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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Lincoln

Crusaders in 1190 - Barons' Wars of 1266 - expulsion of 1290 - 19th century - WWII times

Encyclopaedia Judaica: Jews in Lincoln,
                            vol. 11, col. 256, medieval building in
                            LIncoln known as Jews' Court which was
                            probably a synagogue. Photo Leslie H. Hare,
                            Lincoln
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Jews in Lincoln, vol. 11, col. 256, medieval building in LIncoln known as Jews' Court
which was probably a synagogue. Photo Leslie H. Hare, Lincoln

from: Lincoln; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica, vol. 11

presented by Michael Palomino (2010)

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<LINCOLN, town in eastern England.

[Crusader riots - the bishop protects the Jews]

The medieval Jewish community (first mentioned in 1159) was probably the second in importance in England after London. during the crusader riots which swept the country in March 1190, the Jews were attacked and took refuge under the protection of the sheriff. The citizens were subsequently fined for their unruly conduct. St. Hugh, the great bishop of Lincoln, protected the Jews, who later joined their fellow townsmen in mourning his death in 1200.

The most prominent Anglo-Jewish financier of the time was *Aaron of Lincoln (c. 1123-86), whose operations extended over every part of the country but were especially important in Lincolnshire. R. Joseph of Lincoln is mentioned as a scholar (c. 1125-36).

In the second half of the 13th century, the outstanding Lincoln Jews were *Hagin (Ḥayyim), son of R. *Moses b. Yom Tov of London, who was *archpresbyter of English Jewry (1258-80), and his brother *Benedict of Lincoln (d. 1276?), identical with the tosafist R. Berachiah of Nicole, who has left some significant literary remains. The latter was absolved at the time of the ritual murder accusation in 1255 associated with the name of "Little" St. *Hufh of Lincoln when 91 Lincoln Jews were sent to London for trial and 18 executed. Notwithstanding this, the community continued to be important.

[Pogrom during the Barons' Wars in 1266]

In 1266, during the Barons' Wars, the "Disinherited Knights" attacked the Lincoln Jewry, sacked the synagogue, and burned the records registering debts.

[Expulsion in 1290]

On the expulsion of Jews from (col. 256)

England in 1290, assets were registered of 66 householders (not all still alive), and the property which fell into the king's hands exceeded 2,500 Pounds, in addition to 30 houses. Specimens of medieval Jewish architecture, including a building which was probably the synagogue, may still be seen in the former Jewry (now Steep Hill).

[19th century]

A small Jewish community existed again in Lincoln ad the beginning of the 19th century.

[World War II]

There was a small community of evacuees during World War II.

[[These "evacuees" came from bombed London. Probably there were more Jews from Continental Europe but are not mentioned. It seems mysterious that Encyclopaedia Judaica does not say more about the times between 1933 and 1945]].


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Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Jews in Lincoln, vol.
                    11, col. 256
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Jews in Lincoln, vol. 11, col. 256
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Jews in Lincoln, vol.
                    11, col. 257
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Jews in Lincoln, vol. 11, col. 257


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