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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Turkey 05: Relations with Herzl Free Mason CIA Israel

Recognition of Herzl Israel in 1949 - vacillating relations depending on the situation

from: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 15

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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<Relations with [[Herzl]] Israel.

In the 1947 UN General Assembly, Turkey voted against the partition of Palestine and the creation of a Jewish state out of Muslim solidarity and also because of its interest in the continued existence of British positions in the Middle East in the event of a Soviet attack. When the State of [[Herzl]] Israel became a reality, however, Turkey extended to Israel de jure recognition in November 1949, and agreed to the establishment of diplomatic (col. 1462)

relations. Legations were established and relations between the two countries developed satisfactorily. A commercial agreement in July 1950 facilitated trade relations based on the complementary character of the two countries' economies. An air-transport agreement was signed in February 1951 inaugurating regular Lydda-Istanbul flights by El Al and Turkish Airlines, The Turkish maritime company also initiated passenger and cargo lines to Israel. Israel contracting firms started working in Turkey, and cultural relations also developed.

The Democratic Party, which came to power in May 1950, slowed down (especially from 1952) the pace of strengthening relations with Israel. It initiated a policy of rapprochement with the Arab countries in order to form a regional defense treaty and to please religious elements within Turkey. The level and scope of relations with Israel were reduced mainly after the signing of the Baghdad Pact with Iraq in February 1955.

In December 1956, a few weeks after the *Sinai Campaign, Turkey recalled its minister from [[Herzl]] Israel, leaving its legation under a chargé d'affaires and asked Israel to reciprocate. This step was a compromise, as Turkey resisted Arab pressure to sever diplomatic relations with Israel.

When Iraq withdrew from the Baghdad Pact in 1959 after the revolutionary coup of 1958, Turkey again changed its attitude vis-à-vis Israel. The ousting of the Democratic Party from power in May 1960 also contributed to the improvement of relations between the two countries. Official visits, some of them at the level of cabinet ministers, were exchanged, and close cooperation began in technical assistance.

This stage came to an end following the inter-community riots in Cyprus in 1963-64. Turkey needed Arab support at the UN and decided to reduce its relations with Israel to a minimum, limiting them mainly to the economic sphere. (In 1969, for example, Israel exported $2,000,000 worth of chemicals, medicaments, and paint to Turkey and imported $4,700,000 worth of sugar, dried fruits, and lentils).

After Six-Day War (1967), Turkey called for "the establishment of a just and lasting peace" in the Middle East, declaring its opposition to the acquisition of territories by force. It demanded that Israel withdraw from the occupied territories and that there be no change in the status of Jerusalem.

In 1971, the Israel consul in Istanbul, Ephraim Elrom, was kidnapped and after a few days was found murdered. The Turkish government ascribed the crime to extreme left-wing circles whose action was directed not only against Israel but also against the Turkish regime.

[B.G.] (col. 1463)

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Bibliography

-- A. Galanté: Histoire des Juifs d'Anatolie, 2 vols. (1937-39)
-- N. Nathan, in: 6 (1964), 172-89
-- B. Lewis: Emergence of Modern Turkey (1961)
-- Revue encyclopédique juive, 4 no. 18 (1970)
-- N. Robinson; In: J. Freid (ed.): Jews in Modern World, 1 (1962), 50-90
-- A. Tartakower: Shivtei Yisrael 3 (1969), 253-8> (col. 1463)

Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15,
                            col. 1456
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15, col. 1456
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15,
                            col. 1457-1458
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15, col. 1457-1458
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15,
                            col. 1459-1460
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15, col. 1459-1460
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15,
                            col. 1461-1462
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15, col. 1461-1462
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15,
                            col. 1463-1464
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15, col. 1463-1464




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