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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Vienna 05: 1945-1970

Survivors - DPs - Jewish refugees 1956 and 1968 - community life

Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Austria, vol.
                  3, col. 887-888, map of the Jews in Austria (shape of
                  1945)
vergrössernEncyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Austria, vol. 3, col. 887-888, map of the Jews in Austria (shape of 1945)


from: Vienna; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

presented by Michael Palomino (2007)

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[Survivors and DPs since 1945 - Vienna as a refugee station 1956 and 1968]


Postwar Period. Shortly after the end of World War II the number of Jews in Vienna was estimated at about 4,000 people, who had survived either in hiding or in concentration and labor camps. Their number decreased due to excess of deaths over births, and emigration; the loss was soon more than compensated for by the return of several thousands of Austrian Jews, and the addition of a number of *Displaced Persons and refugees who had settled in Vienna. The population of the community reached its postwar peak in 1950 with 12,450 registered Jews, and decreased to 8,930 in 1965. It was estimated that there were at least 2,000 Jews living in Vienna who did not register with the community.

Vienna was the main transient stopping-place and the first refuge for hundreds of thousands of Jewish refugees and emigrants from Eastern Europe after World War II. This applies to the greater part of the exodus of Polish Jews in 1946 (see *Berihah), and, to a lesser degree, to Jews from Rumania [[Romania]] and Hungary in 1946-47, when the Rothschild-Hospital of the Viennese community became the main screening station on the way to the D.P. camps of Germany, Austria, and Italy.

In Vienna a series of transit camps were clustered around the Rothschild Hospital, receiving refugees passing from Bratislava to the U.S. zone of Austria. From the U.S. zone of Austria transit was effected either to Italy (until about May 1946), directed by Issachar Haimovich, or to the U.S. zone in Germany.
(from: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Berihah (Beriḥah), vol. 4, col. 630)

It was true also for the great stream of refugees from Hungary during and after the revolt of 1956, when at least 18,000 Jewish refugees found temporary shelter in Vienna, as well as for several thousand refugees from Czechoslovakia after the Soviet invasion of 1968. Emigration to Israel from Poland, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and partly also from Rumania [[Romania]] passed through Vienna as well.

[since April 1946: Jewish community life with elections - rabbi Eisenberg - synagogue - schooling]

The Community was reconstituted shortly after the war, with a president appointed by the occupation authorities, but by April 1946, elections were held for the community council. As a result of these first elections, David Brill of the left-wing Unity party was elected president. In April 1948 the Unity party was defeated by a coalition of the Zionists and the non-Zionist Social Democrats (the Bund Werktaetiger Juden), and the Zionist, David Schapir, was elected president. In the elections of December 1949, the Bund Werktaetiger Juden gained the majority of seats on the council. Emil Maurer was elected president, but retired in 1963, and was replaced by Ernst Feldsberg, also a representative of the Bund.

Akiva Eisenberg served as rabbi from 1948. There is one synagogue functioning, the old "Stadttempel" [["Town temple"]] in Seitenstettengasse, the only synagogue that was not destroyed in the Kristallnacht on November 1938. There are about 200 children who attend a Jewish (col. 128)

day-school and two Talmud Torah schools, and about 400 additional pupils who receive Jewish religious instruction in general schools. Though the Zionists constitute a minority, there are intensive and diversified Zionist activities.

Three weeklies appear. There exists a Jewish old-age-home with 120 residents, a Jewish hospital, and a youth house, inaugurated in 1966. The Documentation Center, established and directed by Simon Wiesenthal and supported by the Community, developed into an important institute for the documentation of the Holocaust and the tracing of Nazi criminals.

In 1949 the remains of Theodor Herzl, who had been buried at the Doebling cemetery in Vienna, were reinterred in Jerusalem.

[ED.]> (col. 131)
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<Bibliography

-- Germ Jud, 1 (1963), 397-425; 2 (1968), 886-903
-- M. Gruenwald: Vienna (1936)
-- idem: Samuel Oppenheim und sein Kreis (1913)
-- S. Krauss: Die Wiener Gersera vom Jahre 1421 (1920)
-- J. E. Scherer: Die Rechtsverhaeltnisse der Juden in den deutsch-oesterreichischen Laendern (1901)
-- H. Tietze: Die Juden Wiens (1935)
-- Aronius, Regesten, index
-- A.F. Pribram: Urkunden und Akten zur Geschichte der Juden in Wien (1918)
-- L. Bato: Die Juden im alten Vien (1928)
-- B. Wachstein: Die Inschriften des alten Judenfriedhofes in Wien, 2 vols. (1912/1917)
-- A. Zehavi-Goldhammer, in: Arim ve-Immahot be-Yisrael, I (1946), 176-289
-- D. Kaufmann: Die letzte Vertreibung der Juden aus Wien (1889)
-- J. Fraenkel: The Jews of Austria (1967), incl. bibl., 549-51
-- N.M. Gelber, in: JSOS, 10 (1948), 359-96
-- R. Dan, in: SBB, 9 (1970), 101-5
-- M. Kohler: Jewish Rights at the Congresses of Vienna and Aix-la-Chapelle (1918), index
-- G. Wolf: Geschichte der Juden in Wien (1156-1876) (1876)
-- idem: Vom ersten bis zum zweiten Tempel ... (1861)
-- I. Schwarz: Das Wiener Ghetto (1909)
-- G. Fritsch and O. Breita: Finale und Auftakt ... (1964)
-.- H. Gold: Geschichte der Juden in Wien (1966)
-- L. Goldhammer: Die Juden Wiens (1927)
-- M. Letteris, in: Bikkurim, 2 (1865), 20-38, 244
-- B. Wachstein (ed.): Die hebraeische Publizistik in Wien (1930)
-- H.D. Friedberg: Toledot ha-Defus ha-Ivri be-Arim ha-Elleh she-be-Eiropah ... (1937), 94-104> (col. 131)


Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol.
                          16, col. 122
vergrössernEncyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol. 16, col. 122
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol.
                          16, col. 123-124
vergrössernEncyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol. 16, col. 123-124
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol.
                          16, col. 125-126
vergrössernEncyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol. 16, col. 125-126
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol.
                          16, col. 127-128
vergrössernEncyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol. 16, col. 127-128
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol.
                          16, col. 129-130
vergrössernEncyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol. 16, col. 129-130
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol.
                          16, col. 131-132
vergrössernEncyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Vienna, vol. 16, col. 131-132


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