreign Legion in Vietnam with new criminal "Christians"
Those in Europe who had not yet had enough of war, or who were politically facing a court martial, joined the French Foreign Legion in Algeria or in Vietnam to wage war against natives, who, however, were becoming more and more armed and were often communist-trained. The "Christians" from Europe did not want peace, but they wanted to remain "colonial power" with mass murder and mass robbery. The geostrategic chess game with murder and robbery overseas continued]. Vietnam became a "meat grinder" [web01].

Saigon, Nov 11,
                        1946: Military parade of the French Foreign
                        Legion   Saigon, Nov 11, 1946: Military parade of
                          the French Foreign Legion with jeep
Saigon, Nov 11, 1946: Military parade of the French Foreign Legion [18] - with jeep [19]
The French
                        Foreign Legion in Vietnam, Second Parachute
                        Battalion   French
                          Foreign Legion 1st Battalion, 2nd REI in
                          French Indochina, 1950   
The French Foreign Legion in Vietnam, Second Parachute Battalion [3] - French Foreign Legion 1st Battalion, 2nd REI in French Indochina, 1950 [4]

Vietnam has NEVER attacked France.

[Trung Son mountain range with Truong Son Trail as a resistance place 1946-1954 and from 1959 on again]

<In the early days of the revolution, to hoodwink the French and Japanese secret agents, the (p.43) revolutionaries returned from or went to other neighboring countries (Laos, Cambodia, Thailand) through the forest tracks of Trung Son. Besides National Highway N 1 and the railway which transported troops to the South, President Ho Chi Minh organized the construction of the Trung Son line for the transportation of troops, provisions and war material to the Southern battlefield. Since December 1946, [when English troops, English troops from India, and Japanese troops left Vietnam since the final ceremony of Jan 28, 1946 giving the "colonial power" to the French against Communist Vietnam forces (web01)]
when the war against the French colonialists started [in the town of Haiphong on Nov 22, 1946 (web01)], the Truong Son continuously operated from the Vit Bc resistance zone to the U Minh forests in the South. (p.44)

[Supplement: WHAT did the criminal French "Christians" do in Vietnam in 1946? Occupy Haiphong and Hanoi
"The fighting began after the French demanded that the DRV authorities transfer the city of Haiphong to them on November 21, 1946. The Vietnamese refused, and on November 22, warships of the city began shelling the same city: according to French estimates, about 2000 civilians were killed. Now began the First Indochina War. The French troops launched an offensive in all directions, on December 19 they approached Hanoi, but only after two months of continuous fighting managed to almost completely destroy the city."] [web01]

Map of Vietnam with Haiphong and Hanoi
Map of Vietnam with Haiphong and Hanoi [5]

[Supplement: Criminal French Foreign Legion with criminal white "Christians" in Vietnam
Those in Europe who wanted to go on with making war, or who was politically persecuted by war justice, went to the French Foreign Legion in Algeria or in Vietnam to wage war against native peoples who were more and more armed and educated in the Communist way. The "Christians" from Europe did not want peace, but they wanted to go on with their "colonial power" killing and robbing natives. The geostrategic chess game overseas went on].

<Throughout the 9 years of the anti-French war [the white soldiers of the French legion felt always superiority with their primitive guns],
strategic instructions and crucial policies were conveyed through the Truong Son line, by motor vehicles, bicycles and even on foot. (p.44)

From 1954 to 1959, the Truong Son line temporarily stopped its operation, in accordance with the Geneva Agreements on Vit Nam. After 1959, since Ng Dnh Dim did not respect the 195e Geneva Agreements, the Truong Son line was restored to prepare for the resistance war against the US and South Vietnamese puppets.> (p.44)

[Supplement Vietnam 1946-1954: Vietnamese never give up - and some Japanese remain operating privately in Vietnam
-- the Vietnamese withdrew from the northern border province of Vietbak [Viet Bac Autonomous Region] and switched to guerrilla tactics "thousand pin shots" [web01]

Map of North Vietnam with Tay
                        Bac and Viet Bac
Map of North Vietnam with Tay Bac and Viet Bac [27]

-- up to 5000 Japanese soldiers stayed in Japan for fear of revenge or for fear of prosecution for war crimes in Vietnam and fought with the French against the Vietnamese, [who had no other chance than to be supported by the Communists from China].
-- Example: Japanese Major Ishii Takuo became a colonel in the French army in Vietnam, was head of the military academy "Quang Ngai", was also "chief advisor" to South Vietnamese partisans
-- example: the Japanese colonel Mukayama came from the headquarters of the "5th Imperial Army", then switched to the Vietnamese Communist side, became an advisor to Vo Nguyen Ziap (Gip)
-- 38 Japanese doctors and 2 Japanese nurses worked in Vietnamese hospitals] [web01]

[Supplement Vietnam as of 1946: The French Colonial Army
-- the French [with criminal "Christian" De Gaulle] had a whole colonial army shipped to Vietnam, including 1500 armored vehicles
-- in addition, "native" troops and rebels were trained [web01]

[Supplement Vietnam 1947: assassination attempt on Ho Chi Minh and Vo Nguyen Ziap (Gip) with paratroopers in Bak Kan (Bac Kan)
-- French criminal "Christian" army attempted to land with paratroopers in Bak Kan (Bac Kan) town where Vietnamese leadership with Ho Chi Minh and Vo Nguyen Ziap were supposed to be staying
-- Ho Chi Minh and Vo Nguyen Ziap (Gip) managed to escape, however, and the paratrooper legion with 1200 killer "Christians" suffered heavy casualties at the hands of Vietnamese and Vietnam partisans]. [web01]

Ho Chi Minh portrait
                        1930 appr. [9] - Gen V Nguyn Gip, portrait
                        1930 appr. [10] - map of North Vietnam with
                        Hanoi, Haiphong, Dien Bien Phu and Bac Kan [26]     Gen V Nguyn Gip, portrait 1930
                          appr.    map
                          of North Vietnam with Hanoi, Haiphong, Dien
                          Bien Phu and Bac Kan
Ho Chi Minh portrait 1930 appr. [9] -
Gen V Nguyn Gip, portrait 1930 appr. [10] - map of North Vietnam with Hanoi, Haiphong, Dien Bien Phu and Bac Kan [26]

-- about this attempted murder against Ho Chi Minh and Gip on October 7, 1947, the French war literature has whole books with all the details, e.g. here is a website link, the French reports rave about invincibility and high losses for the Vietnam army of the Vietmin (translation from French with Deepl):

"-- The parachute jump is performed in the following order:
-- The first two aircraft fly to jump zone No. 2. Task: take the bridge.
-- The 3rd aircraft is destined for jump zone No. 3. Task: establish a traffic jam south of Bac Kan on the road to Thai N'Guyen.
-- The remaining 16 aircraft will be divided into 3 groups (one group with 6 JU52s and 2 groups with 5 Dakotas). The 2nd and 3rd sections will arrive at drop zone #1 with a 5 minute delay to allow the previous section to complete their two passes.

The first wave (19 aircraft) will be dropped starting at 08:15. The drop normally occurs over the designated drop zones after prior "bombing" and "straffing" by the fighter pilots. The drop zones are short and narrow, intersected and lined by steep, forested mountain ranges, and heaps of anti-parachute stakes are installed in the ground.

As soon as the paratroopers jump out, they are greeted by numerous shots coming from the edges of the drop zone. A Viet Minh (VM) battalion, entrenched in its fighting positions, was waiting for them. The arrival on the ground is brutal for some, humid for many. Despite the difficulties associated with the terrain and rebel actions, regrouping is quick. However, some Vietminh (VM) gunners try to attack the men before they can make use of their weapons. Sergeant ARGUSSOL of the 1st Company of the shock battalion is wounded. Several men are hit. Each battle group knows its mission and charges toward its objective without wasting time. Complete regrouping takes place at the objective. The battalion command post is set up in a straw hut, as is the first aid post. The wounded are transported there. Already the "284" is set up and makes contact with the Catalina, which serves as a command post for the hunt.

A VM Company commander is killed a few hundred meters away while riding on the road to Cho Don.

At 08:45, the group unit GRENET occupies the bridge over the Song Cau River to the north of the city. The clearing of the jump zones and their surroundings continues while 2 companies attack the town. The Viet Minh stampede is general, the fugitives are firing but nothing precise against us.

Mortar shells are fired at the wooded hills north of the jump zone from which the shots are coming.

By 9:30 a.m., the 1st Company has occupied the TSF station, hospital, and the residence. The electric power station is occupied. Numerous VM elements manage to ford the Song Cau River between the 1st and 3rd Companies.

At 9:45 a.m., light clash of 4th Company at the courthouse.

The defense plan of the town of Bac Kan reveals that the VM had avaited the massive dropping of paratroopers on the airfield and surrounding areas: all their automatic weapons were pointed in that direction. Their retreat was planned over the hills to the southwest of the city. The chosen jump zones made it possible to take the enemy defenses by surprise. On the other hand, the retreat route was immediately cut off by jump zone 1. The population, the administration, the documents and most of the material could not be evacuated and the destruction of the city by the VM could not take place.

At 10:45 a.m.: arrival of the elements of the 2nd wave on jump zone No. 1 (15 planes) and on jump zone No. 2 (4 planes). Shots still receive them from the paratroopers in jump zone 1. We have one dead - Corporal Fleury - and two wounded during the descent.

At 10:50, the drop of the 3rd Company takes place on the DZ North. This company laments the disappearance of Sergeant Brillou and of fighter Coffornil, who were accidentally dropped while "standing up and holding on", 5 minutes before the DZ [?], with a container that contained a 60-mm mortar and 2 shell casings.

At 11:00, the 3rd Company regrouped while the 4th Company reached Phu's house.

At 11:10, Tanguy's platoon advanced to a house overlooking the airfield. To establish itself there, it must drive off a group of VM administrators.

At 12 noon, the 2nd Company sets up at the hospital. Military group, part of which had landed north of the citadel, under fire.

Individual paratroopers were attacked by the population with knives and even bamboo sticks. More than 200 [Vietnamese] soldiers were shot dead as the capture of the city continued.

At 12:15, elements of the 4th Company establish liaison with the Hentic Group, which was located in the constriction at the southern exit of the city.

At 1:15 p.m., the command post of the DBMP [Demi-Brigade de Marche Parachutiste] Parachute Half Brigade is already established in the residence. The entire city is in our hands, including the citadel.

The airfield northeast of the bridge is cleared, a VM cadre school set up on the outskirts is put to flight, teachers and students flee to the north.

The parachute company group being dropped south of Bac Kan performed its task perfectly, arresting several VM personalities who were trying to escape.

Thanks to the quick operation, the destruction of the city was prevented. The electric power station and the post office are in our hands (the telephone connection with the river "Cao Bang", still occupied by the rebels, is maintained even until the evening).

An important information from a local says that the station "La voix du Vietnam" ("Voice of Vietnam") had moved a few days before and was now located 3 km from Bac Kan in straw huts on the side of the road to Cho Don. A squad was immediately sent there and discovered in fact the radio station.

A large depot is also reported on the road to Cho Don, 3 km from Bac Kan. Lieutenant Cathalade is sent there with two detachments.

At 15:00 the objective of the operation is reached, a day of mourning for the VM army, which in a few hours has 260 dead, 115 injured and 84 suspects arrested. A fabric factory, a weapons factory, power generators, radios, engines, 2000 grenades, 25 mm grenades, 160 rolls of detonating cord, 260 kg of plastic, thousands of cartridges, pharmaceutical products, 10 liters of mercury and 400 tons of various ammunition.

