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Judentum in Deutschland-Index / Jewry in Germany index

von / by Michael Palomino


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Juden in Deutschland / Jews in Germany
1. Jews in Germany 01: Middle Ages  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
Spiritual centers Worms, Main, and Speyer - Crusades and other massacres - bans and restrictions - expulsions and coming back - social and cultural quarrels

2. Jews in Germany 02: Reformation and Napoleon's equality  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
Propaganda against the Jews in Reformation times - welcome Jews because of their tax payments and trade connections - absolutisms - enlightenment, court Jews, assimilation and anti-assimilation movement - equality under Napoleon

3. Jews in Germany 03: from 1815 to emancipation  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
The "Christian state" after Napoleon - conversions - reform movement and anti-reformists - scientific wave - professions and shifting movements - emancipation and the "new type of Jew" in Germany - cultural life - racist Zionism

4. Jews in Germany 04: WW I and inflation times  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
Jewish victims in WW I - Communist revolution with leading Jews - Weimar constitution of Hugo Preuss - Jewish welfare organizations - inflations - influx from eastern Europe - integration question

5. Jews in Germany 05: Third Reich 1933-1939  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
The Jews as an "alien race" - boycotts and Nazi law - new structure of the community - emigration waves - pioneer training - Ha'avara transactions of $16,200,000 to Palestine - Austria and Sudetenland 1938 - emigration table 1933-1939

6. Jews in Germany 06: WW II and Holocaust  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
Mass killing in eastern Europe - Jewish star - "transferred" Jews - closed Jewish institutions - confiscated Jewish assets - privileged camp Theresienstadt - emigration - the Reich never was "judenrein"

7. Jews in Germany 07: 1945-1970  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
Jewish communities - Displaced Persons (D.P.s) - Jews coming back - new Jewish organizations - struggle with racist Zionist organizations - reconciliation work - Central Council since 1950 - relations with racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel

Juden in deutschen Ländern / Jews in German provinces
  • Jews in Baden  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Settlement and expulsions in the Middle Ages - Jewish rights since 1807 - equality since 1862 - professions - Holocaust deportation in 1940 - reconstruction since 1945
  • Jews in Bavaria  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Settlements - Crusade attacks - expulsions - resettlements and new expulsions - Napoleonic rights and riots as reactions - equality and anti-Semitism as reaction - Holocaust
  • Jews in Brandenburg  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Jews in the Middle Ages with many rights - Black Death persecutions and taxes, stake - Court Jews and hatred against the Jews in the population - city of Brandenburg
  • Jews in Wuerttemberg  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Settlement in the Middle Ages - impoverishment and expulsion decree of 1521 - new settlements and equality - Holocaust
Juden in deutschen Städten / Jews in German towns

Berlin
  • Jews in Berlin 02: 1812-1933  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Tolerance and Jewish development - split Jewry between reformists and orthodox Jews - split Jewry between racist Zionists and anti-Zionists - revolution 1919 and Nazism since 1919 - Hebrew printing
  • Jews in Berlin 03: Third Reich and WW II  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Boycott - discriminations - Jewish schooling - racist Zionists, Bannmeile (ban mile), emigration - forced labour - deportations - survivors
  • Jews in Berlin 04: 1945-1970  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Community starting again - DPs and DP camps - split 1952 - organizations and activities
Weitere Städte / further towns
  • Jews in Constance  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Jewish community - Host blood libel - Black Death burning - privileges of Pope Martin V in 1418 - expulsion 1533 and settling in the countryside - emancipation law of 1862 - community since 1863 - emigration wave - Holocaust - post-war times
  • Jews in Dortmund  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Crusades - Jewish community - Black Death - expulsions - Napoleon and equality - Prussian law and industrialization - Nazi times and Holocaust - post-war times
  • Jews in Emden  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Legends - local and Portuguese Jews - Prussian law - Napoleon - Hanoverian law - emancipation - Nazi times with emigration and deportation - post-war times
  • Jews in Erfurt  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Middle ages - riots and readmittance - Black Death expulsion and readmittance - expulsion 1458 - Nazi times with emigration wave 1933-1949 - deportations - post-war times
Frankfurt am Main / Frankfort on the Main

