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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Ukraine: Kiev

Back and forth with Jews in Kiev - pogroms 1881 - police actions 1881-1917 - pogroms 1905 - blood libel trial 1911-1913 - communist revolution and turmoil 1917-1921 - Babi Yar 1941-1944 - communist measures against racist Zionists 1948-1971 - Jewish writers and cultural activities

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol.
                10, col. 992, synagogue 1970
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 10, col. 992, synagogue 1970

from: Kiev; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 10

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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Jews in Kiev since the foundation of the town - Tatar raid 1482 - expelled 1495 and revoked decree 1503 - new restrictions 1619 - Chmielnicki massacres 1648 - Russian occupation and exclusion of Jews since 1667

KIEV (Kiov), capital of Ukrainian S.S.R.

The Jewish Community before 1667.

Kiev's central position on the River Dnieper at the commercial crossroads of Western Europe and the Orient attracted Jewish settlers (col. 991)

(*Rabbanites and *Karaites) from the foundation of the town in the eighth century C.E. At first most of them were transient merchants from both east and west. Ancient Russian chronicles relate that some Jews from *Khazaria visited Vladimir, the prince of Kiev, to try to convert him to Judaism (986). About that time a Jewish community already existed in the city. The abbot of Kiev, Theodosius the Happy (11th century), is said to have visited Jewish homes at nights and to have held disputations with the householders.

A "gate of the Jews" is mentioned at the time of the riots which broke out on the death of Prince Svyatopok (1113), when the populace also attacked Jewish houses.

*Benjamin of Tudela mentions "Kiov, the great city", and *Pethahiah of Regensburg visited the town on his way to the Orient (12th century). During the same century *Moses of Kiev lived in the town. He corresponded with Jacob b. Meir *Tam in the west and the gaon [[religious leader]] *Samuel b. Ali in Baghdad. Under Tatar rule 1240-1320) the Jews had been protected, earning them the hatred of the Christian population. With the annexation of Kiev to the principality of Lithuania (1320), the Jews were granted certain rights ensuring the safety of their lives and property. Several of them leased the collection of taxes and amassed fortunes. As the Jewish community increased in numbers so did the number of scholars, although the statement found in several sources, "from Kiev emanate Torah and light", is an exaggeration. During the 15th century *Moses (b. Jacob Ashkenazi the Exile) of Kiev II wrote commentaries on the Sefer Yezirah [[book of creation]] on the Pentateuch commentaries of Abraham *ibn Ezra and others, and held disputations with the Karaites.

In the Tatar raid on Kiev (1482) many Jews were taken captive.

Like the rest of the Jews in the principality of Lithuania, the Kiev community was expelled in 1495. When the decree was revoked (1503), the community was reestablished. However, in 1619 the Christian merchants obtained from King Sigismund III a prohibition on permanent settlement of Jews or their acquisitions of real estate in the town. They were allowed to come into Kiev for trading purposes alone and might remain one day only in an inn assigned to them.

In spite of this, a few Jews continued to live in the town under the protection of local officials, who saw them as a source of income. Russian sources relate that Jews were killed in Kiev during the *Chmielnicki massacres (1648). On the demand of the citizens, John II Casimir of Poland and Czar Alexis renewed the prohibition on Jewish settlement (1654). This became final with the annexation of Kiev to Russia (1667). The Russian Orthodox academy there fomented hatred of the Jews and its students attacked any Jew they found trading in the town.

From 1793 [New Jewish community - land conflict since 1798 - new prohibition edict 1827 by Czar Nicholas I - Jewish exodus in 1835]

After a break of about 150 years the community of Kiev was reestablished in 1793, after the (col. 992)

second partition of Poland. In 1798 the community acquired land for a cemetery. The earlier conflict between the Christian citizens and the Jews began once more. While the Jews struggled for settlement in Kiev, the economic and commercial center of the southwestern region of Russia, the citizens persistently endeavored to expel them, basing their claim on the status quo since Sigismund III and adding that "holy" Kiev was "profaned" by the presence of the Jews.