Weapons captured in battle: 234 rifles, 10 pistols, 3 machine guns, 2 grenade launchers, 1 mortar 60mm, 21 daggers and several hundred grenades.

On our side we mourn:

    2 paratroopers and 1 partisan missing.
    1 killed and 4 wounded
    5 wounded during the landing.

Since 4:00 p.m., surgery was installed in the hospital and is working with its first wounded man. [web11]

Vietnam has NEVER attacked France.

[Ho Chi Minh Trail passing Vietnam-Laos-Cambodia - from Vinh city to Lc Ninh]

<In a document of the French 2nd Bureau and in the memoirs of French General Salan, who took part in the French 1946-1954 Indochina War, there is a map which represents the Ho Chi Minh Trail as a dark line starting from Vinh city, crossing the Mu Gia Pass, and going as far as West Truong Son. So the trail is partly on the territory of Laos, its southern legs running past Indochina three ways with crossroads and along the Mondonkiri plateau in Cambodia to reach Lc Ninh [in South Vietnam at the Cambodian border]. (p.44)

Raoul Salan, a
                              criminal "Christian" and general
                              of France in Vietnam  Map of South Vietnam
                        with HCMCity and the district of Loc Ninh, the
                        starting point of the Ho Chi Minh trail
Raoul Salan, a criminal "Christian" and general of France in Vietnam [23]
Map of South Vietnam with HCMCity and the district of Loc Ninh, the starting point of the Ho Chi Minh trail [28]

Looking at the map, the least militarily knowledgeable man can (p.44) realize the strategic importance of this trail for the three Indochinese countries. Therefore, from the beginning of their war against Vit Nam, the French paid a great deal of attention to this communication line. To get a better knowledge of the "trail" let us review its history.> (p.45)

[Mountain range of almost 1,000 km - genesis about Trung Son mountain range with giants and falling stones]

<The Trung Son range is of the same age as many other big mountain chains in the world. It is not very high, but very long. (p.45)

Map HCM trail from "Nge
                        An" province to "Dak Lak"
                        province in the plateau
Map HCM trail from "Nge An" province to "Dak Lak" province in the plateau [49]

As the crow flies, from the source of the Lam River in West Ngh An to the South of the Dc Lc plateau, it is nearly 1,000 km long. No one knows whether any man has walked the length of the Trung Son Range, but as old legends go, there have been giants who could step from one peak to the next; some of them stumbled, however, and let fall the massive stone burden on their shoulders, which caused the tortuous shape of Trung Son. However, there are no legends of travelers going along the entire length of Trung Son. Perhaps, no one had thought of the necessity of such a long pathway.> (p.45)

[Traditional resistance territory since the period of the Ty Son brothers - a line of military posts]

<As mentioned earlier, there have been innumerable resistance or uprising bases in the Trung Son range, but probably the Ty Son brothers (Nguyn Nhac, Nguyn Hu and Nguyn L
ũ) were the first to use this range as a strategic jumping-off position in the struggle against foreign invaders for national unification. The Trung Son communication line had actually begun at the start of the Ty Son insurrection. Even then military posts were organized with enough horses for the conveyance of intelligence and the leading of troops. The posts were 4-5 km from (p.45) each other. They helped the insurrectionists move quickly and firmly drive away the Chinese Qing aggressors.> (p.46)

Imaginary monument of the Tay Son
                        brothers from the 1771 Tay Son Rebellion against
Imaginary monument of the Tay Son brothers from the 1771 Tay Son Rebellion against China [30]
Modern statue group of the three Ty Sơn brothers in the Quang Trung Museum, Bnh Định. Their actual appearance is not known, as almost all the works of the Ty Sơn period were destroyed by the subsequent Nguyễn dynasty (Damnatio memoriae). [30]

[Ho Chi Minh Trail improved since 1915 against French racist colonialists and "US" troops]

<The path of victory through the Trung Son range, initiated by Nguyn Hu, remained as it had been until 1915. President Ho Chi Minh had the idea of using it as a strategic communication line for national liberation. It was lengthened, widened and provided with bridges and culverts [tunnels] as well as shelters to become the supply line existing during the resistance against the French and US invaders. As early as 1945 and during the beginning days of the war, groups of cadres including both the middle-aged and youngsters traveled southward on foot to open the way along the length of [the mountain range of] Truong Son. Their tools were merely bush-whackers and pick-axes. As a result, the Ho Chi Minh Trail came into being to effectively serve the 9-year anti-French resistance.> (p.46)

[Use of Ho Chi Minh Trail: 1945-1954 / 1959-1975]

The necessity of building the Ho Chi Minh Trail dates back to 1945, as required by the movement of people who were then going South to fight the French. It was named after Ho Chi Minh because the President himself had first thought it was necessary to have a strategic communication line along the length of [the mountain range of] Trung Son. Following the historical experiences of our forefathers from 1954 to 1959, respecting the Geneva Agreements on Vit Nam and the Indochinese countries, and desiring a (p.64) peaceful unification of Vit Nam, the leaders of North Vit Nam refrained from using the Ho Chi Minh Trail for four consecutive years. Only when the US and the Saigon administration tore up the 1954 Geneva Agreements did it became clear that national unification could only be realized by war, so the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of Vit Nam approved Resolution N 15 allowing the South Vit Nam people to take up arms and fight the US puppets. The Ho Chi Minh Trail was repaired and restored.> (p.65)

[Addition Vietnam 1949 and 1950: Chinese army is defeated - first victories against criminal French-"Christians" - withdrawal of the French to South Vietnam - recognition of the DRV on Dec 22, 1950
-- in March 1949 comes the victory of the Vietnam army against the Chinese army
[-- Vietnam ended it's two-front war]
-- thus all forces of Vietnam were thrown to the south against the criminal French "Christians"
-- in the fall of 1949, the Vietnam Army went on the offensive against the criminal French-"Christians"
-- in September 1950 the French garrisons near the Chinese border were destroyed
-- in Tat Ke (Kao Bang post-satellite) the Vietnam Army succeeded in encircling the 6th Parachute Colonial Battalion, on the night of October 5/6, 1950, the criminal French "Christians" attempted to break out, but failed with heavy casualties and the survivors were captured, including a war addict Jean Graziani, who had already fought Nazi Germany -- another war addict was Mr. Pierre-Paul Janpierre, who had already fought in the French Resistance against Nazi Germany
-- on October 9, 1950, the Vietnam Army won the Battle of Khao Bang (Cao Bang) against the criminal French "Christians." In addition to 7 dead and wounded, the French lost "500 cars, 125 mortars, 13 howitzers, 3 tank platoons, and 9000 small arms." [web01]

Map of North Vietnam with Cao Bang      The town of Cao Bang in the hills
                        near the Chinese border, aerial view from google
Map of North Vietnam with Cao Bang [31] - The town of Cao Bang in the hills near the Chinese border, aerial view from google Earth [32].

-- the battle of Cao Bang lasted for years since 1947 already with a French garrison in Cao Bang, 1000s of convoys, ambushes without end, according to the data of Mossad Wikipedia: Quote (orig. English):

"The Battle of Cao Bằng was an ongoing campaign in northern Indochina during the First Indochina War, between the French Far East Expeditionary Corps and the Việt Minh, which began in October 1947 and culminated on September 3, 1949. Since the start of the conflict, Việt Minh troops had ambushed French convoys along the VietnamChina border from the Gulf of Tonkin on a 147-mile route to a French garrison at Cao Bằng, known as Route Colonial 4, or RC4. Repeated ambushes led to repeated French operations of increasing strength to reopen the road, including a costly mission by the Foreign Legion in February 1948. On July 25, 1948, the Cao Bằng encampment was itself attacked and held out for three days with two companies defending against two battalions of Việt Minh. A further 28 ambushes took place in 1948.[1]

In February 1949, five Việt Minh battalions and mortar units took a French post at Lo Cai, and resumed ambushes through the monsoon season. On September 3, 1949, 100 vehicles left That Khe in a reinforced convoy which travelled a distance of 16 miles (26 km) through infantry screens. The French, reduced to one soldier per vehicle due to troop numbers, were ambushed by automatic fire. The first twenty trucks were halted, as were the final ten, and the middle of the convoy was cut down by shellfire. The following day, French troops reoccupied the surrounded hilltops, however only four French wounded were found alive.[1]

The campaign at Cao Bằng resulted in a change in convoy practices for the remainder of the war. Vehicles thereafter travelled from post to post in 10-12 vehicle convoys, through security screens of French troops and with aircraft observation. Through 1950, supply convoys to Cao Bằng were discontinued in favour of air supply.[1][2]" [web18]

Landscape of Cao Bang
                        region with mountains and valley   Cao Bang Province, the waterfalls of
                        Ban Gioc
Landscape of Cao Bang region with mountains and valley [33] - Cao Bang Province, the waterfalls of Ban Gioc [34]

-- Like out of nowhere, now the Vietnam Army grew more and more [web01]
-- Also in this region there are 100s of hiding places, caves and grottoes [and the French had NO chance] [web13]
-- At the end of October 1950, French troops almost completely left North Vietnam
-- On December 22, 1950, the French recognized the sovereignty of Vietnam "within the French Union", but that was not enough for Ho Chi Minh and he wanted to get out the criminal French "Christians" completely [web01]

Vietnam has NEVER attacked France!

[Supplement Vietnam 1950-1953: The criminal "USA"-"Christians" are arming the French "Christians" against Vietnam
-- at the same time, the criminal "USA"-"Christians" now began to support the criminal French-"Christians" with arms supplies in Vietnam [web01]
"At this time, the United States was providing enormous military aid to France. From 1950 to 1954 The Americans handed over to the French 360 fighters 390 ships (including 2 aircraft carriers), 1400 tanks and armored vehicles, and 175 small arms. 24 American pilots made 682 sorties, two of whom were killed.
In 1952, U.S. military aid accounted for 40% of all armaments received by French units in Indochina, in 1953 - 60%, in 1954 - 80%.
Fierce hostilities continued for several more years with varying degrees of success."] [web01]

Vietnam NEVER attacked the "USA!"

[Supplement: Vietnam 1953-1954: Ho Chi Minh provokes the trap of Dien Bien Phu in North Vietnam for the criminal French "Christians"
"In the spring of 1953, Vietmin units were superior to the confident Europeans both strategically and tactically, moving and installing themselves on the Laotian border and forcing the French to concentrate large forces at Dien Bien Phu." [pronunciation: dien bien fu:] [web01]

Map of Vietnam with Dien Bien Phu   Map of North Vietnam with Haiphong, Hanoi
                        and Dien Bien Phu [pronunciation: dien bien fu
Map of Vietnam with Dien Bien Phu [36] - Map of North Vietnam with Haiphong, Hanoi and Dien Bien Phu [pronunciation: dien bien fu:] [35]

The criminal French "Christians" with their American weapons and foreign legionnaires fell into the trap in Dien Bien Phu:

-- on November 20, 1953, French paratroopers occupied the airfield of Dien Bien Phu (Dienbyenfu) in the Kuvshinov Valley, which had belonged to the Japanese - in addition, a 3km long bridgehead was occupied for an airlift, tons of weapon toys and French "Christian" bully boys arrived, and 11 forts were built on the hills around, which had female names [web01]

Map of Dien Bien Phu with the French
                        forts   Battle of Dien Bien
                        Phu, the French forts, aerial view
Map of Dien Bien Phu with the French forts [39] - Battle of Dien Bien Phu, the French forts, aerial view [45]

-- the region around Dien Bien Phu was now constantly filled with soldiers and weapon toys, trenches were dug, minefields were set, until finally 15,094 "Christian" bully boys lived there, divided into: "6 parachute and 17 infantry battalions, three artillery regiments, one engineer regiment, one tank battalion and 12 aircraft." [web01]

Map of
                        Dien Bien Phu region   Aerial view of Dien Bien Phu region
Map of Dien Bien Phu region (google maps) [37] - Aerial view of Dien Bien Phu region (google maps satellite photo) [38].