Weitere Städte / further towns
  • Jews in Halle  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Jewish settlement and expulsions - Black Death expulsion and return - community life with synagogue, ritual bath, cemetery, and Hebrew printing - Hebrew Bible - numbers - Holocaust - post-war times
  • Jews in Hanau  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Settlement and expulsions - Black Death expulsion and re-settlement - privilege and Jewish Alley - rabbis and Hebrew printing - developments and Holocaust
  • Jews in Hanover  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Jewish community - Black Death expulsions - Jewish community - badge - expulsion orders without expulsion - destroyed synagogue in 1613 - schooling - emigration wave - Holocaust - post-war times
  • Jews in Cologne  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Roman times - First Crusade massacre in 1096 - reconstruction - fortress Wolkenburg - privileges and tax - Black Death massacres of 1349 - expulsion in 1429 - Napoleon - Prussian rule - equality since 1856 - emigration wave 1933-1939 - "Kulturbund" - Holocaust - post-war times
  • Jews in Luebeck  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Jews since 17th century - Moisling settlement - Napoleon - emancipation of 1848 - emigration wave 1933-1941 - deportation to Riga - emigration wave 1945-1953
  • Jews in Lueneburg  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Jews in the Middle Ages - synagogue and ritual bath - massacre in 1350 because of Black Death rumor - selling of Jewish houses - three expulsions in 16th century - protected Jews since 1680 - Jewish population figures 1811-1945
  • Jews in Marburg (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Jewish population figures 1933-1959
  • Jews in Muenster  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Emigration wave 1933-1939 - deportations to Riga ghetto 1941-1944 - Jewish community after 1945
  • Jews in Munich  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    19th century - Jewish Communist Munich in 1919 - and the national reaction - Third Reich Munich with Jewish culture, emigration wave, and destruction of synagogues - WW II and deportations - post-war times
  • Jews in Nuremberg  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Cultural life - WW I and after - Streicher with Nazi terror, synagogues burnt, and emigration wave - post-war times
  • Jews in Offenbach (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Judenstrasse ("street of Jews") - numbers - NS times with expelled Polish Jews, burnt synagogue emigrations and deportations - Hebrew printing
  • Jews in Worms  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Crusades - moneylending - Jewish taxes - Black Death massacres of 1349 and resettlement - expulsion of 1615 and resettlement - emancipation - Holocaust and emigration wave - post-war times
  • Jews in Wuerzburg  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Second Crusade attacks - Jewish community - Rindfleisch pogrom - taxes and financial aid for the fortified city - Black Death pogroms - Heidingsfeld - 19th century - Holocaust - post-war times

Organisationen / organizations
  • Aid organization: Hilfsverein (Relief Organization) (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971) English
    Hilfsverein founded in 1901 analogue Alliance Israélite Universelle - German and Hebrew - conferences - financial aid - weekly 1905-1914 - "organized emigration" - blocking kaiser - anti-Zionist line against racist Herzl Zionists - emigration by Hilfsverein 1921-1936: about 350,000 - overseas emigration by Hilfsverein 1933-1941: over 90,000

Ausdrücke / expressions

Austrittsgesetz ("Law on withdrawal from the Jewish Community")

Organisationen / organizations

-- Israelitische Religionsverein ("Jewish Religious Association")
-- Kultusgemeinde [[Cultural Association]]

1917
-- Centralverein (C.-V.) deutscher Staatsbuerger juedischen Glaubens ("Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith")
-- Zionistische Vereinigung fuer Deutschland (Z.V.f.D.; "Zionist Organization of Germany")
-- Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden ("Relief Organization of German Jews")
-- the religious organizations - Agudat Israel, Ahdut (Aḥdut), *Vereinigung fuer das liberale Judentum [[Liberal Jewry Association]]
-- *B'nai B'rith
-- *Verband national-deutscher Juden ("Union of Jews of German Nationality")
-- *Reichsbund juedischer Frontsoldaten ("Reich Association of Jewish War Veterans")
-- the various rabbinical associations, and associations of teachers and cantors; etc.

An important role in the cultural life of German Jewry was played by the academic organizations:
-- *Kartell-Convent (K.-C.) deutscher Studenten juedischen Glaubens ("National Fraternity of German Students of the Jewish Faith"), affiliated to the Centralverein
-- Bund juedischer Akademiker (B.J.A. [[Jewish Academic Association]], an association of Orthodox academics)
-- Kartell juedischer Verbindungen [[Jewish Connection Cartell]], the [[racist]] Zionist student organization.

-- Freies Juedisches Lehrhaus ("Free Institute of Jewish Learning") in Frankfort
-- the Juedische Volkshochschule ("Jewish College of Adult Education")
-- Juedisches Volksheim (Jewish Social Center) in Berlin

1933
-- Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland ("Reich union of Jews in Germany")
-- *Hochschule fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums [[High school of Jewish science]]
-- Juedischer Kulturbund ("Jewish Cultural Society")
-- Juden-Referat
-- Zentralausschuss fuer Hilfe und Aufbau ("Central Committee for Aid and Construction"), providing welfare and emigration services
-- Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland ("Reich Representation of the Jews in Germany")

1945
-- Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland ("Central Council of Jews in Germany")
-- Zentralwohlfahrtsstelle (central welfare office)
-- Juedischer Verlag (Jewish Publishing Co.) in Berlin
-- Allgemeine Wochenzeitung des Judentums ("General Jewish Weekly")
-- Juedischer Verlag (Jewish Publishing Co.)
-- Allgemeine Wochenzeitung des Judentums ("General Jewish Weekly")