Kontakt / contact     Hauptseite / site
                principale / pagina principal / home      zurück / retour /
                indietro / atrás / back
backindex     nextnext

Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Vienna 01: Middle Ages

Notable Jews - no black death persecution - expulsion 1421

Encyclopaedia Judaica: Vienna, vol.16, col.125,
                Jewish hat in a pointed form
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Vienna, vol.16, col.125, Jewish hat in a pointed form: Israelite wearing the medieval pointed hat depicted
in a stained-glass representation of the Exodus, St. Leopold's Chapel, Vienna, c. 1330.
Courtesy Austrian National Library, Photo Archive, Vienna.

from: Vienna; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

presented by Michael Palomino (2007)

Teilen / share:

Facebook






[Notable Jews - no black death persecution in Vienna]

<VIENNA, capital of *Austria. Documentary evidence points to the first settlement of Jews in the 12th century. The first Jew known by name is *Shlom (Solomon), mintmaster and financial adviser to Duke Leopold V. The community possessed a synagogue at the time and Jews owned houses in the city. In 1196 Shlom and 15 other Jews were murdered by participants in the Third Crusade (see *Crusades).

Under Leopold VI (1198-1230) a second Synagogue was erected. Its existence is noted in 1204. In 1235 the Jew *Teka (Tecanus) is mentioned as living in Vienna; he acted as state banker for Austria, and had far-flung financial interests. A charter of privileges was granted by Emperor Frederick II in 1238 giving the Jewish community extensive autonomy.

Encyclopaedia Judaica: Vienna, vol.16, col.125,
                  privileges of 1238
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Vienna, vol.16, col.125, privileges of 1238: The charter of privileges granted by
Frederick II to the Jewish community of Vienna in 1238. Vienna public record office
(Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv). Photo Bors and Mueller, Vienna


A Jewish quarter is mentioned at the end of the century, although its origins are somewhat earlier. The oldest Jewish tombstone found dates from 1298; a Jewish cemetery is noted only in 1368, but probably dates from the second half of the 13th century. A slaughterhouse is noted in 1320.

At the close of the 13th and during the 14th centuries, the community of Vienna was recognized as the leading community of German Jewry. In the second half of the 13th century there were in the community 1,000 Jews, living in 70 houses.

Encyclopaedia Judaica: Vienna, vol.16, col.126,
                  the first Jewish tombstone of 1310
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Vienna, vol.16, col.126, the first Jewish tombstone of 1310: Tombstone of Baruch ha-Zaken,
burried in Vienna, 1310. Vienna, Municipal Historical Museum. Photo Rudolf Stepanek, Vienna


The influence of the "Sages of Vienna" spread far beyond the limits of the town itself and continued for many generations. Of primary importance were *Isaac b. Moses "Or Zaru'a", his son *Hayyim "Or Zaru'a", Avigdor b. Elijah ha-Kohen, and *Meir b. Baruch ha-Levi. At the time of the *Black Death persecutions of 1348-49, the community of Vienna was spread and even served as a refuge for Jews from other places; it developed rapidly during the reign of Rudolf IV (1339-65).

Encyclopaedia Judaica: Vienna, vol.16,
                          col.126, resolution for interest money lending
                          in 1338 Encyclopaedia Judaica: Vienna, vol.16, col.126, resolution for interest money lending in 1338: Document issued by the Jews of Vienna, 1338, affirming their willing agreement to the ceiling on interest rates for money lending (1.6% per week) established by Archdukes Otto and Albert I. Vienna, Municipal Archives.

[1421: Persecutions - lethal victim - forced conversions - property confiscation]

Nonetheless, toward the end of the 14th century there was growing anti-Jewish feeling among the burghers; in 1406 during the course of a fire that broke out in the synagogue, in which it was destroyed, the burghers seized the opportunity to attack Jewish homes. The need of Duke Albert V for money and the effects of the uprising by the *Hussites, combined with the hatred for the Jews among the local population, led to cruel persecutions in 1421 (the *Wiener Gesera). Many of the community's members died as martyrs; others were expelled, and the children forcibly converted. The community was destroyed and its property passed to Duke Albert.

After the persecutions some Jews nevertheless remained there illegally; in 1438 Christian physicians complained about Jews practicing medicine illegally in the city. In 1512 there were 12 Jewish families in Vienna, and a small number of Jews continued to live there during the 16th century, (col. 122)

often faced with threats of expulsion. In 1582 a Jewish cemetery is noted.> (col. 123)


Teilen / share:

Facebook







Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna,
                            vol. 16, col. 122
vergrössernEncyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol. 16, col. 122
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna,
                            vol. 16, col. 123-124
vergrössernEncyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol. 16, col. 123-124
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna,
                            vol. 16, col. 125-126
vergrössernEncyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol. 16, col. 125-126
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna,
                            vol. 16, col. 127-128
vergrössernEncyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol. 16, col. 127-128
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna,
                            vol. 16, col. 129-130
vergrössernEncyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol. 16, col. 129-130
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna,
                            vol. 16, col. 131-132
vergrössernEncyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol. 16, col. 131-132


backindex     nextnext

^