[False tactics of the stupid French "Christians": The criminal foreigners never get to know what nature is
The stupid French-"Christians": When 6 months rainy season comes, no tank moves there in the mud, morass and swamp, and the trenches are full of water. Additionally, the war-addicted Frenchmen produced movies of the defeat and still thousands of war-addicted Frenchmen-"Christians" went to the cinemas...]

[Supplement Vietnam 1954: The Battle of Dienbienfu: 54 days - March 13-May 7, 1954 - the victory of the Vietnam Army against the French "tourists"
-- the criminal French "Christians" used 150 large transport planes for the airlift, and then Vietnmin acted with the tactic: "Lure them to the roof and remove the stairs."
-- on March 6 and 7, 1954, Vietminh had the airfields of the transport planes attacked, at Za-Lam and at Kat-bi, over 50% of the French transport planes were destroyed. Quote:
"On March 6 and 7, the Vietminh units practically "removed" this: they attacked the Za-Lam and Kat-bi airfields, destroying more than half of the "transporters" -- 78 vehicles."
-- the remaining criminal French "Christians" were supplied by dropping goods, but Vietnamese antiaircraft defenses around Dien Bien Phu disrupted these "deliveries" [the planes were shot] and thus the Dien Bien Phu base was in despair. Quote, "Since then, deliveries have been made only by dropping goods by parachute in an active attempt to disrupt the Vietnamese antiaircraft guns concentrated around the base. Now the encircled French group was almost doomed to failure." Because:
-- at the same time, the Vietnam Army was now reinforcing its own access routes, installing a transshipment base 55km from Dien Bien Phu, while the criminal French "Christians" could no longer get supplies. Quote: "To supply their group, the Vietnamese, without exaggeration, accomplished a job by installing a hundred-kilometer highway into the jungle and installing a transshipment base 55km from Dienbienfu. The French command found it impossible to supply Dienbienfu with artillery shells and mortars -- the Vietnamese carried them [on foot] in the mountains and jungle and hauled them into the hills around the base."
-- the commander of the Dien Bien Phu garrison, the criminal "Christian" and bully boy Colonel Charles Piro, promised his soldiers a successful defense against the Vietnam Army. Quote: "He promised that French artillery would dominate throughout the battle and easily suppress the enemy's guns: "The Vietnamese guns will not fire more than three times if I destroy them.""
-- the Vietnam Army began with it's battle attack on March 13, 1954, capturing one fort after another. Quote: "On March 13, the 38th (Steel) Vietnamese Division went on the offensive and captured Fort Beatrice. On March 14, Fort Gabriel fell."
-- On March 15, 1954, Dien Bien Phu commander, criminal "Christian" and bully boy Colonel Charles Piro was so shocked by the sight of piles of corpses and wounded that he committed suicide: he blew himself up with a grenade. Quote: "On March 15, Colonel Charles Piro, commander of the artillery units of the Dienbienfu garrison, committed suicide [...] Seeing the results of the Vietnamese artillery's "work" (mountains of corpses and many wounded), he blew himself up with a grenade."
-- Soldiers from Thailand who were fighting for the criminal French "Christians" at Dien Bien Phu switched sides: "On March 17, some of the Thai soldiers defending Fort Anna-Marie went over to the Vietnamese, and the rest withdrew. After that, the siege of other fortifications of Dienbenfu began."

French unit in
                        Dien Bien Phu at roll call (wearing steel
                        helmets)   Battle of
                        Dien Bien Phu, Vietnamese advancing (wearing
                        straw hats)   Battle of Dien Bien Phu,
                        Vietnamese with bicycle convoy
French unit in Dien Bien Phu at roll call (wearing steel helmets) [40] - Battle of Dien Bien Phu, Vietnamese advancing (wearing straw hats) [41].
Battle of Dien Bien Phu, Vietnamese with bicycle convoy [42]
General Giap inspects the wreckage
                        of a downed French aircraft next to Muong Thanh
                        Bridge   Battle of Dien Bien Phu,
                        French paratroopers land next to a French
                        command post made of sandbags   Battle of Dien Bien
                        Phu, this became an inferno for the criminal
                        French "Christians"
General Giap inspects the wreckage of a downed French aircraft next to Muong Thanh Bridge [43]
Battle of Dien Bien Phu, French paratroopers land next to a French command post made of sandbags [44]
Battle of Dien Bien Phu, this became an inferno for the criminal French "Christians" [46]

-- after that, communist rocket launchers "Katyusha" were used at close range against the airstrip of Dien Bien Phu, so that the criminal French-"Christians" could only land and take off or flee from there until March 26, 1954, then after a few days the END was coming for the still living criminal French-"Christians" who had to surrender to the Vietnam Army [web01]

Battle of Dien Bien Phu March
                        1954: One of the last French planes brings
                        wounded out of the region
Battle of Dien Bien Phu March 1954: One of the last French planes brings wounded out of the region [48]

-- because no more help from French troops came through due to lack of transport planes (Operation Condor), and infantry units on foot arrived too late, and the request to the "USA" to bomb the Vietnamese positions of Dien Bien Phu with B-29 bombers, mentioning also atomic bombs (Operation Vulture), was refused by the "USA" [President Eisenhower]
-- on March 30, 1954, Fort Isabelle was surrounded
-- on April 12, 1954, Fort Elian-1 fell
-- on the night of May 6, 1954, Fort Elian-2 fell
-- the Dien Bien Phu garrison fell on May 7, 1954 and the criminal French "Christians" [along with the criminal "Christians" of other nations] surrendered [web01]

The victory of the
                        Vietnamese against the criminal French
                        "Christians" on May 7, 1954 with the
                        flag      The battle of Dien
                        Bien Phu is finished, about 3000 French
                        prisoners are made, so stupid
                        "Christians"   Vietnam is winning at Dien
                        Bien Phu, a report in newspaper "The Paris
                        Man" ("Le Parisien"): "Dien
                        Bien Phu has fallen" ("Dien Bien Phu
                        est tomb")
The victory of the Vietnamese against the criminal French "Christians" on May 7, 1954 with the flag [47].
The battle of Dien Bien Phu is finished, about 3000 French prisoners are made, so stupid "Christians" [48].
Vietnam is winning at Dien Bien Phu, a report in newspaper "The Paris Man" ("Le Parisien"): "Dien Bien Phu has fallen" ("Dien Bien Phu est tomb") [50]

-- the 13th Half Brigade of the Foreign Legion lost about 3000 men casualties in Dienbienfu, including two lieutenant colonel commanders, also killing the worst "Christian" bully boys from Germany, Scandinavia, also Russians, Japanese and South Africans [and cleansing the planet of these criminal "Christians"]. Quote, "Former Legion Sergeant Claude-Yves Solange recalled Dienbienfu:

"It may be immodest to say this about the Legion, but in our ranks then the real war gods fought, and not only the French, but also the Germans, Scandinavians, Russians, Japanese, even a few South Africans. The Germans passed the Second World War, and so did the Russians. I remember that in the second company of my battalion there were two Russian Cossacks fighting near Stalingrad: one was a lieutenant in the Soviet field gendarmerie (i.e. NKVD troops), the other a platoon leader in the cavalry division of the SS (!). Both died during the defense of the Isabel fortress. The communists fought like hell, but we also showed them that we knew how to fight. I don't think a single European army in the second half of the 20th century has been - and, God willing, never will be - able to fight such terrible and large-scale battles hand to hand as we do in this damned valley. The hurricane fire of their artillery and the pouring rains turned trenches and dugouts into a chaos, and we often fought waist-deep in water. Their assault groups either made a breakthrough or brought their trenches to ours, and then dozens, hundreds of fighters fired knives, bayonets, butts, pioneer shovels and hatchets." [web01]

-- "The Battle of Dienbienfu lasted 54 days - from March 13 to May 7, 1954. The losses of the French in manpower and military equipment were enormous. 10.863 soldiers and officers of the elite French regiments were captured. Only about 3290 people returned to France, including several hundred legionnaires: many died of wounds or tropical diseases, and citizens of the Soviet Union and socialist countries of Eastern Europe were carefully removed from the Vietnamese camps and sent home to "shame their explosive labor." Incidentally, they were much luckier than the others - among them, the percentage of survivors was an order of magnitude higher." [web01]

-- Parachute commander Marcel "Bijar himself called the multi-day battle of Dienbyenfu as a "Verdun of the jungle" and later wrote:
"If they had given me at least ten thousand legionnaires, we would have survived. Everyone else except the legionnaires and paratroopers were an incompetent rabble, and it was impossible to hope for victory with such forces."" [web01]

-- some captured soldiers were able to escape:
"Not all French units surrendered at Dienbienfu: Colonel Laland, commander of Fort Isabel, ordered the garrison to break through the Vietnamese positions. These were the legionnaires of the Third Regiment, the bullies of the First Algerian Regiment and the soldiers of the Thai units. Tanks, rifles and heavy machine guns were thrown at the fort - they went into battle with light small arms. The seriously wounded were left in the fort, lightly wounded were offered a choice - join the assault group or stay and warn that they would stop because of them and besides no one would carry them. Laland himself was captured before he could leave the fort. Algerians who stumbled into an ambush surrendered on May 7. Captain Michaud's column surrendered on May 8 and 9, pushing the Vietnamese to the cliffs 12 km from Isabel, but 4 Europeans and 40 Thais jumping into the water through the mountains and jungle still reached the location of the French units in Laos. A platoon consisting of abandoned tank crews and several legionnaires from the 11th Company left the encirclement after covering 160 km in 20 days. Four tank crew members and two paratroopers from Fort Isabel escaped captivity on May 13, and four of them (three tank crew members and one paratrooper) also managed to escape on their own. "

-- some criminal "Christians" in France still thought they had to make movies about their criminal Vietnam War (!). Quote: "In 1965, French director Pierre Schnderfer (a former front-line cameraman captured in Dienbienfu) made his first film about the Vietnam War and the events of 1954 -- "Platoon 317," one of the heroes is a former Wehrmacht soldier and now the ensign of the Wildorf Legion." And there had to be a second film adaptation of French war crimes in Vietnam: "Dienbyenfu" (1992) [web01]

Vietnam NEVER attacked France or the "USA."

