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Encyclopaedia Judaica


Dutch National Socialist leader Mussert has to give in to German pressure against the Jews

Anton Adriaan Mussert wit Hitler salute
Anton Adriaan Mussert wit Hitler salute
Poster of Mussert with Hitler 1942
Poster of Mussert with Hitler 1942

from: Mussert; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 12

presented by Michael Palomino (2007)

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(1894-1946), National Socialist leader in Holland. Originally an engineer in government service, he became active in politics in 1925. He founded the National-Socialist movement (1931), which at the peak of its popularity in the 1935 election received 8% of the votes.

When Holland was occupied by Nazi Germany (col. 717)

in May 1940, he tried to conduct a national policy and resisted annexation to Germany, but eventually he became a mere tool in the hands of the Germans.

[[In the late years of the war there was a big hunger in Holland because the German occupation took all Dutch products to Germany]].

After the war he was condemned to death for collaboration with the enemy.

Initially Mussert did not follow an anti-Jewish policy, and even accepted Jews as members of his party. From 1935, however, Jews could not hold office in the party, and in 1940 it was decided under German pressure to expel them altogether. Mussert unsuccessfully warned against the introduction of the yellow badge. For this reason, and because he tried to save some of his Jewish comrades, the Germans regarded him as a "Jew-servant".


-- Netherlands. Rijksinstituut voor oorlogsdocumentatie: Processen, no. 3: "Het proces Mussert" (1948)
-- L. de Jong: Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog, I (1969), 278-385> (col. 718)

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Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Mussert, vol. 12,
                    col. 717-718
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Mussert, vol. 12, col. 717-718

Picture credits

-- Mussert with Hitler salute: http://members.home.nl/keesdebrouwer/wereldoorlog_II/06_het_verzet.htm
-- Mussert with Hitler, poster 1942: http://www.persmuseum.nl/duitslandbeeld/13.html