In spite of this, by 1815 there were about 1,500 Jews in Kiev (not including transients), with two synagogues and other communal institutions. Eventually Czar *Nicholas I acceded to the demands of the citizens and at the end of 1827 residence in Kiev was forbidden to Jews.

[[It can be admitted that the "Christian" Orthodox church was the driving force for this edict, but the church is never mentioned as the driving anti-Semitic force in Encyclopaedia Judaica]].

In part due to representations by state officials, who pointed out that the expulsion would worsen economic conditions in the town, the execution of the decree was twice deferred. In 1835, however, on the expiry of the last postponement, the Jews left the town.

[Jews on the markets - new visitor regulation for Jews in special inns in 1843 - abolished inns and special tax regulation for Jews in 1858 - Jewish suburbs since 1861]

Despite this, they still played an important part in its economic life for Jewish merchants came in their hundreds to the large annual fairs held from 1797 in Kiev in January. With their assistants and servants, they made up 50-60% of the fairs' participants.

In 1843 Jewish temporary visitors were officially permitted, provided that they resided and bought food in two specially appointed inns. These were leased by the municipality to Christian agents, who were empowered to deliver to the police any Jew who did not stay in them.

At the beginning of the reign of Alexander II these inns were abolished (1858), and instead a special payment to the municipality was levied upon the Jews as compensation for the losses caused by the abolishment of the inns. In 1861 two suburbs, Lyebed and Podol, were assigned to those Jews entitled to reside in Kiev (wealthy merchants and industrialists and their employees, members of the free professions, and craftsmen). The number of Jews in Kiev increased to 3,013 (3% of the total population) in 1863 and to 13,803 (11.8%) in 1872.

[Heavy pogrom in May 1881 - police actions 1881-1917 - tax for the police - rising number of Jews]

In May 1881 a pogrom raged in the streets of the city, supported and encouraged by the governor-general, General Drenteln. Jewish houses and shops were looted, and many people were injured; 762 families were completely ruined. The damage caused was evaluated at 1,750,000 roubles.

From that date the authorities began sporadically to investigate the residence rights of the Jews in Kiev. Until 1917 the city became notorious for the police "oblavy" ("hunt attacks") for Jews without residence rights.

In 1891 the authorities ordered that a considerable portion of the income of the Jewish community be allotted [[distributed]] to the police to cover the cost of their measures to prevent Jews entering the town. In spite of all these persecutions, the number of Jews in Kiev continued to increase. From 31,800 (12.8%) in 1897, they rose to 50,792 (10.8%) in 1910 and 81,256 (13%) at the end of 1913.

In fact the number of Jews was greater, since many evaded the census. Many Jews also lived in the suburbs and townlets around Kiev and only came into the city daily on business. There were some wealthy Jewish families in Kiev, who included many of the magnates of the southwestern Russian sugar industry (the *Brodsky and Zaitsev families). Many Jews were employed in their factories in the town and the vicinity. The city also had many Jewish physicians, lawyers, and other members of the liberal professions.

[Hospitals - Jews at Kiev University - new synagogue in 1898]

[...] A Jewish hospital for the poor which served the whole of Ukraine was opened in 1862, followed by a hospital specializing in surgery, a clinic for eye diseases (under the direction of M. *Mandelstamm), and other welfare institutions. (col. 994) [...]

Kiev University attracted Jewish youth; in 1886 Jewish students numbered 236 and in 1911, 888 (17% of the total number of students), the largest concentration of Jewish students in a Russian university. Some Hebrew writers lived in the city, notably J. Kaminer, J.L. *Levin (Yehalel), M. Kamionski, I.J. Weissberg, E. *Schulman, and A.A. Friedman. *Shalom Aleichem, who lived in Kiev for some time, described the town in his account of life in Yehupets. (col. 993)

[...] In 1898 a magnificent central synagogue was built by means of a donation from L. *Brodsky. (col. 994) [...]