[Supplement on Vietnam 1954: The Dictatorship Peace of Geneva - Vietnam remains divided - and the criminal French-"Christians" rearm again (!)
Officially, the "West" calls this dictatorship a peace of the "Indochina Conference": May 8-July 20 1954:

"The Indochina Conference was a conference on the Indochina War and the Korean War held in Geneva from April 26, 1954 to July 20, 1954. In addition to the belligerents in the Indochina War participated: France, the Việt Minh, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and the People's Republic of China." [web14]

-- the criminal "Christians" with the criminal "Christian" General De Gaulle etc. order the partition of Vietnam in Geneva:
"As early as May 8, 1954, negotiations began in Geneva about peace and about the withdrawal of French troops from Indochina. After losing a long war against Vietnam's patriotic movement, France left Vietnam, which remained divided along the 17th parallel." [web01]

Map: 1954 Geneva Indochina
                        Conference divides Vietnam
Map: 1954 Geneva Indochina Conference divides Vietnam [52]

-- criminal French "Christian" Raoul Salan was only an inspector in France in 1954, but was sent back to Vietnam to command the reconquest as a general:
"Raul Salan, who had been fighting in Indochina since October 1945, did not suffer the shame of defeat in Dienbienfu: On January 1, 1954, he was appointed Inspector General of the National Defense Forces, and returned to Vietnam on June 8, 1954, where he again led the French forces. But the time of French Indochina has already passed." [web01]

The Mossad Wikipedia writes abiout the Indochina Agreement:
-- on July 21, 1954, a school session was held at the UN in Geneva with the reading of the "Geneva Accord."
-- the French troops withdraw from Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia
-- the North Vietnam troops withdraw to the 17th parallel leaving South Vietnam to the Emperor Bao Dai
-- free elections are to take place in complete Vietnam in July 1956 under the supervision of representatives from Canada, Poland, the Eastern Bloc, India and non-aligned countries; an International Control Commission is formed for this purpose.
-- the Pathet Lao may withdraw to Huaphan and Phongsali, until an agreement with the Lao royal house is reached [web14].

But see this:
-- after this conference, South Vietnam with dictator Diem does NOT sign the Indochina Agreement [web14]

-- Salan returned to Paris on October 27, 1954, and was deployed [by the criminal "Christian" Charles de Gaulle] against the war of liberation of Algeria beginning November 1, 1954 [and the war-mongering "Christian" bully boy allowed himself to be deployed!] [web01]

Raoul Salan, a criminal
                              "Christ" and General of France
                              in Algeria against Islam, 1960 appr. 
Raoul Salan, a criminal "Christ" and General of France in Algeria against Islam, 1960 appr. [51]

From 1954 to 1959, the Truong Son line temporarily stopped its operation, in accordance with the Geneva Agreements on Vit Nam. After 1959, since Ng Dnh Dim did not respect the 1959 Geneva Agreements, the Truong Son line was restored to prepare for the resistance war against the "US" and South Vietnamese puppets. (p.44)

1955: Gip becomes deputy prime minister
"After the withdrawal of the French and the partition of Vietnam at the 1954 Indochina Conference, Gip served as Deputy Prime Minister of North Vietnam from 1955." [web06]

1956: NO elections in Vietnam
-- North Vietnam holds elections, but Dictator Diem of South Vietnam refuses to hold elections, arguing that the elections in North Vietnam were not "free" elections
-- Dictator Diem says also that South Vietnam had not signed the Indochina Agreement at all and therefore did not have to hold elections. [web14]

1956-1960: Dictator Diem: Mass murder against political opponents

Dictator Diem
Dictator Diem 1960 [53]

See what he did with the opposition:

"The president further consolidated his position of power thereafter by establishing two secret services that spied on each other and he put close familiar members on influential political. Diệm after taking office, he brutally cracked down on communists and other perceived or actual political opponents. According to independent estimates, some 150,000 people were imprisoned and 12,000 were executed in the years from 1955 to 1957. The president was putting all major political groups into anger against him by rejecting land reform deemed necessary by the United States, he rejected forced resettlement of the rural population, and he also rejected a Catholic conversion campaign for South Vietnamese which was considered necessary by the United States. He countered oppositional efforts with arrests and executions. Since partition, the rivalry between the north and the south has grown stronger. In 1959, communists were again sent to South Vietnam, and in 1960 they founded the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NFL), which carried out armed actions in South Vietnam as a resistance group." [web15]

And then in 1959, Dictator Diem is breaking the Indochina Agreement and as a reaction the Ho Chi Minh trail is back into operation officially: 

[Ho Chi Minh Trail again improved since 1959 against Diem troops of South Vietnam]

<On May 20, 1959, Truong Son military corps No. 559 was set up. Its combatants continued the lengthening and widening of the path, advancing in Indian file, their heads a little inclined, their bodies rushing forwards; weapons and ammunitions, confidential documents and first-aid medicines all put in dossers [dossers are native local people] on their backs. The man marching ahead gently separated the leaves and grasses with a stick, lest they be torn. The second man followed suit; but the last man walked backwards to restore the original state of the leaves and grasses with his sticks.

In 1959 there was only a battalion of 600 men who silently marched in this way making sure "to avoid contact with the people and the sight of the enemy, and to keep absolute secrecy of the mission". Groping their (p.46) way with great effort, they could advance only about 20 kilometers in one day. The Ho Chi Minh Trail had begun to take shape in this primitive way.> (p.47)

It can be said that after 1954, the development of the Trail was closely related to US [monkey] aggression:

-- Phase 1 (1959-1965): The Geneva Agreements were scraped; US missions and part of US troops entered South Vit Nam. The restoration of the liaison line was to be continued.
-- Phase 2 (1965-1968): Half a million GIs entered South Vit Nam. The nature of the war changed. The motor way system was built for the use of motor vehicles. The Tt Mu Thn 1968 campaign [campaign against the monkeys] culminated this phase.
-- Phase 3 (1968-1975): The US applied the Nixon doctrine and played for time at the Paris Conference. Vit Nam had to step up the construction of the Ho Chi Minh Trail into a system of Three-trunk lines, as explained earlier.> (p.65)

Ho Chi Minh trail with an
                        elephant konvoy, 1976   Ho Chi Minh trail: officers of North
                          Vietnam Army are walking on foot, 1969  
Ho Chi Minh trail with an elephant konvoy, 1976 [61] - Ho Chi Minh trail: officers of North Vietnam Army are walking on foot, 1969 [62]
Ho Chi Minh trail: bike
                        transports on steep paths   Ho Chi Minh trail: bridge
                        stairs of wood along a cliff
Ho Chi Minh trail: bike transports on steep paths [67] - Ho Chi Minh trail: bridge stairs of wood along a cliff [68]

[Here are details]:

[Ho Chi Minh Trail against "U.S." troops - the Trail is improved for transports with big vehicles]

<At the time of the anti-US resistance, it was associated with the image of the groups of road-builders. Each group was made up of road-builders and composed at most of 15 strong, sturdy, well-trained and absolutely loyal youngsters from 18 to 20 years of age. many of these men had great experience in operating in areas where the supply line would pass through, or they were natives of the Truong Son area. Enthusiastic, brave, and intelligent, they did not fear sacrifice and hardship. They knew the terrain well but their first forays were difficult and dangerous. (p.47)

Being aware that the South Vietnamese battlefield needed great support from the North, the US and the Saigon administration deployed their troops in innumerable posts along the way of the North Vietnamese forces. For instance, the Ho Chi Minh line has to cross the 300-km-long Highway No 9, which links Dng H town (Quang Bnh province) to Khe Sanh and the provincial capital of Savannakht of Laos, via Lao Bo and Shepone. It is an asphalted highway built long ago by the French, widened and upgraded by the US and the Saigon administration, and made very suitable for motorized transport.> (p.47)

[Tactic: marching when the enemy is sleeping - T i natives passing difficult parts of the Ho Chi Minh Trail]

<Many of its portions run parallel to the Cham L River to make it all the more difficult for the road builders to cross. Yet the latter intelligently chose the most propitious moments when the enemy relaxed their vigilance and secretly passed just at the foot of the enemy post. At other times they hid (p.47) themselves in the culverts [tunnels] or they took the torturous path that was only taken by the robust T i (a minority mountain people of Quang Tri who have the custom of climbing up tall trees to obtain honey and aquilaria, to pick precious medicinal plants for the treatment of the sick, and to catch rare birds for the cult of local genies). Now they took refuge in strange grottoes full of bats, deep between high stone walls. Looking up from the bottom, they could only see menacing stone teeth, thickly entangled lianas and tree roots. Now they passed through forests of cutting nettles from which they came out with scratched faces and maddening itching fits.> (p.48)

[Crossing of Highway 9 (from Song Hoi to Savannakht) passing little tunnels]

<When they had to cross Highway No 9 by passing under culverts [tunnels], they had to watch the activities of the puppets troops throughout the day. Normally after 18:00 hrs the scouts could easily be guided to pass the culverts, except they had to breathe the foul air therein. they make no noise so as not to arouse the enemy's suspicion. After crawling out of the culverts, they had to cross the Cam L River by three basket-shaped boats, each capable of transporting three men and three dossers [local people] of goods. Each night 100 men and 100 dossers [local people] were ferried across on average.

Thereafter, the troops hid themselves in the forest or in a deep gully. The scout who marched in the rear had to wipe out all traces on the embankment, bury or hide the boats. Should a combatant be killed by a stray bullet, his body would be secretly buried at once. Should he be captured, he would suffer all kinds of torture without revealing his mission.> (p.48)

[Weapon transports by Ho Chi Minh Trail 1959-1960]

<The secret opening of the Ho Chi Minh Trail achieved good (p.48) initial results: after 500 days and nights, from July 1959 to December 1960, the battalion 301 of the Vietnamese People's Army had conveyed 21,000 fire arms, such as mortars, machine guns of various calibers, hundreds of tons of food and medicine, and over 2,000 cadres of all levels. The trail was expanded more and more towards the Laos frontier, and down to the Cambodian frontier and the Plain of Reeds in Nam B, as far as the southern-most point of South Viet Nam.> (p.49)

[Very important help of natives against France and "U.S.A."]

<The history of the Ho Chi Minh Trail is not only connected to that of the first units commissioned as far back of the ethnic groups on either side of the Truong Son Range: the T i, Vn Kiu and Gia Rai. Not only did they participate in guiding the troops and in finding the easiest way for them to go South, but they also found caves and grottoes for storing war materials, places for the troops to rest or seek refuge. They even contributed to defending "Uncle Ho's Line", which had won the hearts of the people along the Truong Son Range. Moreover, the line ran across the Western Truong Son to friendly Laos and received their wholehearted support.> (p.49)

In 1960, dictator Diem survives a coup, and military members who are not flying to Cambodia get their trial in 1963 [web15].

Dictator Diem in 1960 after the
                        military coup
Dictator Diem in 1960 after the military coup [53]

[Collaboration with Laos against French and "U.S." troops - Lao native woman-cadre "Ilit" from Savannakht organizing support for Vietnamese and healing malaria with larvae from termite hills]

<Many commanders of the Army Corps 559 in October 1963 and later still remembered a Lao woman-cadre named Ilit in [the town of] Savannakht (Central Laos) who mobilized the Lao ethnic groups to offer tools and food to the Vietnamese troops and to build the part of the line on Lao territory. Ilit won great credit in taking care of the Vietnamese soldiers, feeding them, mending their clothes, and helping them transport supplies through waterfalls and forests. Together with a number of Lao women, she also took larvae from (p.49) termite hills to cure Vietnamese soldiers from malaria. She cooked soup with termite larvae and earth worms to feed the patient. This recipe has been used until now by Vietnamese soldiers. [Criminal "US" NATO had no idea how to heal malaria and their fighting animals were suffering of malaria without end]. (p.50)

When parting, many soldiers emotionally asked Ilit why she had been so devoted to them. She candidly answered that she felt it her duty to assist her friends, since to fight imperialist aggression was a common cause of Vit Nam and Laos.> (p.50)

[Vietnam War ("American" War) against "U.S.A.": natives of Laos helping the Viets]

<In their march southward for the subsequent 13 years, tens of thousands of Truong Son troops had been assisted by the Lao ethnic groups in the Kham Mun, Savannakht and Attopeu Provinces and by the Cambodian people in the Stungtreng, Rattanakiri and Mondunkiri Provinces also for the common cause of fighting against US aggression for national liberation.> (p.50)
From the chapter 8 Epilogue:

[1963: Helpless criminal President Johnson - project to destroy the Ho Chi Minh Trail - "intruders"]

"USA" with
                          criminal "Christian" President
                          Lyndon B. Johnson 1963
"USA" with criminal "Christian" President Lyndon B. Johnson 1963 [59]

<Powerless too were the Pentagon and the [racist and arrogant] White House. During the war, the Ho Chi Minh Trail was a big headache. On 23 November 1963, during the first month of his presidency [after the Kennedy murder], L. Johnson was presented a report on the Ho Chi Minh Trail by his national security adviser, Bundy. This was a sore [aching] subject of the US in the Indochinese countries. Johnson accepted Bundy's proposal to remove that dangerous umbilical cord, although this undertaking would take a lot of effort, money and time. And from 1963 onwards the US used every means to destroy the trail with increasing fierceness and continuity. (p.104)

In fact, throughout 1963, US intelligence officers in Thailand, Laos and Saigon did their best to draw on a map the course and the features of the Ho Chi Minh Trail. ON 21 December 1963, Defense Secretary McNamara addressed a long memorandum to President Johnson.

"USA" Ministry of
                            Defence criminal "Christian"
                            McNamara 1965  
"USA" Ministry of Defence criminal "Christian" McNamara 1965 [60]

Point 5 of this memorandum dealt with the "intrusion" of North Vit Nam through "corridors", the middle portion (p.104) of the Mekong River, and the southernmost cap of South Vit Nam. McNamara requested the urgent making of air maps by U2 planes concerning Laos and Cambodia to determine the "intrusion corridor" and to expand the hard-brunt campaign of detection and destruction by spies and commandos.> (p.105)

[Helpless criminal President Johnson: "U.S." spy commandos are mostly killed]

<Commandos were organized into groups of eight members each. They were carefully chosen from the thug-like US soldiers. Other groups included US and South Korean soldiers. All were specially trained, the most fundamental lesson was grasping the map of [the mountain range of] Trung Son. Throughout 1964, tens of such commando groups were dispatched to the trails on the Trung Son Range, but nothing resulted. There was a complete lack of information. Members of the commando and spy groups were also not heard of and the very few survivors who returned were only guards or sentries [wards]. The author of the book "Ho Chi Minh Trail" [of 1972 after the "U.S." defeat] relates one of the trips made by a US commando group, when only one survivor returned. The duty of the group was to find any portion of the trail and to observe what was happening there. The survivor said:

"I did not see anything" (because he stood guard in the distance). Yet he could hear the noise of many tracks running in the area. Apparently, the heavy tracks were numerous.> (p.105)

[Helpless criminal President Johnson: attacks against Ho Chi Minh Trail in 1964 - plan 34A - and carpet bombings]

<On the basis of such information attacks against the Trung Son were stepped up under the 34A plan start in February 1964. The plan was heavy; U2 planes would make surveys and take photos of Laos and North Vit Nam, North Vietnamese and Lao individuals would be kidnapped to get information and documents, commandos would be parachuted for sabotage (p.105). Under the command of General Harkin, a squadron of forty T28 planes was set up. They bombed 23 points of the corridor line during the year 1964. Carpet bombing by B.52's were also carried out to destroy all manifestations of life. (p.106)

B52 bomber with carpet bombing   B52 bomber with it's
                            load of bombs before loading  
B52 bomber with carpet bombing [57] - B52 bomber with it's load of bombs before loading [58]

[Where the B52 were stationed and loaded against Vietnam? in Thailand!]

The US efforts in finding out the mysteries of the trail are recorded in detail in the book "The Air War in Indochina" by Cornell University researchers on the air war.> (p.106)

[Helpless criminal President Johnson: Ho Chi Minh Trail converts into a testing zone for new electronic inventions: "detecting gadgets"]

<The US preventive measures on the Ho Chi Minh Trail met with difficulty because the North troops and supplies were conveyed during the night when the targets were not visible for planes. Electronic techniques were applied to detect targets in the night. The Ho Chi Minh Trail practically became a laboratory to test and to improve the structure of an electronic battlefield. (p.106)

to detect the movement of vehicles and men on the trail, detecting gadgets were buried in the ground or hung on trees by planes. Planes in flight received signals from these gadgets and transmitted them to a control station equipped with computers. Then bombers were called to the determined area. To prevent the vehicles from escaping, a special type of plane was developed, the gunned airship provided with infra-red night time detecting means.> (p.106)

[Helpless criminal President Johnson: destroying roads without effect]

<Another preventive action was to destroy the trail itself and not the transport means rolling on it. This action was not effective because road repairing was quick except when important places (ferries, culverts [tunnels], bridges, dykes) were hit by bombs. Most of the preventive attacks were carried (p.106) out by fighter planes, but B.52s had been used in large numbers. These "flying fortresses" can "clear up" large areas and uproot trees and plants covering the roadways, causing earth to crumble and block the traffic. Lastly, B. 52s often attacked areas suspected to be storing facilities or motor vehicles parks. There were about 1,000 sorties of B.52 planes, occurring monthly in Indochina and mainly used for the purpose of destroying the Ho Chi Minh Trail.> (p.107)

[Since 1964 building highways to Nam B - Highway N 15]

<Before 1964, no one, not even the officers and men of the Trung Son corps, could imagine building a highway along the length of the range. But only a few years later, a system of highways had reached the war zone of Nam B, through valleys and mountains.> (p.50)

Bridge construction on Ho Chi
                          Minh trail1966    Road construction on Ho Chi
                          Minh trail1973   Ho Chi Minh trail,
                            trucks need to be cleared of mud 1966
Bridge construction on Ho Chi Minh trail1966 [54] - Road construction on Ho Chi Minh trail1973 [55] - Ho Chi Minh trail, trucks need to be cleared of mud 1966 [56].

A portion of the road, leading from Tn  p and Cu N
m (Quang Bnh Province) to Highway No 15, via the Lm Bm three ways crossroads, meanders around the famous bomb pockets of the anti-US war. The different routes A, Me Con, and Tay o traversed three submerged pontoons in Ta L, and climbed up the Pu-La-Nhich Pass, which is a few kilometers long.> (p.50)

[Highway N 20]

<The Trung Son small pathway, also called Quyt Thng Road No 20, is the first (p.50) and the most important road accessible to motor vehicles in the Ho Chi Minh Trail in West Trung Son. Quyt Thng Road No 20 is a system of four roads respectively named A, B, C, and K. Even during the fiercest days of the war, in spite of continuous spying and bombing by enemy planes, roads A, B, and C succeeded in ensuring the transport of needed supplies and troops and also for large-scale military campaigns. Only Road K, running through forests, could allow transport in day time.> (p.51)

[All other transports were performed during the night in the darkness, and any defoliation action intoxicating large parts of the jungle and humans did not change anything with the transports during the night].

[Highway K - narrow road passing perennial forests - branches bent down with stones]

<It can be said that all the roads of the Ho Chi Minh Trail system were kept secret during the war against US aggression for national salvation. However, road K was the most secret of all. It was used for motor vehicles and had a total length of about 2,000 km. This was a narrow road, wide enough for only one truck, running through perennial forests and therefore covered by foliage. If it passed through thin forests, the road-makers would join the foliage by tying heavy rocks to the branches to bend them down.> (p.51)

[Exposed parts of Highway K with wards]

<Portions of road K were exposed because they followed the bed of a stream (already leveled by army engineers, of course) or passed through a clear forest of an open expanse of rocks. However, these portions were not long and strict regulations had been laid down for being allowed to drive on them. For instance, during daytime, at both ends of these segments of the road, there had to be watchmen posted in two-km intervals from each other, ready to fire gunshots to warn the truck drivers that the swirls of dust deposited on the trees might easily cause the enemy planes to detect them. Moreover, when allowing the (p.51) traffic, the watchmen were required to make sure that enemy spy and fighter planes were not operating the region and the surroundings.> (p.52)

[Transports during the day with fog, clouds or rain]

<During normally enemy resting hours, when the morning was foggy, or when it was cloudy or raining at dusk, the vehicles operated freely.> (p.52)

[Example of Highway K: post N 32 near Ta L River with pontoon and bombing and spraying - building of another road]

<All the sectors of road K were not built at the same time but according to the practical requirements of coping with the enemy's new weaponry, under the Direction of the Corps 559 Command. For instance, the portion belonging to post N 32 was constructed in 1969 when the submerged Ta L pontoon was blocked. The pontoon was covered by the water of the rather narrow Ta L River. Previously, this area was covered by a thick forest of tall trees which concealed the existence of Quyt Thng Road N 20. Yet, the US and the Saigon administration repeatedly bombed and sprayed so many toxic chemicals that all vegetation was completely destroyed; only red-soiled hills were left.

Some hills were fairly high, such as the hill to the south of the pontoon B, which was bombed hundreds of times. The hill was flattened but it continued to be pounded hundreds of times more. Once the US and its agents used several scores of planes to blast the pontoon before they announced the halt of bombing above the 20th parallel, allegedly to show good will and to start negotiations in Paris. They also mobilized 12 B.52 bombers to attack on 12 consecutive days during which 6 B.52s came every hour to carry out carpet bombing. Between two B.52 bombings, fighter planes and C.130 transport planes came day and night to drop their deadly (p.52) cargo indiscriminately. A wide area was kneaded into mud. Transport became extremely difficult causing the Corps 559 Command to order the construction of another covered road.> (p.53)

Ho Chi Minh trail: Russian and Chinese
                        trucks crossing a river on a ford - 1972  
Ho Chi Minh trail: Russian and Chinese trucks crossing a river on a ford - 1972 [66]

 [We can see that the "U.S." command with it's bombings was for NOTHING but it was provoking only more resistance].

[Floating bridge dismantled and camouflaged every day with flowers]

<All the military posts in Trung Son had their own covered roads, the longest was that of military post N32. Each covered portion of the Ho Chi Minh Trail had its own features. For instance, the covered section joining military posts N 31 and N 32 was 10 m wide and ran through a deeply submerged pontoon; on either side were gently sloping stone walls (about 350). A floating bridge was made, which was dismantled in the daytime and restored at nightfall. The pontoon was camouflaged by rows of living trees with evergreen leaves; over the trees a thick trellis was firmly arranged and plentifully hung with orchids.> (p.53)

[Example: post 33 surveying 48 km with 9 rivers - 4 hours for 8-15 km]

<For its part, military post N 33 had a 48 km-long portion of covered road, which ran across 9 streams of different depths. That is why it was called the "9-stream road". There were only 9 streams but, because of their winding course, the trucks had to ford [passed] a few dozen times. The 9-stream road was considered extremely difficult for truck drivers. Therefore the Corps 559 deputy commander had to personally direct its construction in December 1971. The section was only 8-15 km long but it took four hours for vehicles to cover it.> (p.53)

If we say that the Ho Chi Minh Trail begins at Highway N 9, it will be impossible to know all the radiating roads. Because there were 6 entries to the trail under the control of military posts 14 and 31 (p.53), and the roads  formed an entangling network like a cobweb. Each entry had its importance and constitutes a target for US-puppet bombing. Each was fraught [charged] with danger.> (p.54)

[Night traffic]

<Traffic was forbidden during the day-time. It was the rule for 10 consecutive years (from 1964 to 1974) that truck drivers operate in the night with a yellow light under their machine to avoid detection by enemy planes. They could run during the day-time when they crossed the My Pass (Cloudy Pass) on Highway N 16, since the yellow light was undetectable in the clouds. The My Pass is rather high and humid, but throughout all the years no accident ever occurred.> (p.54)

[Example: 2 trunks A+B, code 128]