[Heavy pogrom in October 1905 - merchants and poverty - Beilis blood libel trial 1911-1913]

In the wake of Jewish revolutionary activity [[against the Czarist regime which hold the rural population without current]], on Oct. 18, 1905, a large-scale pogrom occurred. Neither army nor police controlled the rioters, who ran amok unhindered for three days. Indeed, soldiers protected the hooligans from the Jewish *self-defense organization. The rioters attacked the houses of the wealthy, but their attacks were mainly directed against the poor suburbs. However, the pogrom did not interrupt the development of the community, which became one of the wealthiest in Russia as well as one of the most diversified socially.

In 1910 there were 4,896 Jewish merchants in the town, 42% of all the merchants there, but nevertheless 25% of the community had to apply for Passover alms during that same year. The community was officially recognized in 1906 as the "Jewish Representation for Charity Affairs at the Municipal Council". Its income from the meat tax (see *korobka) and other sources amounted to 300,000 roubles annually. [...]

From 1906 to 1921 S. *Aronson was rabbi of Kiev; notable as *kazyonny ravvin ("government-appointed rabbi") were Joshua Zuckerman, the first to be appointed to this office, and S.Z. Luria. Between 1911 and 1913 Kiev was the center of the notorious *Beilis blood libel trial and the town was then racked by the agitation of the members of the *Union of Russian People ("Black Hundreds"). In 1911, after the assassination of prime minister *Stolypin by a Jew in Kiev, severe pogroms were on the point of breaking out there, but the authorities decided to restrain the rioters.

WW I and revolution 1917 with emancipation and Jewish influx to Kiev

During World War I, residence restrictions in the town were lifted for Jewish refugees from the battle areas. The years 1917-20 were years of upheaval for the Jews of Kiev. With the March 1917 Revolution

[[financed by banks of the criminal "USA" and financed by the criminal German Emperor so Russia in the turmoil could be easily occupied by German troops]]

all the residence restrictions were abolished and Jews at once began to stream into the town. In the census at the end of 1917, 87,240 Jews (19% of the total population) were registered. A democratic community was established, led by the Zionist Moses Nahum *Syrkin. Meetings and congresses of Russian and Ukrainian Jews were held in Kiev, the central institutions of Ukrainian Jewry were set up there, and Jewish writers and communal workers of every shade of opinion and party became active in the town. Books and newspapers were published and cultural institutions, led by the Hebrew *Tarbut and the Yiddish Kultur Lige, engaged in a variety of activities. In the spring of 1919, the number of Jews had grown to 114,524 (21%).

[The battle of Kiev 1919-1921 and pogroms on the countryside - Yiddish development 1921-1930s]

With the first conquest of the town by the Red Army, which lasted from February to August 1919, Kiev became a haven for refugees from the pogroms sweeping the provincial towns of Ukraine. The running of the Jewish community was handed over to the *Yevsektsiya, and the systematic destruction of communal institutions, traditional Jewish culture, and national parties began. With the retreat of the Red Army, an attempt was made to form a Jewish self-defense unit. When *Petlyura's forces [[Ukrainian nationalists]] entered the city they arrested the members of the self-defense unit and 36 of them were executed. A month after Kiev was occupied by *Denikin's "Volunteer Army" [[the "Whites"]], thugs [[stupids]] initiated a period of pillage, rape, and murder of the Jews which lasted until the "Volunteers" were driven out by the Red Army (December 1919). The Jews in Kiev suffered heavily during the famine and typhus outbreak of 1920.

In the August 1920 census they constituted one third of the town's population. In 1923 Kiev had 128,000 Jews (32%), 140,256 (27.3%) in 1926, and in 1939, 175,000 (c. 20%). (col. 994)

[[There was Jewish help from the Joint in New York which was envied by the "Christs" who did not get help in the famine]].

During the first 20 years of the Soviet regime, Kiev became a major center of the officially fostered Yiddish culture, with a school system catering for many thousands of pupils and students, culminating in institutes of higher education and learning, such as the department for Jewish culture at the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (1926) which in 1930 became the "Institute of Proletarian Jewish Culture" under the direction of Joseph Liberberg.