<Another section coded 128 included two trunks, A and B; it ran southwards, close to Highway N 9. It also met Quyt Thng Road N 20 near the Pu-La-Nhich Pass. Truck drivers on this section of the road would never forget the rumbling X-Bang-Hing River in Laos or the Tha M Pass with the Tha M pontoon or the Ban Khc and Thc Nang submerged bridges; they were subjected to fierce bombing raids. When they luckily took the covered roads, they did not have to ford rivers but they were still threatened by enemy bombing. If they managed to get out of the pontoon, they could press the gas pedal and run freely on the windy Attopeu plateau. Normally the higher they climbed on the Trung Son mountains, the lower they would slope down. But here it was plateau land; they had only to determine the direction they were heading for and find their way to go across the old forests.> (p.54)

[Example: road N 35 with Navarre Road]

<Going further Southward, also in West Trung Son, the traveler will find road N 35 which is linked with Road N 128 and near a portion built during the war against the French colonialists. Truck drivers called it "Navarre Road". Many portions of Road N 35 coincided with Navarre Road to lead to the Indochina three-way crossroads; some portions are only 30 km away from Kontum Town. Taking Road N 35, truck drivers would cross the X-Ca-Mng, C Xu pontoons, and the US bombing targets at the Ang Bum Pass, the 9-stream road, Savannakht, Attopeu (of Laos) and Ply Khc District of Kontum.> (p.55)

[Example: road N 49 and 128 with transports from Cambodia because of shortage of food and medicine by "U.S." bombings]

<Road N 49, also linked with Road N 128 at the X Scu three-way cross roads, originated in T Ngu on the Cambodia-Laos frontier. This is the road for the transport of the (former) socialist countries' material aid and the supplies bought in Cambodia, from Sihanouk Port city to North Vit Nam, to Ty Nguyn, to the 5th war zone and to troops of the Trung Son Corps in the South.

Road N 49 was opened by Regiment 98 under the command of major Phan Quang Tip. This regiment had just completed the construction of Road N 128 up to the Ti Xng three-way cross roads; it hardly had a break before it was ordered to build Road N 49 because, during the 1965-1966 dry season, the US air force carried out hundreds o sorties to block the conveyance of supplies to the Liberation Army. At that time, North Vit Nam could only meet 30% of the battlefield's planned requirement in food, medicine, commodities and war materials. Ten of thousands of soldiers in South Vit Nam suffered from food shortage and illness.> (p.55)

[Building road N 49 with losses and malaria - delivery of food and medicine coming from Cambodia]

<Road N 49 was built in a year from March 1, 1966 to March 30, 1967
-- for the urgent transport of 10,000 tons of rice and 2,000 tons of foodstuffs to the point of entry of C4 T Ngu and
-- of emergency support for the Ty Nguyn battlefield, the 5th war zone, military post N 34 and others further South.
It went without saying the suffering and hardship overcome by the combatants of Regiment 98, as evidenced by the following figures: from April to June 1966, 15 soldiers were killed and 150 were wounded by US air strikes. Up to July 1966, 35% of the Regiment had suffered from malarial epidemic, or more precisely, malaria had in turn affected the entire Regiment.

Up to late 1966 and early 1967, the Regiment had lost 150 officers and men to malaria. However, Road N 49 was somehow completed on March 29, 1967, one day ahead of schedule. On April 4, transport battalions 54, 55, 58, and 59 entered T Ngu one after the other to bring emergency supplies in time to Ty Nguyn and the 5th war zone. Over three months, thanks to the availability of roads, the transport units of North Vit Nam brought to Ty Ngun over 8,000 tons of food and thousands of tons of gasoline. The liberation troops maintained the point of entry T Ngu until the end of 1970 for the reception of international support and the purchase of goods in Cambodia (over 60,000 tons of rice and about 10,000 tons of foodstuffs and other necessities, in particular 5,000 tons of gasoline for motor transport means).> (p.56)

[Road system in the eastern part of the Vietnamese mountain range of Trung Son - "East Trung Son road network"]

<The aforesaid [mentioned above] roads are the most important of West Trung Son. In East Trung Son there is another road network. In Quang Bnh it includes (p.56) two branches. The firs branch is National Highway N 1 at Bn Hai. It joins with the first section of Highway N 9, then it turns southwards. The second road starts from Vnh Chp Commune, Vnh Linh District, to join Road N 49 to Cam L then turns to Highway N 9. From T Con, which produces plenty of pineapple and lemon, the East Trung Son road network advances further and further south, leaving behind A Su and A Lui Districts, to become a steep, slippery slope leading to Thuong Dc and then the Thao and Ging regions. Next, it joins Road N 14. (p.57)

After the victory in the Southern Laos battlefield, in 1972, this trans-Vit Nam road was put to use, but only in short sections. More precisely, the East Trung Son road network was completed in early 1975. This is a long corridor from Highway N 9 to Eastern Nam B, the result of the tremendous efforts of over 30,000 soldiers and vanguard youths coming from all parts of the country, primarily from the provinces of North Vit Nam.> (p.57)

[Girl battalions - building of rafts to ferry tanks]

<In East Trung Son, the construction of roads was initially entrusted to the vanguard youths, particularly to young lads. There were companies, even battalions of road builders exclusively composed of girls. Sometimes they did not see any men all the year round. The army engineering units were called for only in high passes or deep pontoons. In October 1964, 12 girls of the vanguard youth assumed the difficult job of making rafts to ferry trucks across the S-Bang Hing River. Late in 1964, tens of kilometers of (p.57) roads accessible to motor vehicles were completed to link Highway N 9 to Sa Di, crossing the S Bang-Hing River at Ban Dng. This was the time when 2,000 combatants of Regiment 98 were building roads; their rice stocks were exhausted and the Tri Thin battlefield also needed emergency supplies. Moreover, the rainy season made the S-Bang Hing River swell. Trucks could no longer ford it at Ban Dng to bring supplies to the South. (p.58)

Faced with the pressing demand of the battlefield, the Corps 559 Command decided to make rafts to ferry the trucks across the river. In Regiment 98, there was only one road-building engineer and no soldier capable of doing wood work; as a consequence; the sawing of logs was carried out with great difficulty. Fortunately, Miss Suong and a group of lads in the vanguard youth had a good knowledge of carpentry. They volunteered to accept the strenuous and skilled work. And in one day, they sawed enough sections measuring 0.35 m x 7 m to make the frame of the raft. After three days the flooring boards and the bridges of the raft were completed, and in another day, a 4.5 m wide and 8 m long raft and its two bridges were completed.> (p.58)

Ho Chi Minh trail:
                        youth group with bicycle transports 1970   Ho Chi Minh trail:
                          bicycle transports through a flood 1966   Ho Chi Minh trail: Russian
                          and Chinese trucks passing a kiosk where
                          trucks are counted 1973
Ho Chi Minh trail: youth group with bicycle transports 1970 [63] - Ho Chi Minh trail: bicycle transports through a flood 1966 [64]
Ho Chi Minh trail: Russian and Chinese trucks passing a kiosk where trucks are counted 1973 [65]

[The cable ferry - shifting trucks and rice during the night]

<After the construction of the raft, the battalion of vanguard girls took charge of the manual operation of the ferry (by means of cables) across the fierce current. During the whole first night, the girls did not sleep a wink as they ferried 60 trucks and 240 tons of rice to the South. For the next seven days, in spite of the river being in spate, they continued their work, ferrying 400 trucks and 2,000 tons of rice to the South.> (p.58)

[Kitchen smoke provoking bombing by monkey "U.S." military - bombed Dng Tin slope without end]

<During the first days of road making, the army engineering units, particularly the vanguard youth [pioneer youth], did not strictly respect the regulations laid down by the Corps 559 Command. As a result they suffered losses that could have been avoided. In April 1964, the battalion of vanguard youth of Ngh An opened the sector from Dng Tin slope to Cha An of Quyt Thng Road N 20. While cooking their meal, they let smoke rise up and thus were detected, bombed, and strafed [attacked in a low height] by three US planes. (p.59)

The 500-youth battalion was drowned in fire and flames: 7 were killed and 17 wounded. This was an experience broadly publicized to all units by the Corps 559 Command. Such losses never happened again. However, the enemy still suspected the presence of Vietcongs in the raided area, and for 100 subsequent days they continuously attacked the Dng Tin slope. The Ngh An youth stuck to the roads; 25 more were killed and 30 more wounded, but the road was completed three days ahead of schedule. (p.59)

The battalion was awarded the first class war-deed medal by the State. This was the battalion representative of the 10 vanguard youth battalion of the former fourth zone including Quang Bnh, H Tinh, Ngh An and Thanh Ha which built Roads N 20, 128, B45, B46 of the Ho Chi Minh Trail and which, together with the army engineering units E98, E10, E4, E5, and E229, had completed three strategic North-South trunk roads in the Trung Son Range, overcoming innumerable obstacles and hardships, making sacrifices, and suffering losses.> (p.59)

[East-West connections in the Vietnamese mountain range of Trung Son]

<The difference between the East Trung Son and West Trung Son roads was the fact that the former (p.59) was accessible throughout the rainy season, although dangerous because of the slippery slopes, and covered less mountain terrain than in West Trung Son.> (p.60)

[Example: transversal roads B45 and B46]

<East Trung Son and West Trung Son roads ran almost parallel along both sides of the range. Vehicles moved on the western side in the dry season and on the Eastern side in the rainy season. Besides these truck lines, there were transversal roads coded B45 and B46. (They also had exposed sections or they had to cross forests of young trees not suitable for the forming of shelters. In this case, trunks of banana trees were used [as covering for the street], as in the case of the 179-km-long transversal Road N 29 in west Trung Son which runs over the Tm Dn mountain to A Su, A Lui in East Trung Son.> (p.60)

[More details]

<We have not mentioned the branch roads, roads with round-abouts [detour, indirection] for avoiding air raids or hiding the vehicles, roads leading to stores, even roads constructed with a great deal of blood and sweat, then camouflaged for diversionary purposes. We have not mentioned the rivers lines in the Trung Son Range. They contributed to perfecting the multi-form and multi-direction Ho Chi Minh Trail system.> (p.60)

[Statistics: 13,645 km of roads]

<Counting only the motorways, according to published figures of 1976, the Ho Chi Minh Trail is 13,645 km long, including 260 km of macadam [natural with gravel] roads. It is composed of 5 systems of longitudinal trunk roads (total length 5,530 km), 21 transversal trunks roads (total length 4,019 km), 5 systems of entry-point roads (total length 700 km), round- (p.60) about roads [detour roads] avoiding places of enemy high bombing activity (total length 4,700 km), and a system of covered "K" roads running all the length of Vit Nam (total length 3,140 km). The construction of the "trail" was mainly carried out in 1973 [1963?] -1975. The Trung Son troops opened 785 km of roadway, removed 21,000,000 m3 of earth and stone, laid asphalt over 73 km, constructed 2,080 m of permanent or semi-permanent bridges and 10,211 m of culverts [little tunnels]. So the total length of the Ho Chi Minh Trail amounts to 20,000 km, a huge length of roads built during the war.> (p.61)

[Pathways for couriers on foot]

<In addition to the aforesaid motorways, there are everywhere endless pathways in all directions, on both sides of the Trung Son, for couriers on foot. They reach as far as Laos and Cambodia and they only bear the footprints of men and wild animals. They constitute  pathways of marvels for explorers wishing to carry out detached research on Trung Son, on the ethnic groups, the grottoes and caves, and the fauna and flora there. They form a thick network like cobwebs starting from B
i H in Quang Bnh Province, which was a regroupment place for new recruits in preparation for crossing the Bn Hai River. From Bi H, mounting up the Trung Son, the courier can go to Nguyn Ch Tanh slope (General of the Vit Nam Army who has passed away) or to the all-the-year-round foggy and windy frontier post of Cha Lo. (p.61)

It is clear that the tourist may see many things other than merely a communication line.> (p.61)

The Ho Chi Minh Trail can meet any tourist's desire to look for strange and mysterious (p.61) things. He will come by various convenient means of transport: walking, motor vehicles, elephants / horses, hammocks, palanquins, boat and airplanes.> (p.62)

[Secret gasoline pipeline since 1965 - gasoline in nylon bags, bamboo stems and barrels before 1965]

[Over 16 years, engineers, soldiers and volunteers built 20,000km of roads, 1,400km of oil-and-gas pipeline, 3,140km of hidden paths for vehicles to pass during the daytime, plus thousands of smaller bridges and drains. VNA/VNS Photo Văn Sắc]. [web17]

<The tourist will be surprised by a pipe line which can withstand all enemy attacks, pass on terrains and lie underground from West Ngh An to East Nam B, the length of the Trung Son Range. It [this secret pipeline] played a significant part in the rapid and timely supply of gasoline to the Ho Chi Minh military campaign.