This state-sponsored activity attracted even Jewish writers and scholars from the est, such as Meir *Wiener and others. Some valuable research works on Yiddish language and literature were published there. Many Yiddish poets and writers, among them David *Hofstein and Itzik *Feffer, lived and wrote in Kiev. There were also a Jewish state theater, Yiddish newspapers, journals, and publishing houses. In the early 1930s Liberberg and some of his associates headed a group of Yiddish intellectuals who went to the newly established Jewish autonomous region in *Birobidzhan to organize Jewish educational and cultural work there in conjunction with the Jewish academic institute in Kiev. Several years later, with the forcible liquidation of all Jewish institutions, including libraries and archives in Kiev, one of the most important centers of Soviet Yiddish culture ceased to exist.


[[Addition: Communist terror of hunger in Ukraine 1918-1921 - NEP - end of NEP in the 1930s
During the 1920s and 1930s orchestrated war of the working class was dominating, so poor Jews got more rights and former bourgeoisie was loosing all rights and got into the Gulag system. Add to this there was famine by the revolution and the lasting war between "Reds" and "Whites", and add to this there was a "collectivization" in the Ukraine which affected many Jewish peasants so there was no bread in Ukraine at the end and millions died. The communist regime of the "Soviet Union" stabilized the situation by New Economic Policy (NEP) which was abrogated in the 1930s because of suspicion of espionage. See all this in: Yehuda Bauer: Joint, and see: Encyclopaedia Judaica: Russia, vol. 14, col. 458-463]].

Holocaust Period.

[[Big Flight from Barbarossa
A big part of the Ukrainian Jews was well integrated and could organize the flight to the central "Soviet Union" with the communists and with the Red Army ("Big Flight from Barbarossa", see: *Holocaust, Rescue from). Since 22 June 1941 Ukraine had 10 more days time for the flight because the southern part of the front moved only since 3 July 1941 (see: *Rumania). The staying Jews who had the hope that the situation would not be so bad or were tired to fly or could not organize a flight were denounced by the staying population who were only waiting for the NS occupation. So, the staying Jews were mostly annihilated by the German-Ukrainian Einsatzgruppen in several waves 1941-1943, putting them first into ghettos and then brought to secret places and killed by mass shootings. Others went to the partisans or could hide themselves in a "Christian" family or in a forest or changed names or religion or both, or they became "indispensable" (Germ.: "unabkömmlich") etc.]]

The fall of the city to the Germans on Sept. 21, 1941 marked the end of Kiev Jewry. Some of the 175,00 Jews living in Kiev in 1939 managed to flee eastward to central Russia just before the Nazi occupation [[there was 2 1/2 months time for the flight]], but the vast majority was slaughtered by the Einsatzgruppe C, Sonderkommando 4A, commanded by Colonel Paul Globel, who was under orders to exterminate the Jews of Kiev "including their families". According to the official S.S. report a "clever" stratagem [[strategy]] was adopted to overcome "the difficulties resulting from such a large-scale action".

[The massacre of Babi Yar on 29-30 September 1941 - and further massacres at Babi Yar]

On September 28 (Tishri 7) 2,000 notices were posted in and around Kiev, announcing that: "All the Jews of Kiev and the vicinity are to appear on Monday, September 29, 1941, at 8:00 a.am. on the corner of Melnikovskaya and Dukhtorovskaya [near the cemeteries]. They are to bring their documents, money, other valuables and warm clothes, linen etc. Any Jew found disobeying these orders will be shot. Citizens breaking into flats left by the Jews and taking possession of their belongings will be shot."

(For Jews the derogatory word "zhid" was used and not the usual evrei). Not suspecting what lay in store for them, almost all obeyed the German order [[and of their collaborators]]. Rumors had been spread, apparently by the Germans themselves, that the Jews were to be evacuated to a ghetto or a labor camp. One of the very few survivors, Dina (Vera) Mironovna Pronicheva, described the massacre to the Russian author Anatolii Kuznetsov, and served afterward (April 1968) as a witness at the trial of the Babi Yar murderers held in Darmstadt, West Germany. She gave details of the Germans' methodical mass murders in the ravine of *Babi Yar near the Jewish cemetery.