Before 1965, to supply gasoline to the South Vit Nam battlefields, the Trung Son troops had to put it in nylon bags, carry these bags in their knapsacks, and walk. Gradually they took the initiative to put gasoline in bamboo stems and in barrels and to float them on river currents to their destinations. This way of conveyance was disperse but less risky than by tankers because of the feverish attacks by enemy planes along the Trung Son. A machine gun bullet or a pellet could set the whole tanker in flames. (p.62)

During the years following 1965, North Vit Nam was still faced with great economic and technical difficulties to start the building of a North-South pipeline. In stores for materials there were only about 200 km of pipes and technicians (p.62) for the laying of the line were not available, particularly for a line thousands of kilometers long. Then the engineering plants in Hanoi (H Ni) (particularly the medium-scale plants and the Trn Hung Dao plant) were ordered to make pipes and priming pumps suitable for use in [the mountain range of] Trung Son. And the operation of the pipe line was organized; qualified technicians all over North Vit Nam were recruited; the first army unit of Trung Son oil-and-gasoline workers came into being. They went to Trung Son to explore the terrain, not following the trail opened by the Army Corps 559. They found the track for the line by themselves, carrying out a new exploration. Topographical surveys and maps for the laying of pipes were sent to the North for approval and the fabrication of pipes and priming pumps were stepped up.> (p.63)

["U.S." monkey military spies are searching the gasoline pipe line - beginning of operating on August 25, 1968]

<In these three years, the US intelligence center [criminal CIA] frantically searched for the nascent existence of a pipeline bringing fuel from the North to the South. It had a thick file of hundreds of air photographs showing dim lines and places suspected to be pumping stations and gasoline stores. Some of its assumptions were convincing; others were quite accurate. For instance, it affirmed that 20 km away from Vinh (the provincial capital of Ngh An) in the North-west, a 30 km long portion of the pipe line had been laid down from Ho Chi Minh's native place to the mountains and forests of Trung Son and that it was completed in August 1968. On August 25, 1968 the pipe line actually began operating.> (p.63)

[The pipeline staff are also farmers]

<What the US-puppet intelligence center could not grasp was that the soldiers who operated oil pumping machines were also engaged in rearing hogs [pigs], cultivating rice and potatoes, and defending the line. With only a few thousand technicians, metal and hydro dynamic workers at the beginning, the young oil-and-gasoline branch had managed within six years to achieve in February 1974 a pipe line starting from Nam Dn District, Ngh An Province, to Sng B Province (now Bnh Duong and Bnh Phuc Provinces) in Nam B, all along the Trung Son Range. The 5,000 km long pipeline was ready to supply fuel to the Ho Chi Minh military campaign. Moreover, hundreds of gasoline stores and pumping stations were also completed.> (p.64)

[3 systems of HCM Trail bring the victory in 1975]

<Withing 30 years, the strategic Ho Chi Minh Trail had come into being with these systems:
-- the motor way system
-- the path way system for the movement of troops [with the tunnel systems], and
-- the oil pipe line system. (p.64)

It contributed considerably to bringing about the April 1975 victory, the complete liberation of South Vit Nam, and the unification of the country.> (p.64)

[Reasons for the "U.S." defeat of the "monkeys"]

<We can conclude that the US defeat in Vit Nam in general, and in Trung Son in particular, when it tried to destroy the Ho Chi Minh Trail, stems from the failure of the [racist and arrogant] White House strategists to correctly estimate the determination of Vit Nam to (p.65) liberate the South and to unify the country, by any means and at any cost. The origin of the Ho Chi Minh Trail was part of this determination. (p.66)

The Trung Son communication line or the Ho Chi Minh Trail is the embodiment of Resolution N 063 dated 8 September 1966 of the Permanent Central Military Commission:

"The line 559 is the most crucial, the most strategically important line of support for South Vit Nam and our friends, in the immediate and in the distant future." (p.66)

In implementing the Resolution, the Trung Son Military Command led the troops according to the guiding principle: "the principal means is motorized transport, used in combination with rudimentary means." The Vietnamese principle "attack, defend, and avoid" was used to foil the enemy.> (p.66)

Monkey Amis with helicopters in
                        Vietnam 1966   Monkey Amis in Vietnam:
                          Marines are wounded 1967  
Monkey Amis with helicopters in Vietnam 1966 [69] - Monkey Amis in Vietnam: Marines are wounded 1967 [70]

["U.S." spy work - some remarks of the "monkeys"]

<Naturally the war machinery of the [racist and arrogant] Pentagon and the Saigon puppet administration had made a great deal of effort to find out the features of the strategic route of North Vit Nam. The following are some of their remarks.

[Spy work of the monkey "U.S.A." 4 August 1965: weapons of Vietcong coming from China and Russia now]

<McNamara's 4 August 1965 report to the Defense Sub-committee of the US Senate appropriations commission writes:

"In 1963, a major part of the weapons introduced from North Vit Nam to the South was French and US weapons acquired before 1954 in Indochina and Korea. Now the armaments brought to South Vit Nam are the latest infantry weapons produced in Soviet Russia and Communist China. Their quantity is so large (p.66) that all units of the main forces may be reequipped. In 1963 all the cadres and soldiers infiltrated through Laos were South Vietnamese previously regrouped to the North. They had been trained and equipped in North Vit Nam and ordered to return to South Vit Nam. Over the next 18 months, the greater part of the infiltrators (over 10,000 men) were North Vietnamese. Last December one to two regiments of a North Vietnamese regular division (Division 325) were introduced through Laos. These units have been deployed in the plateau region of Central South Vit Nam to coordinate fighting with the Vietcong.> (p.67)

[Spy work of the monkey "U.S.A." 17 December 1965: road net of HCM Trail supplies 2/3 of South Vietnam military needs]

<In the December 17, 1965 issue of "Time" magazine, an article called "More Troublesome Trail" quoted General Creighton Abrams, the Vice Chief of Staff of the US Army and the commanding general of the U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vit Nam (MACV), as saying

"The road net can now move sufficient supplies to meet the requirements of all North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces in the northern two-thirds of South Viet Nam." (p.67)

(in: Time Magazine: More Troublesome Trail; 17 December 1965; Internet: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,834778,00.html (3 July 2008)

[Example: Plei Me battle]

<The article further asserted that this was shown through the intense fighting that occurred during the last month around Plei Me in South Viet Nam, where the North Vietnamese battled the U.S. 1st Cavalry and used extensive supplies of ammunition.> (p.67)

It states:

"Americans in Laos believe that it would take three full U.S. divisions to stem the flow of men and material from North Viet Nam. (Another two would be needed to block South Viet Nam's narrow upper neck at the 17th parallel). Eventually, the U.S. may well have to come to Laos' rescue if it is to win the war in South Viet Nam."> U(p.68)

(in: Time Magazine: More Troublesome Trail; 17 December 1965; Internet: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,834778,00.html (3 July 2008)

Monkey Amis
                        in Vietnam: The siege of Plei Me with
                        wide-bodied helicopter      Monkey Amis in Vietnam:
                          gymnastic exercise on the rope with
                          large-capacity helicopter
Monkey Amis in Vietnam: The siege of Plei Me with wide-bodied helicopter [71]
Monkey Amis in Vietnam: gymnastic exercise on the rope with large-capacity helicopter [72]

Siege of Plei Me:
                          Vietnamese population is on the run   Siege of Plei
                          Me: Monkey Amis lie in the grass with machine
Siege of Plei Me: Vietnamese population is on the run [73] -.
Siege of Plei Me: Monkey Amis lie in the grass with machine gun [74].

[Spy work of the monkey "U.S.A.": plan 34A against Vietnam - mentioning infiltration and "jungle tracks"]

Under the plan coded 34A (US secret military plan against North Vit Nam), the activities envisaged for 1964 were listed in detail:
-- spying flights over North Vit Nam by U2 planes
-- kidnapping North Vietnamese citizens to get information,
-- parachuting commandos and psychological war agents to North Vit Nam
-- surprise attacks from the sea
-- sabotage of railways, bridges and culverts [little tunnels]
-- shelling [bombing and shooting] of coastal equipment by patrol boats
-- attacks against North Laos and the Ho Chi Minh Trail by the Lao Royal Air Force.

The Lao Royal Air Force has 30-40 T28 propelled bombers but most of the pilots were Americans, only a few were Lao. All were put under the control of US Ambassador Leonard Anger resident in Laos. The same "Time" article also writes:

"Since 1959, the 800-mile labyrinth of jungle tracks, muddy rivers and bamboo way stations within Laotian territory has been the major route south for some 45,000 Communist infiltrators heading to battle in South Viet Nam. The infiltration now comes to an estimated 4,500 "bo doi" (regular infantry men) a month. More than one third of the "trail" has been converted into broad-shouldered (p.68), two-lane dirt highways... several thousand North Vietnamese soldiers are now permanently stationed in the Laotian "panhandle" to keep the route secure."> (p.69)

(in: Time Magazine: More Troublesome Trail; 17 December 1965; Internet: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,834778,00.html (3 July 2008)

Monkey Amis
                        in Vietnam: march in the jungle in the rain at
                        flooding   Monkey
                        Amis in Vietnam: march in the jungle at flooding
                        Sep 25, 1965  
Monkey Amis in Vietnam: march in the jungle in the rain at flooding [75] - Monkey Amis in Vietnam: march in the jungle at flooding Sep 25, 1965 [76].

What do these criminal foreigners want there?

[Monkey "U.S." command only sees a labyrinth]

<The war machinery in the Pentagon is well aware of the role played by the strategic transport corridor called "the Ho Chi Minh Trail". But as it is described in a study on this trail, it constitutes "a labyrinth across thick forests, an impregnable and most secure secret zone of the Vietcong."> (p.69)

This is the conclusion of the US [racist and arrogant monkey] Defense Department on [concerning] the network of roads in the Trung Son Range.> (p.69)

[Monkey "U.S.A." means that Ho Chi Minh Trail would only be one road]

<In total, Americans only knew that the Ho Chi Minh Trail started from Hanoi (H Ni) and went to Laos by the Mua Gia Pass, then it went down to Shapone to reach the D Nang region. IN view of these facts and details, the US could only carry out indiscriminate bombings on the Trung Son Range and be resigned to a newer discovery (perhaps the only accurate one) that "the Vietnamese never followed the habitual road-way; they also never (p.107) chose the large highways. All the newly constructed lines are across mountains and forests and hey are impenetrable." (p.108)

Among the Yanks, the military cemetery at
                        Arlington near Washington DC is filling up  
Among the Yanks, the military cemetery at Arlington near Washington DC is filling up [77]

[Criminal "Christians" become dead bodies].