When the Jews arrived in great numbers at the cemetery, they were herded into a closed area bounded by barbed wire, so as to prevent their escape. Hundreds of Germans, aided by the Ukrainian militia, blocked off the way back. The Jews were all ordered to put down their bundles and to strip naked. They were then led in groups down the side of the ravine, and machine gunned from the opposite side. Heaps of earth were thrown over the bodies, burying both dead and wounded. According to the official report of the S.S. unit in charge of the mass extermination, 33,771 Jews were murdered in Babi Yar on Sept. 29-30, 1941.

Baby Yar continued to be a mass execution ground throughout the German occupation [[with their collaborators]].

[Mobile gas chambers and more mass murder at Babi Yar]

An official committee of investigation set up in Kiev after its liberation reported (col. 995)

that about 195,000 civilians and prisoners of war were slaughtered in mobile gas chambers or by execution squads. Over 100,000 of them were executed at Babi Yar (the Soviet report omits details of the number of Jews among them). The testimony of a Jewish captain of the Soviet army on the Germans' attempts to eliminate traces of the slaughter in Babi Yar was published on Feb. 10, 1944 in *Eynikeyt, the journal of the Jewish *Anti-Fascist Committee in Moscow. He testified that "the Germans brought 300 Soviet prisoners in chains to Babi Yar in May 1943. These prisoners were forced to construct huge ovens in the earth, and in each oven about 4,000 corpses were cremated. About 100,000 bodies were cremated in this manner, and afterward the prisoners who had carried out the cremations were themselves cremated. Eighteen of the prisoners survived the action" (including the witness).

In the struggle against *anti-Semitism in the Soviet Union, Babi Yar became a symbol of pro-Jewish support, crystallized in the poem Babi Yar by Yevgenii *Yevtushenko. Despite recurring requests by Soviet intellectuals, including Yevtushenko and Viktor Nekrasov, the Soviet authorities refused to erect a monument to those massacred there. Jewish survivors made attempts to hold a memorial day each year, circumspectly choosing the eve of the Day of Atonement. When in the early 1960s it became known that there were plans to turn Babi Yar into a new residential area, there were protests from Jews and non-Jews alike. At the end of the 1960s, the ravine of Babi Yar remained a desolate wasteland. "In Babi Yar there is neither monument nor memorial" (Yevtushenko).


[[There is no indication of other mass shooting places or ghettos. At the end of the war in the Ukraine in 1944 there was a big mass flight of the survivors from the communist Red Army to Palestine or to other non-communist countries. The anti-Semitic "Christian" Orthodox church which gave the ground and was the main force for  Antisemitism is never mentioned as culprit in this article]].

After World War II. [1000s of Jews coming back from central Russia - clashes - over 200,000 Jews in Kiev - cultural life with synagogue and prohibitions]

At the end of World War II, when thousands of Jews began to return to liberated Kiev, they often encountered a hostile attitude on the part of the Ukrainian population, many of whom had been given, or taken, the dwellings and jobs of the absent Jews.

[[It can be admitted that there was not much left of Kiev because of the German and Russian bombings and there was a huge housing shortage as was everywhere in Europe except the "neutral" states]].

There were even isolated physical clashes between Jews and Ukrainians. During the next 15 years, however, the number of Jews in Kiev reached more than 200,000 (officially, in the 1959 census, their number was 154,000, 13.9% of the total population). Nearly 15% of them declared Yiddish to be their mother tongue. Out of about 14,000 Jews living in the smaller towns of the Kiev district, around 33% declared Yiddish to be their mother tongue.

The only synagogue in Kiev, with room for about 1,000 persons, was situated downtown in the Podol quarter. On holidays, particularly on the Day of Atonement, also the memorial day of the Babi Yar massacre, several thousands attended the service, overflowing into the courtyard and the street. A number of services (*minyanim) were held in private homes, but when their existence was discovered, they were closed and the owners severely punished. A mikveh, a place for the ritual slaughtering of poultry [[hens, cocks]], and a mazzot bakery were attached to the synagogue.

From 1960 until 1966 the baking of mazzot was prohibited and several Jews were punished for baking them "illegally" in their homes. The last rabbi to officiate in Kiev was Rabbi Panets, who retired in 1960 and died in 1968; a new rabbi was not appointed.

Until 1960 the synagogue bord's chairman was Bardakh; the atmosphere was relatively relaxed, and visitors from abroad, who arrived in increasing numbers from the late 1950s, were cordially received. The situation changed abruptly in 1961, when a new board, headed by Gendelman, was appointed. Gendelman, in an aggressive manner, implemented meticulously the instructions of the Soviet authorities, harassed members of the congregation, and prevented any contact between them and foreign visitors. He was eventually forced to resign in 1967 because of the growing tension between him and the congregation. (col. 996)

In 1959, on the 100th anniversary of the birth of *Shalom Aleichem, a plaque was affixed to the house where he lived before World War I bearing the text:

"Here lived the famous Jewish writer Shalom Aleichem (Rabinovich)."

Shortly afterward the plaque was replaced by a new one on which the words "famous Jewish" and "Rabinovich" were omitted.

In May 1966 a group of Kiev Jews went to Moscow and submitted a petition to Mikhailova of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, about the establishment of a Yiddish theater in Kiev. The petition stressed the fact that 82 Jewish actors were ready to participate. M. Goldblat, one of the survivors of the Yiddish theater in the U.S.S.R. and the last director of the Yiddish theater in Kiev, declared his readiness to organize the new Yiddish theater. The petition also included a list of plays by Jewish Soviet and classic writers for the repertoire. The petition was rejected.

[1957: trials against (racist) Zionists - 1959: new Jewish cemetery - Jewish writers - 1960-1966: Jewish cultural events in the suburbs]

In 1957 four elderly Jews were sentenced in Kiev to several years of imprisonment for "Zionist activity". One of them was Baruch Mordekhai Weissman, whose Hebrew written diary about the "black years" was smuggled out and published anonymously in Israel, under the title "To my Brother in the State of Israel" (1957). At the trial Weissman was not accused of smuggling out his manuscript, but of keeping Hebrew newspapers and participating in a "Zionist circle".

In 1959 the Kiev municipality opened a new Jewish cemetery and decided to close the old one at Lukyanovka, near Babi Yar, which had been desecrated and partly destroyed during the Nazi occupation. Local and foreign Jews were allowed to transfer the remains of their relatives to the new cemetery if they defrayed the expenses involved. American rabbis arranged for the transfer of the remains of the hasidic rabbis of the Twersky family, and the present of Israel, Izhak Ben Zvi, received permission from the Soviet head of state to transfer to Israel the remains and the tombstone of his friend Ber *Borochov (1963).

Kiev continued to be a center of Yiddish writers, many of whom had served terms of imprisonment under Stalin. Among them were Itzik Kipnis, Hirsh Polyanker, Nathan Zbara, Eli Schechtman, and Yehiel Falikman. Several books in Yiddish and translations in Russian and Ukrainian were published between 1960-70. The Ukrainian authorities usually prevented Jewish cultural events being held in their capital, Kiev. For years, at least from 1960 until 1966, not a single Jewish folklore concert took place there, and Kiev Jews had to travel to nearby towns to attend such events.

[Economic processes against Jews - campaign against Herzl Zionism - some processes against Zionists]

During the campaigns against "economic crimes" two Jews, B. Mirski and Shtifzin, who worked in a Kiev publishing house for art books, were sentenced to death (1962).

At that time the local Ukrainian press indulged in almost undisguised anti-Semitic incitement. This campaign culminated in the publication of T. Kichko's notorious "Judaism without Embellishment" by the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian Republic (1963). Though the book was later censured by the ideological commission of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party in Moscow, Kichko reappeared in 1968 with a new anti-Jewish book "Judaism and Zionism" and was rewarded by the authorities for his achievements in "anti-religious education".

The refusal of the municipal authorities to erect a memorial in Babi Yar, after an exhibition of models for such a memorial was officially arranged in 1965, was ascribed to the popular anti-Semitic atmosphere prevailing in the city. Protests against this omission were voiced by Russian and Ukrainian writers (e.g., Y. Yevtushenko, V. Nekrasov, Ivan Dzyuba, and others).

When an international poultry exhibition took place in Kiev in 1966, and Israel was represented by a stand equipped with exhibits and explanatory literature, tens of thousands of Jews from Kiev and all over the Ukraine streamed there. After the Six-Day War (1967),  Jewish national feeling reemerged publicly in Kiev. The anniversary of Babi Yar became a rallying day for Jews, most of them young, who came not only to recite Kaddish [[prayer for the dead]] but also to express their Jewish identification. Wreaths [[bands]] bearing inscriptions in Yiddish and Hebrew were laid and there were occasional attempts to make speeches, but on every such occasion the police intervened to remove the wreaths and silence the speakers.

After one such gathering a young Jewish engineer, Boris Kochubiyevski, was arrested in 1968 on the charge of "spreading slander against the Soviet regime", after he and his non-Jewish wife Larissa had applied for an exit permit to Israel. In May 1969 he was sentenced to three years imprisonment with hard labor. At this trial Kochubiyevski made a passionate speech, declaring his [[Herzl racist?]] Zionist credo.

In summer 1970 an open letter was published abroad, addressed to the prime minister of Israel, Golda Meir, to U.N. Secretary U Thant, and to various international institutions, signed by ten Jews from Kiev who claimed the right to settle in Israel. In August 1970 the same ten persons wrote a second letter to President Shazar, making it known that, after having been refused exit permits, they had renounced their Soviet citizenship and asked to become citizens of [[racist Herzl]] Israel.

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-- A. Harkavy: Hadashim gam Yeshanim (1886-1912), no. 1, 6-12; no. 2, 13-17
-- I.N. Darevsky: Le-Korot ha-Yehudim be-Kiev (1902)
-- Ettinger, in: Zion, 21 (1956), 107-42
-- idem, in: Roth, Dark Ages, index
-- Gurevich, in: Shriftn for Ekonomik un Statistik, 1 (1928), 104-5
-- J. Lestschinsky, in: Bleter far Yidishe Demografye, Statistik un Ekonomik, 5 (1925), 149-67
-- A. Druyanow, in: Reshummot, 3 (1923), 221-36
-- A.A. Friedman: Sefer ha-Zikhronot (1926), 195-227, 315-97
-- A. Golomb: A Halber Yorhundert Yidishe Dertsiung (1957), 95-114
-- B. Dinur: Bi-Ymei Milhamah u-Mahpekhah (1960), 311-420
-- A. Pomeranz: Di sovietishe Harugei Malkhus (1962), 44-60, passim
-- Die Judenpogrome in Russland, 2 (1909), 339-406
-- G. Reitlinger: Final Solution (1953), 223-5
-- M. Malishevski: Yevrei v yuzhoy Rossii i v Kiyeve v X-XII vekakh (1878)
-- I. Zinberg, in: Yevreyskaya Starina, 11 (1924), 93-109
-- M. Kulisher, ibid., 6 (1913), 351-66
-- Y. Galant, ibid., 264-78
-- idem, in: Zbirnyk prats Zhydivskoyi istorychnoarkheografichnoyi komisii, 1 (1928), 149-97
-- Rybynsky, in: Yubileyny zbirnyk D. I. Bagalya (1927), 938-55
-- E. Turats: K istorii kiyevskogo pogroma (1906)
-- P.T. Neyshtube: Kiyevskaya yevreyskaya bolnitsa 1862-1912 (1912)
-- Badanes, in: Vestnik Yevreyskoy obshchiny, no. 2 (1914), 49-54; no. 3 (1914), 33-37
-- Polyakov, in: Yevreyskaya Letopis, 2 (1923), 17-36; 3 (1924), 60-70> (col. 998)

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in
                              Kiev, vol. 10, col. 991-992
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Kiev, vol. 10, col. 991-992
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in
                            Kiev, vol. 10, col. 993-994
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Kiev, vol. 10, col. 993-994
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in
                            Kiev, vol. 10, col. 995-996
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Kiev, vol. 10, col. 995-996
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in
                            Kiev, vol. 10, col. 997-998
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Kiev, vol. 10, col. 997-998