<<        >>

[web01] Ryzhov V.A.: Foreign Legion against Vietnam and the Dienbienfu Disaster:
[web02] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raoul_Salan
[web03] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanoi
[web04] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cao_B%E1%BA%B1ng_province
[web05] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vi%E1%BB%87t_Minh
[web06] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%B5_Nguy%C3%AAn_Gi%C3%A1p
[web07] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%AA_Du%E1%BA%A9n
[web08] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ph%E1%BA%A1m_V%C4%83n_%C4%90%E1%BB%93ng
[web09] https://alphahistory.com/vietnamwar/august-revolution/
[web10] http://saigon-vietnam.fr/saigon_fr11.php

[web11] https://micboc.fr/2020/10/07/7-octobre-1947-raid-aeroporte-sur-bac-kan/comment-page-1/
[web12] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%C3%A2y-S%C6%A1n-Dynastie
[web13] https://lavieauvietnam.com/guide-cao-bang-vietnam/
[web14] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indochinakonferenz
[web15] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Militrputsch_in_Sdvietnam_1960
[web16] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Vietnam
[web17] https://vietnamnews.vn/sunday/520084/ho-chi-minh-trail-60-years-and-beyond.html
[web18] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cao_B%E1%BA%B1ng_(1949)

Photo sources
[1] Karte von Vietnam, Laos und Kambodscha mit der Bergkette "Trung Son", ergnzt mit Angaben von Michael Palomino (2013):
[2] Karte des Ho-Chi-Minh-Trails: https://www.pinterest.se/pin/562316703444210108/
[3] Die franzsische Fremdenlegion in Vietnam, zweites Fallschirmbataillon:
[4] Franzsische Fremdenlegion 1. Bataillon, 2e REI in Franzsisch-Indochina, 1950:
[5] Karte mit Haiphong und Hanoi: https://mapcarta.com/Haiphong
[6] Hanoi 1940ca. mit Personentaxis, Velos und Autos: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/378091331208565502/
[7] Hanoi 1940ca. mit Transport auf der Schulter: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/140033869640892885/
[8] Vietnam: Einmarsch japanischer Truppen September 1940,  die franzsischen Truppen leisten kaum Widerstand:
[9] Ho Chi Minh Portrt 1930 ca.: https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/ho-chi-minh-46.php
[10] Gen V Nguyn Gip, Portrt 1930ca.:

[11] L Duẩn, Portrt 1940ca.: http://nhabaovietthuong.blogspot.com/2012/08/le-uc-tho-le-duan-ao-uc-cach-manh-hiep.html
[12] Phạm Văn Đồng, Portrt 1940ca.: https://giaoduc.net.vn/nhung-tran-tro-cuoi-doi-cua-thu-tuong-pham-van-dong-post164679.gd
[13] Viet-Minh-Truppen bernehmen Hanoi 1945: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/486599934723799907/
[14] Unabhangigkeitserklrung von HoChiMinh in Hanoi:
[15] Unabhngigkeitserklrung von HoChiMinh in Hanoi am Mikrophon August 1945: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/326299935480825722/
[16] Saigon September 1945: franzsische Invasion: http://www.endofempire.asia/french-coup-in-saigon/
[17] Saigon 11. November 1946: Militrparade der franzsischen Fremdenlegion: http://saigon-vietnam.fr/saigon_fr11.php
[18] Saigon: Militrparade der frz. Fremdenlegion am 11.11.1946
[19] Saigon: mit Jeep 11.11.1946
[20] Saigon: Japanische Kapitulation mit Sbel 13.9.1945

[21] GB-General Douglas Gracey: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/827817975236268812/
[22] Tom Driberg, GB-Agent und Journalist: https://spartacus-educational.com/PRdribergT.htm
[23] Raoul Salan: http://www.saigon-vietnam.fr/raoul-salan_fr.php
[24] Gurkha-Soldaten aus Nepal in Burma 1941: https://scroll.in/article/723065/in-photos-200-years-of-the-fierce-fearless-gurkha-warriors
[25] Gurkha-Soldaten in Saigon vor dem kriminellen "Christen"-General Leclerc 1945:
[26] Karte Nordvietnam mit Bac Kan: https://mapcarta.com/15528754
[27] Karte Nordvietnam mit Tay Bac und Viet Bac: https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/vietnam/tonkin-viet-bac.htm
[28] Karte Sdvietnam mit HCMCity und dem Distrikt Loc Ninh, der Entpunkt des Ho Chi Minh trails: https://mapcarta.com/16156644
[29] Karte HCM-Pfad von der Provinz "Nge An" bis zur Provinz "Dak Lak" in der Hochebene:
[30] Imaginres Denkmal der Tay-Son-Brder vom Tay-Son-Aufstand 1771 gegen China: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%C3%A2y-S%C6%A1n-Dynastie

[31] Karte von Nordvietnam mit Cao Bang: https://mapcarta.com/Cao_Bang
[32] Luftaufnahme der Region Cao Bang vor der chinesischen Gernze: google Earth:
[33] Landschaft Region Cao Bang mit Bergen und Tal: https://lavieauvietnam.com/guide-cao-bang-vietnam/
[34] Provinz Cao Bang, die Wasserflle von Ban Gioc: https://lavieauvietnam.com/guide-cao-bang-vietnam/
[35] Karte von Nordvietnam mit Haiphong, Hanoi und Dien Bien Phu: https://mapcarta.com/Dien_Bien_Phu/Map
[36] Karte von Vietnam mit Dien Bien Phu: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%90i%E1%BB%87n_Bi%C3%AAn_Ph%E1%BB%A7
[37] Karte von Dien Bien Phu: google maps:
[38] Luftaufnahme der Region Bien Bien Phu: google maps:
[39] Karte von Dien Bien Phu mit den franzsischen Forts: https://de.topwar.ru/171103-inostrannyj-legion-protiv-vetminja-i-katastrofa-pri-denbenfu.html
[40] Franzsische Einheit in Dien Bien Phu beim Appell: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/806988826952674242/

[41] Schlacht von Dien Bien Phu, Vietnamesen rcken vor:
[42] Schlacht von Dien Bien Phu, Vietnamesen mit Fahrradkonvoy: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/466826317618190476/
[43] Schlacht von Dien Bien Phu, Vietnamesen haben ein franzsisches Flugzeug abgeschossen, General Giap inspiziert es:
[44] Schlacht von Dien Bien Phu, franzsische Fallschirmjger: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/586453182729508904/
[45] Schlacht von Dien Bien Phu, die franzsischen Forts, Luftaufnahme: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/18155204738733445/
[46] Schlacht von Dien Bien Phu, das Inferno: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/111534528263110154/
[47] Der vietnamesische Sieg gegen die kriminellen Franzosen-"Christen" in Dien Bien Phu am 7.5.1954: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/986710599588326936
[48] Schlacht von Dien Bien Phu Mrz 1954: Eines der letzten franzsischen Flugzeuge bringt Verwundete aus der Region raus:
[49] Die Schlacht von Dien Bien Phu ist beendet, ca. 3000 franzsische Gefangene: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/264093965636717999/
[50] Vietnam siegt in Dien Bien Phu, Bericht in der Zeitung "Le Parisien": "Dien Bien Phu est tomb": https://www.pinterest.com/pin/7881368079590126/

[51] Krimineller Christ Salan 1960ca.: http://politiquepaca.canalblog.com/archives/2020/12/16/38709529.html
[52] Karte: Die Indochinakonferenz in Genf von 1954 teilt Vietnam: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indochinakonferenz
[53] Diktator Diem 1960 nach dem Militrputsch: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milit%C3%A4rputsch_in_S%C3%BCdvietnam_1960
[54] Brckenbau am Ho Chi Minh trail1966: https://charliecompany.org/2012/10/09/the-ho-chi-minh-trail/#jp-carousel-4344
[55] Strassenbau am Ho Chi Minh trail1973: https://charliecompany.org/2012/10/09/the-ho-chi-minh-trail/#jp-carousel-4347
[56] Ho Chi Minh trail, Lastwagen mssen vom Schlamm befreit werden 1966: https://charliecompany.org/2012/10/09/the-ho-chi-minh-trail/#jp-carousel-4338
[57] B52-Bomber mit Teppichbombardement: https://rohaut.blogspot.com/2019/03/en-la-isla-de-guam-posesion-americana.html
[58] B52-Bomber mit der Bombenladung vor dem Verlad: http://psychicpowerprojection.blogspot.com/2012/04/ordnance-napalm-carpet-bombing-vietnam.html
[59] "USA" Prsident Lyndon B. Johnson 1963: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Lyndon-B-Johnson
[60] "USA" Verteidigungsminister McNamara 1965: https://pophistorydig.com/topics/tag/robert-mcnamara-rules-of-war/

[61] Ho Chi Minh trailmit Elefantenkolonnen: https://charliecompany.org/2012/10/09/the-ho-chi-minh-trail/#jp-carousel-4343
[62] Ho Chi Minh trail: Offiziere der Nordvietnamarmee sind zu Fuss unterwegs: https://charliecompany.org/2012/10/09/the-ho-chi-minh-trail/#jp-carousel-4337
[63] Ho Chi Minh trail: Jugendgruppe mit Velotransport 1970: https://charliecompany.org/2012/10/09/the-ho-chi-minh-trail/#jp-carousel-4340
[64] Ho Chi Minh trail: Velotransport durch ein Hochwasser 1966: https://charliecompany.org/2012/10/09/the-ho-chi-minh-trail/#jp-carousel-4341
[65] Ho Chi Minh trail: Russische und chinesische Lastwagen passieren einen Kiiosk, wo die Lastwagen gezhlt werden 1973:
[66] Ho Chi Minh trail: Russische und chinesische Lastwagen berqueren einen Fluss auf einer Furt:
[67] Ho Chi Minh trail: Velotransport auf steilen Fuswegen: https://vietnamnews.vn/sunday/520084/ho-chi-minh-trail-60-years-and-beyond.html
[68] Ho Chi Minh trail: Treppenbrcke aus Holz an einer Felswand entlang:
[69] Affen-Amis mit Helikoptern in Vietnam 1966: https://pxhere.com/de/photo/1411024
[70] Affen-Amis in Vietnam: Marines sind verwundet 1967: https://pxhere.com/de/photo/1040088

[71] Affen-Amis in Vietnam: Die Belagerung von Plei Me mit Grossraumhelikopter: https://alchetron.com/Siege-of-Plei-Me
[72] Affen-Amis in Vietnam: Belagerung von Plei Me: Turnbung am Seil mit Grossraumhelikopter:
[73] Affen-Amis in Vietnam: Belagerung von Plei Me: Vietnamesen-Bevlkerung ist auf der Flucht:
[74] Affen-Amis in Vietnam: Belagerung von Plei Me: Affen-Amis liegen mit Maschinengewehr im Gras:
[75] Affen-Amis in Vietnam: Marsch im Dschungel im Regen bei berflutung: https://www.reddit.com/r/pics/comments/29r0iq/vietnam_war_soldiers_in_the_rain/
[76] Affen-Amis in Vietnam: Marsch im Dschungel bei berflutung 1965: https://www.thevintagenews.com/2016/01/06/44372/?firefox=1
[77] Affen-Amis haben ihren Soldatenfriedhof in Arlington bei Washington DC: