Jews in Ukraine: Little towns L-Z
Mogilev-Podolski - Novoselitsa (Noua Sulita, Sulita) - Uzhgorod (Uzhorod, Ungvár) - Vinnitsa - Vizhnitsa (Vijnita, Vizhnits) - Vladimir Volynski (Lodomira, Wlodzimierz, Lodmer, Ladmir, Ludmir) - Zastavna - Zbarazh (Zbaraz) - Zhdanov (Mariupol) - Zhmerinka - Zholkva (Zólkiew, Nesterov) - Zolochev (Zloczow)
from: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971
presented by Michael Palomino (2008)
[[The "Christian" Orthodox church was the base of Antisemitism in Ukraine but is never mentioned in Encyclopaedia Judaica]].
from: Mogilev-Podolski; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 12
Map with Ukraine and Bessarabia with the position of Mogilev-Podolski (borders of 1991) 
[Polish rule until 1795 - czarist rule until 1919 - Jewish trade - Chmielnicki massacres - Stein Hebrew press - 1905 progroms]
<MOGILEV-PODOLSKI, city in Vinnitsa oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.; [[also: Movilău, Mogilev-Podolsky, Mohyliv-Podilskyi, Ukrainian town on the border to Bessarabia]].
in Poland until 1795; under czarist rule it was the district town of Podolia. Mogilev-Podolski was an important station on the commercial route between Moldavia and Ukraine. Jews are first mentioned in the town in 1637, but the community is not recorded among those who were victims of the *Chmielnicki massacres of 1648-49.
In 1765 there were 957 Jews in Mogilev and the vicinity. The number had grown to 5,411 in 1847, and by 1897 there were 12,344 (55.3% of the total population) Jews in the town itself.
In 1808 H.Z. Stein and his father, David, transferred their Hebrew press from Slopkovicz to Mogilev and operated there until 1819 producing 24 books.
In October 1905 the community suffered in the wave of pogroms. With the establishment of the Soviet regime, the Jewish communal organization and its institutions were liquidated.
[[The emigration wave from 1896 to 1914 is not mentioned, but the number of Jews is falling]]:
[Falling number of Jews 1926 - part of Rumanian Transnistria 1941-1944 - expelled Jews in Mogilev]
In 1926 the Jewish population had fallen to 9,622 (41.8% of the (col. 216)
[[Withdrawal of the Red Army and organized Big Flight from Barbarossa are not mentioned]].
After the occupation of the town by the Germans and Rumanians during World War II (1941), Mogilev was incorporated into the region of *Transnistria. During the war years the largest concentration of Jews expelled by the Rumanians from Bessarabia and Bukovina to Transnistria was to be found in Mogilev.
In September 1943 these refugees, most of whom were from Bukovina, numbered 13,184.
[[1941-1944 Transnistria was a part of Rumanian. The survivors could come back, see: Rumania in World War II ]].
According to the 1959 census there were about 4,700 Jews in Mogilev (22.5% of the population). The last synagogue was closed down by the authorities in the mid-1960s.
-- Berman, in: Reshumot, 1 (1925), 411-3
-- Ya'ari, in: KS, 23 (1946/47), 309-27
-- Die Judenpogrome in Russland, 2 (1909), 443-6
-- M. Carp: Cartea neagra, 3 vols. (1946-48), index
-- PK Romanyah (1969), 461-73.
[Y.S.]> (col. 217)
Sources for Mogilev-Podolski
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Mogilev-Podolski, vol. 12, col. 216-217
Novoselitsa (Noua Sulita, Sulita)
from: Novoselitsa; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 12 [[also: Novoselica, Novoselytsya]]
Map of Ukraine with the positions of Chernivtsi and Novoselitsa 
[19th century: Jewish immigration to Bessarabian Novoselitsa - Jewish institutions]
<NOVOSELITSA (Rum. Noua Sulita or Sulita), town in Ukrainian S.S.R., in the region of Bessarabia. As a result of the large emigration of Jews to Bessarabia, Novoselitsa developed in the first half of the 19th century from a rural into an urban community. There were 3,898 Jews living there (66% of the total population) in 1897 and 4,152 (86.2%) in 1930. Among the 875 members registered in the loan fund in 1925, were 461 merchants, 213 craftsmen, and 65 farmers. Prior to World War II, community institutions included a talmud torah [[school]], a kindergarten, and a school, all belonging to the *Tarbut network, and an old-age home.
Holocaust Period. [German Nazi rule and Rumanian troops - shootings, ghetto, expulsion death march to Transnistria back and forth - death camps]
[[The organized Big Flight from Barbarossa with the withdrawal of the Red Army is not mentioned in this article but very probable because the southern front only began to move in July and there were 10 days time for the flight, see *Rumania (Romania) ]].
The town was captured by Rumanian forces on July 2, 1941. On the same day, 800 Jews were murdered on the pretext that Jews had shot at the Rumanian troops. Sixty Jews were arrested ant taken to the local spirits factory, where they were shot to death. The surviving Jews, as well as others gathered from the entire district, were rounded up and put into the factory.
On July 5, the old men, the women, and children were forced into a ghetto in the town.
On July 20, all the Jews were put on the road to *Transnistria. En route they wee exposed to constant brutality, and the old and weak among them were put to death. They reached *Ataki, on the banks of the Dniester on August 6, by which time the Germans had closed the Ukrainian border, and the deportees were sent back to *Secureni. In a report by the gendarmerie commander at Cernauti, dated August 11, 2,800 Jews from Novoselitsa are mentioned among the prisoners of Secureni camp. Their fate was the same as that of the other Jews in that camp; many were killed and others buried alive. Only 200 returned from Transnistria after the war.
[[Many of the Jews who had managed the Big Flight from Barbarossa were drafted to the Red Army and died there]].
In 1959 the authorities closed down the community's two synagogues, one of them being converted into a club. In 1970 the Jewish population was estimated at about 1,000.
-- M. Carp: Cartea Neagra, 3 (1947), index
-- N. Kahn, in: Eynikayt (Sept. 11, 1945)
-- BJCE> (col. 1240)
Sources for Novoselitsa (Noua Sulita, Sulita)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Novoselitsa (Noua Sulita, Sulita), vol. 12, col. 1240
Uzhgorod (Uzhorod, Ungvár)
from: Uzhgorod; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 16 [[also: Uzhhorod]]
Map of Ukraine with the position of Uzhgorod (Uzhorod, Ungvár, Uzhhorod) 
<UZHGOROD (Czech U¸horod; Hung. Ungvár), city in Transcarpathian oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.; part of Austro-Hungary until 1920, when it passed to Czechoslovakia; between 1938 and 1945 in Hungary; and since then in the Soviet Union.
The Jewish community of Uzhgorod, probably dating from the 16th century, developed at the end of the 18th century (after the partition of Poland) and expanded further in the second half of the 19th century. Some of the outstanding rabbis of Hungary served in Uzhgorod, notably R. Meir *Eisenstadter (MaHaRaM Esh; officiated until 1852) who had great spiritual influence on Uzhgorod and Hungarian Jewry in general; and Solomon *Ganzfried, author of the Kizzur Shulhan Arukh, who served as dayyan [[judge]] in 1866.
In 1864 Karl Jaeger established a Hebrew printing press with types bought in Vienna. The first book printed was M. Eisenstadter's responsa Imrei Esh (part 2). Printing continued until 1878. In 1926 another press was set up by M.S. Gelles and continued to be active until World War II. About 70 items were printed in Uzhgorod. In 1868 the community split to found a separate *Neolog community, whose first rabbi was M. *Klein, translator of Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed into Hungarian. Subsequently the Neologists joined the *status quo trend, whereupon many joined the mother community.
Uzhgorod was a stronghold of the Orthodox as well as of Hasidism. From 1890 a Jewish elementary school, whose language of instruction was first Hungarian and later Czech, functioned there. Subsequently Hebrew schools were established. The community also maintained a talmud torah school and a yeshivah [[religious Torah school]]. In 1904 a central synagogue was established in a magnificent building. There was also a Jewish hospital and home for the aged.
Between the two world wars Uzhgorod became a center of intensive Jewish national and [[racist?]] Zionist (Revisionist) activities. In 1930 the community numbered 7,357, about one-third of the total population.
[Hungarian rule 1938-1944: discrimination - deportations 1944]
Following the Munich pact (1938), Uzhgorod was annexed by Hungary, which immediately implemented anti-Jewish legislation. In the winter of 1939/40, all Jews of Polish citizenship or Czech citizens originally from Poland were expelled to Poland, and many died under the severe conditions. The young were conscripted into forced labor and sent to the Russian front, never to return.
[[Hungarian Jews had no mass shootings]].
On Passover (April 21-23) 1944, all the Jews of Uzhgorod and the surroundings (25,000 persons) were concentrated in a ghetto located outside the city (in a brick factory and a lumber yard), and three weeks later all were deported to *Auschwitz [[and to the tunnel systems with mass death because of cold, hunger, illnesses and exhaustion or were buried alive at the end in the tunnel systems or survived the tunnel systems and went to western countries into the DP camps because they fled communist occupation]]. (col. 41)
-- EG, 7 (1959)
-- Y. Spiegel, in: Arim ve-Immahot be-Yisrael, 4 (1950), 5-54
-- A. Solel, in: Jews of Czechoslovakia (1968), 125-52 (col. 41-42)
-- P.J. Kohn, in: KS, 24 (1947/48), 276 ff.
-- N. Ben-Menahem, ibid, 25 (1948/49), 231 f.;
-- H. Lieberman, ibid, 27 (1950/51), 115f.
Sources for Uzhgorod (Uzhorod, Ungvár)
from: Vinnitsa; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 16 [[also: Vinnytsia]
Map of Ukraine with the position of Vinnitza / Vinnytsia 
[Jewish trade - Chmielnicki and Haidamacks pogroms - Polish discrimination - Polish partitions with new borderlines]
<VINNITSA, city in Vinnitsa oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.
The earliest information available on the Jews of the town dates from 1532: there is a mention that year of the wealthy Jewish merchant Mekhel, who traded with Turkish Moldavia (in livestock and wool cloth).
Until the end of the 18th century, the community remained rather small and suffered from the attacks of the Ukrainian rebels who fought against Polish rule (*Chmielnicki, the *Haidamacks), the oppression of the Polish governors and mayors, as well as from the wars which brought about the disruption of commerce on the nearby borders.
In 1776, 381 Jews belonged to the kahal [[assembly]] of Vinnitsa; of these, 190 lived in the town and the rest in the surroundings. The Russian annexation (1793) resulted in continuous growth of the Jewish population in the town and its region.
[[There is no indication about pogroms 1881-1883]].
The census of 1897 found 11,689 Jews (over one-third of the population) living in the town.
[[There is no indication about emigration wave at the end of 19th century and no indication about pogroms of 1905]].
In 1910, there were 20,257 Jews (45.5% of the total population). They earned their livelihood mainly in tailoring and from commerce in agricultural produce.
The community of Vinnitsa did not suffer in 1919-20 because the town served as the regional capital of the successive governments in the region.
In 1926 there were 21,812 Jews (41%). The *Yevsektsiya waged a savage campaign to destroy the religious and national life of the Jews in Vinnitsa, and the town became a center of its activities throughout Podolia. A Jewish pedagogic institute was established and during the late 1930s, a Communist Yiddish newspaper (Proletarisher Emes) was published in Vinnitsa.
According to the 1959 census, there were about 19,500 Jews (c. 16% of the total population) in Vinnitsa. The former Great Synagogue was closes by the authorities in 1957 and converted into a storehouse.
-- Y. Zusmer: Be-Ikvei ha-Dor (1957), 267-80
-- E. Bingel, in: Yad Vashem Studies, 3 (1959), 303-20
[Y.S.]> (col. 159)
Sources for Vinnitsa
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Vinnitsa, vol. 16, col. 159
Vizhnitsa (Vijniţa, Vizhnits)
from: Vizhnitsa; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 16 [[also: Vyzhnytsya, Vijniţa, Vizhnica, Germ. Wiznitz, Wyżnica]]
Map of Ukraine with the positions of Chernivtsi (Czernowitz) and Vizhnitsa (Germ. Wiznitz) and Kiev [2, 3]
[Jewish settlement since 18th century - Hasidim under Moldavian rule - discrimination and persecution under Austrian rule - some expulsions]
<VIZHNITSA (Rum. Vijnita; Yid. Vizhnits), town in Chernovtsy oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.
Before World War I Vizhnitsa belonged to Austria, and between the world wars to Rumania. The town derives its fame from the local hasidic rabbis (see next entry). Jews began to settle in the town under Moldavian rule in the mid-18th century. In 1774, under Austrian administration, there were 60 Jewish families (191 persons); by 1782 there were 61 families, and in 1807 there were 64. Later many Jewish settlers were attracted by the Vizhnitsa rabbis and by 1900 there were 4,738 Jews and in 1930, 2,666.
A hevra kaddisha [[Jewish burial society]] existed from 1768.
After the Austrian annexation the Jews were subject to restrictions and persecutions; 19 families were expelled in 1774 on the claim that they did not contribute to the town's agricultural development. In 1789 the authorities ordered the expulsion of all the Jews for the same reason, but this order was not carried out entirely. [...]
The rabbi at that time, Israel Hager of the *Kosov dynasty, moved to (col. 198)
*Oradea, where he established his court. Vizhnitsa now ceased to be a hasidic center.
Under early Austrian rule the community was affiliated with the *Chernovtsy congregation and became independent only in the mid-19th century. By 1888 there were already eight prayer houses, classed according to the congregants' professions. (col. 199) [...]
[1914-1918: destruction of the town and mass flight to Vienna - development 1919-1941 - deportation 1941 - emigration wave after 1944]
During World War I the town was nearly destroyed. The Jews fled to Vienna and some did not return. (col. 198)
There was a large yeshivah [[religious Torah school]], and in 1921 a Hebrew elementary school was founded. Between the world wars [[racist]] Zionist youth and adult groups were active. Several descendants of the hasidic dynasty settled in Israel, where they established yeshivot [[religious Torah schools]] and hasidic centers in Haifa and Benei Berak.
From 1941 the Jewish community suffered drastically, and in August of that year 2,800 Jews were deported to death camps. About 800 remained alive and most of them emigrated to Israel.
-- N.M. Gelber, in: H. Gold (ed.): Geschichte der Juden in der Juden Bukowina, I (1958), 89-90
-- ibid., 2 (1962), 120-2
[Y.M.]> (col. 199)
Sources for Vizhnitsa (Vijnita, Vizhnits)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Vizhnitsa (Vijnita, Vizhnits), vol. 16, col. 198-199
Vladimir Volynski (Lodomira, Wlodzimierz, Lodmer, Ladmir, Ludmir)
from: Vladimir Volynski; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 16 [[also: Vladimir Volynskiy, Volodymyr-Volynskyy]]
Map of Ukraine with the position of Vladimir Volynski 
[Jewish settlers since 12th century - trade between eastern and western Europe - Tatar destruction - reestablishment in 15th century under Lithuanian-Polish rule - equal rights and trade]
<VLADIMIR VOLYNSKI (formerly Lodomira, Pol. Wlodzimierz; in Jewish sources: Lodmer, Ladmir, or Ludmir), city in Volin oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R. [[N.W. Ukraine, former eastern Poland]]
Jews from *Kiev, *Khazaria, and other eastern communities settled in the city in the 12th century. They established an important station there on the trade route between eastern and western Europe, which was subsequently visited by Jewish merchants from *Ashkenaz.
The Jewish community was destroyed by Tatars in the 1240s but it was renewed on a small scale in the early 15th century under Grand Duke Witold of Lithuania. An organized community was founded in the early 16th century and it developed rapidly after the Polish annexation of *Volhynia (1569).
In the charter of privileges given to the city in 1570 by King Sigismund II Augustus, the Jews were granted equal rights with gentile citizens. During the 16th century the Jews of Vladimir Volynski traded at the fairs in Lublin, Poznan, and Cracow, where they sold furs, woolen cloth, and wax. The richer Jews engaged in estate-leasing and tax-farming. From the middle of the 16th century several famous rabbis lived in Vladimir Volynski, e.g., *Isaac b. Isaac (known as Menahem-Mendel R. Avigdors; 1591), who later became rabbi of Cracow (d. 1599), and the talmudist *Isaac ben Samuel ha-Levi (1580-1646), who was born in Vladimir Volynski. The outstanding talmudist and author, Yom-Tov Lipmann *Heller, was rabbi of the community from 1634 to 1643.
[Chmielnicki massacres and more attacks - loan measures and recovery - economic crisis and Russian occupation in 1795 - trade and Hasidim]
The community suffered greatly during the *Chmielnicki massacres (1648-49) in which many Jews were murdered. After repeated attacks in 1653 and 1658, the heads of the community were forced to borrow large sums to save the Jews from impoverishment. Their economic situation improved in the late 17th century. In 1700 Augustus II awarded Fishel Lewkowicz of Vladimir Volynski the title of "royal agent and purveyor and official secretary for the Council of the Four Lands". In 1765 1,327 Jews paid the poll tax.
The economic crisis which befell the Polish kingdom in its last years affected the Jewish population in Vladimir Volynski. By 1784 there were only 340 Jews in the city. In (col. 200)
1795 it was annexed by Russia. In the 19th century the Jewish population increased, numbering 3,930 in 1847 and 5,854 (66% of the total) in 1897: They traded in grain and lumber, and engaged in shopkeeping, tailoring, hatmaking, and shoemaking. The hasidic movement became influential in the community, especially under the direction of Moses Solomon *Karliner and the Maid of *Ludomir.
[[Pogroms of 1881-1883 and emigration wave at the end of the 19th century are not mentioned]].
[Polish rule and anti-Semitic boycott movement 1921-1939]
There were 5,917 Jews there in 1921 comprising 51% of the population, and by 1931, 10,665 (44%). In 1926, 84% of the businesses were in Jewish hands. There were *Tarbut, Beth Jacob, and Yavneh schools. The Jews of Vladimir Volynski organized *self-defense against the attacks of May 1923, and in the 1930s they protested vigorously against anti-Semitic boycott.
[[There was a declared "Polish-Jewish war" since 1912 and anti-Jewish boycott movement in Poland because of perpetual economic crisis after 1921 because of the loss of the Russian market and because of new national frontiers in Eastern Europe, see: Yehuda Bauer: Joint, and about the Polish anti-Semitic measures also: Yehuda Bauer: Joint]].
In the city council elections of 1929, 12 of the 24 seats were won by Jews.
Holocaust Period. [1000s of Western Polish Jewish refugees arriving in 1939 - "Soviet" rule - Hebrew schooling forbidden - deportation waves]
When the war broke out between Germany and Poland on Sept. 1, 1939, thousands of Jews from western Poland sought refuge in the city, bringing the number of Jews in the city to 25,000 [[1931: 10,665]]. When the city passed to Soviet rule (1939-41), a unique effort was made by the Jews of the city to guarantee a Hebrew education for the children. The Tarbut leaders successfully acquired the local authorities' agreement to run a Hebrew language school, on condition that all religious studies be removed from the program. However, the school only functioned for two months for in November 1939 the regional Soviet authorities in Rovno intervened and the language of instruction became Yiddish.
In the summer of 1940 many [[racist]] Zionist leaders and refugees were exiled to the the Soviet interior.
[[The Big Flight from Barbarossa within the withdrawal of the Red Army is not mentioned]].
[German Nazi rule: shooting actions, Judenrat, deportations, ghetto of life - ghetto of the dead]
The Germans entered on June 25, 1941. On July 5, 150 Jews were rounded up by the Germans and Ukrainians and murdered in the prison courtyard. A *Judenrat was established in 1941, headed by Rabbi Morgenstern. When he died two months later, his post was filled by a lawyer, Weiler. Weiler refused to hand over the victims to the Germans and committed suicide together with his family.
In August-December 1941 the Germans [[and their collaborators]] continued to murder the Jews, disposing of their victims in mass graves in the prison courtyard. On Feb. 24, 1942, 250 Jews were taken for forced labor to the Kiev area. On April 13, 1942 a ghetto was set up in two sections: one for skilled craftsmen, nicknamed by the Jews "the ghetto of life", and a second ghetto for the non-productive, called the "ghetto of the dead". They contained altogether about 22,000 Jews.
In the summer of 1942 some young people made attempts to contact the partisans operating in the vicinity. On Sept. 1, 1942, an Aktion ("action") began, lasting two weeks, in which 18,000 Jews were murdered. Four thousand Jews were killed in the prison courtyard and 14,000 in pits prepared in the Piatydni area. Following this Aktion, the area of the ghetto, now reduced in size, contained only 4,000 persons. Leib Kudish, who collaborated fully with the Germans [[and their collaborators]] , was placed at the head of the Judenrat.
On Nov. 13, 1942 another Aktion began, lasting several weeks, following which only 1,500 Jews were left alive and registered while a group of "illegals" continued to exist. During the last Aktion an armed group of young Jews took up a fortified position in a bunker near Cygielnia, but they were discovered by the Germans [[and their collaborators]] , and 13 fell in the fight.
In 1943 the Germans [[and their collaborators]] continued in their hunt-down of "illegals" i.e., those who did not possess work permits. The victims were shot in prison. On Dec. 13, 1943 the last of the Jewish community was liquidated, and many of those who tried to escape were killed by Ukrainian peasants or members of the Polish underground Armia Krajowa.
The city was freed from the Germans [[and occupied by Red Army]] on July 22, 1944, at which time only a few dozen Jews were found alive. A society of former residents of the city functions in Israel.
[AR.W.] (col. 201)
-- Halpern, Pinkas, index
-- N.N. Hannover: Yeven Mezulah (1966), 65, 66
-- R. Mahler: Yidn in Amolikn Poyln in Likht fun Tsifern (1958), index
-- E. Ringelblum, in: Miesiecznik zydowski, no. 11/12 (1933), 233
-- idem: Projekty i proby przewarstwowienia zydow w epoce stanislawowskiey (1934), 35-36
-- B. Mark: Di Drevniye russkiye goroda (1946), index
-- B. Wasiutynski: Ludnosc zydowska w Polsce w wiekach XIX i XX (1930), 81, 82, 84, 88
-- I. Schiper: Dzieje handlu zydowskiego na ziemiach polskich (1937), index
-- H.H. Ben Sasson: Hagut ve-Hanhagah (1959), 56, 136, 138, 163, 178-9> (col. 202)
Sources for Vladimir Volynski (Lodmira, Wlodzimierz, Lodmer, Ladmir, Ludmir)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Vladimir Volynski (Lodomira, Wlodzimierz, Lodmer, Ladmir, Ludmir), vol. 16, col. 200-201-202
from: Zastavna; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 16
Map of Ukraine with the positions of Chernivtsi (Czernowitz), Zastavna and Kiev [3,6]
[Moldavian rule - Austrian rule - Russian rule - Ukraine rule - trade, crafts and Hasidim - landowners and industrialists - Jewish mass flight to Vienna 1914]
ZASTAVNA, town in Chernovtsy oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R., in N. *Bukovina; until World War I in Austria and between the two world wars in Rumania. Jews probably settled in Zastavna toward the end of Moldavian rule in the area; at the beginning of the Austrian conquest there were already Jews in the town. According to the Austrian census they numbered 17 in 1774 and 33 in 1776.
An organized community was established in the early 19th century, though tombstones in the cemetery attest to a regular community life before that period.
A Jewish elementary school was established in 1919, and a synagogue built in 1926. In Zastavna, as in other communities of Bukovina, *Hasidism had a considerable influence. A [[racist]] Zionist organization was established in Zastavna in 1905. Jews took part in the municipal elections and for some time a Jew was mayor. The Jews in Zastavna were mainly engaged in commerce and crafts, but toward the end of Austrian rule also included wealthy landowners and industrialists (in sugar and alcohol manufacture). The community of Zastavna had jurisdiction over 29 nearby villages, where Jewish landowners were also living.
At the beginning of World War I, in 1914, many of the Jews living in Zastavna escaped to Vienna, and most did not return.
Holocaust and Contemporary Periods. [deportations to Transnistria]
[[The flight movement of Polish Jews 1939-1940, as the Big Flight from Barbarossa and the withdrawal of the Red Army in 1941 are not mentioned]].
In World War II, during the Holocaust period (1941-44) the 635 Jews in Zastavna, like other Jews in Bukovina, were deported to *Transnistria. After the war about 120 survivors returned, (col. 940)
but their number gradually diminished through emigration to Israel and elsewhere. By 1971 no Jews remained in Zastavna.
[Y.M.]> (col. 941)
Sources for Zastavna
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Zastavna, vol. 16, col. 940-941
from: Zbarazh; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 16 [[Germ. Sbarasch]]
Map of Ukraine with the positions of Zbarazh (Sbarasch) and Kiev (Kiew) 
[Jews since 15th century - suffering by Chmielnicki pogroms, Turkish occupation and Haidamak raids]
ZBARAZH (Pol. Zbaraz), town in W. Ukrainian S.S.R. (formerly in E. Galicia).
Jews were living there at the end of the 15th century. The cemetery dates from 1510. According to a document of 1593 the city and its entire revenues were leased to Jews and Christians jointly. The Jewish community expanded in the 17th century and a synagogue was erected. The siege on Zbarazh by *Chmielnicki in 1649, its capture by the Turks in 1676, and the *Haidamak raids of 1708 caused terrible suffering to the community.
There were 910 Jewish inhabitants in 1765. The number increased under Austrian rule after 1772, reaching 2,896 (35% of the total population) in 1900. The 1931 census records 3,000 Jewish residents. Two followers of *Judah he-Hasid originating from here were Isaiah of Zbarazh and his son. Zbarazh was also the birthplace of the folk poet B.Z. *Ehrenkranz.
Holocaust Period. [sooting actions and deportations]
During World War II the Jewish population reached 5,000 with the arrival of refugees from western Poland. After the German occupation, the Jewish survivors from Skalat, Grzymalow, and Podwoloczyska were brought into Zbarazh. On July 4, 1941, a pogrom was carried out and the first Jews were killed. On Sept. 6, 1941, the Jewish intellectuals were ordered to present themselves before the Nazis; 70 persons were murdered in the Lubieniecki forest. In the spring of 1942 some 600 sick and aged persons were marched off toward Tarnopol and murdered on the way. Other Jews were deported to the labor camps of *Kamenka-Bugskaya and Zborow. On Aug. 31-Sept. 1, 1942, an Aktion took place and hundreds of persons were deported to the *Belzec extermination camp. Hermann Mueller, head of the Gestapo at Tarnopol, directed the murder of the Jews of Zbarazh. On Oct. 20-22 1942, 1,000 Jews were deported to Belzec and Lvov Janowska camp. On Nov. 8-9, 1942, a group of more than 1,000 Jews was deported to Belzec. On April 7, 1943, hundreds of Jews were put to death near the city. The ghetto established in the autumn of 1942 was demolished on June 8, 1943. Some Jews hid in the Polish village of Kretowce. Some 60 Jews from the city survived the Holocaust.
[Ar.W.]> (col. 944)
Sources for Zbarazh (Zbaraz)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Zbarazh (Zbaraz), vol. 16, col. 944
from: Zhdanov; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 16
Map of Ukraine with the positions of Zhdanov (Mariupol) and Kiev (Kiew) 
ZHDANOV (until 1948 Mariupol), city in S. Stalino oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.
The Jewish community of Zhdanov was founded at the beginning of the 19th century and numbered 111 in 1847. Owing to continuous Jewish emigration from the Lithuanian and Belorussian provinces to southern Russia, the Zhdanov community had increased by 1897 to 5,013 (16.1% of the total population). Seven Jewish settlements were founded in the surroundings of Zhdanov toward the end of the reign of Nicholas I and by the end of the 19th century their population was estimated at over 3,000.
Riots, which lasted three days, broke out in the city in October 1905.
In 1926, 7,332 Jews lived in Zhdanov (18% of the city's total population). Jewish life was suppressed at that time. Immediately after the city's occupation by the Germans in October 1941, all the Jews were imprisoned in an ancient military camp outside the city and were shot on Oct. 18, 1941.
In 1959 there were about 2,800 Jews (1% of the total population) in Zhdanov. A small synagogue was still functioning there in 1962.
- Die Judenpogrome in Russland, 2 (1909), 227-40.
[Y.S.]> (col. 1008)
Sources for Zhdanov (Mariupol)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Zhdanov (Mariupol), vol. 16, col. 1008
from: Zhmerinka; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 16
Map of Ukraine with the positions of Zhmerinka and Kiev (Kiew) 
[Jewish trade on an important railway junction - Holocaust in Transnistrian Zhmerinka under Rumanian (Romanian) troops - self help and further expelled Jews from Rumania (Romania) - ghetto - forced labor]
ZHMERINKA, city in Vinnitsa oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.
Before the 1917 Revolution it was a rural settlement in the province of Podolia. As it was an important railway junction (Kiev-Mogilev and Odessa-Lvov routes), a Jewish community developed there at the end of the 19th century. In 1897 there were 2,396 Jews (16.6% of the total population) in Zhmerinka.
In 1903 it was excluded from the list of rural settlements where Jews were forbidden to reside. There were 5,186 Jews in the city (one-third of the total population) in 1926.
During World War II Zhmerinka was incorporated into the Rumanian occupation zone (*Transnistria). The Jews who had remained there and refugees from the surrounding district organized themselves into a community, and were joined by several hundreds of Jews who had been expelled from Rumania.
In June 1942 the Jews were concentrated within a ghetto, where they numbered 3,274. In March 1943 they were employed in forced labor at the railway station and in its vicinity.
The Jews participated in the local partisan movement and in the battles for the liberation of the city in March 1944.
In 1959 there were about 1,000 Jews (4% of the population) in Zhmerinka.
-- PK Romanyah, 1 (1970, 440-1.
[Y.S.]> (col. 1013)
Sources for Zhmerinka
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Zhmerinka, vol. 16, col. 1013
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Zhmerinka, vol. 16, col. 1013, locksmith training from He-Halutz for (racist) Herzl Israel
Zholkva (Zólkiew, Nesterov)
from: Zholkva; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 16
Map of Ukraine with the positions of Lviv (Lemberg), Zholkva and Kiev (Kiew) 
[Refugee town during Chmielnicki massacres - defense from Cossacks - new synagogue in 1687 - plague in 1770]
ZHOLKVA (Pol. Zólkiew),city in Ukrainian S.S.R. (formerly Galicia), renamed Nesterov in 1951.
Jewish settlement in Zholkva began in the 16th century and the community became important; entries in its minute book (pinkas) commence from 1613. Thousands of Jewish fugitives took refuge in Zholkva during the *Chmielnicki massacres of 1648-49 and helped to defend it from the Cossacks, who agreed to lift their siege on the city on payment of 20,000 gulden.
In the second half of the 17th century the community benefited from the general prosperity which Zholkva enjoyed as the patrimony of King *John III Sobieski. A number of wealthy Jews with influence at court made their home in Zholkva. The magnificent fortified synagogue built in 1687 with the king's assistance, known as the "Sobieski Shul", was preserved until 1941.
The favorable economic and cultural conditions which had made Zholkva one of the leading communities in the province of "Russia" (see *Councils of the Lands) came to an end in the second half of the 18th century; 2,100 Jewish inhabitants are recorded at this period, but in 1770 the city was devastated by a plague in which some 800 Jews died.
Leading members of the Zholkva community included John Sobieski's physician, Simhah Menahem of Jona; the royal tax farmer Bezalel b. Nathan; the parnas [[president]] Israel Isser b. Mordecai; and the av bet din [[eldest court chairman]] Alexander *Schor.
[Shabbatean movement center - Haskalah center - schooling - famous fur industry]
Between 1680 and 1730 Zholkva served as a center of the late Shabbatean movement in Poland (see *Shabbetai Zevi). Among the sectarians in Zholkva were Hayyim *Malakh, Fischel Zlovhover, Isaac Keidaner, and Moses Meir Kaminski.
At the end of the 18th century Zholkva became an important center of the Haskalah movement, particularly as Nathan *Krochmal lived there. Among scholars and writers of Zholkva in this period were Baruch Zevi Noy, principal of the Jewish-German school; Eliezer Favir, the Yiddish folklorist and author of the Sippurei ha-Pela'ot (1800); and Samson ha-Levi *Bloch, author of the popular geographical work Shevilei Olam. Zevi Hirsch *Chajes acted as av bet din [[eldest court chairman]] between 1828 and 1852. Many of the Zholkva community were occupied in the fur industry, which began to develop in the 19th century and employed (col. 1014)
hundreds of workers. Emigré furriers from Zholkva, who acquired an international reputation, found their way to the great workshops of Paris, London, and Brussels. Educational and welfare institutions in Zholkva before World War II included a talmud torah [[school]], schools established by the *Tarbut and *Beth Jacob organizations, and orphanages which also provided vocational training. The annual budget of the community totaled 42,000 zlotys in 1937. The Jews in Zholkva numbered 4,100 (about half the total population) at the end of the 19th century; in 1931 there were 4,500.
The first Hebrew press in the city was set up by the Amsterdam printer *Uri b. Abraham Phoebus ha-Levi in 1692 under license to John Sobieski. The first production appears to have been novellae by Samuel *Edeles. For eight decades Uri Phoebus, his sons, grandsons, and other members of the family (Madpis, Grossmann, Rosanes) printed a great variety of books, covering all branches of Hebrew literature. Productions were generally of a high quality, with handsomely decorated title pages. The Letteris family, who were related to the Uri Phoebus clan, printed in the city from 1794 to 1828, moving their presses from Lvov. In 1793 A.J.L. Mayerhofer obtained a printing license from the Austrian government, and he and his sons were active till 1830. Originally he was in partnership with M. Rubinstein, but they separated in 1797 and Rubinstein and his son continued on their own until well into the 19th century. Other Hebrew printers of importance in the 19th century were S.P. Stiller, who began work in 1859 and produced a Zohar (1862-64), and J.Z. *Balaban, who established a press in 1862.
Holocaust Period. [Nazi law: "contribution" - classification A, B and C - shooting actions and deportations]
[[Refugee movement from western Poland is not mentioned, and withdrawal of the Red Army and Big Flight from Barbarossa are not mentioned either]].
The Jewish population numbered over 5,000 in June 1941. After the outbreak of war between Germany [[with it's collaborators]] and the U.S.S.R., the quick collapse of the Soviet front prevented Jews fleeing eastward from reaching safety. The Germans entered the city on June 28, 1941, and within a few days burned down its synagogues. Shortly thereafter, a *Judenrat was imposed by the Germans, headed by Febus Rubinfeld.
The Germans [[and their collaborators]] imposed a "contribution" (fine) of 250,000 rubles, 5 kg of gold, and 100 kg of silver to be paid within three days. In early 1942 the Jewish population underwent registration which classified them into three categories:
A - able-bodied for hard labor
B - capable of lighter work
C - "non-productive".
In an Aktion on March 15, 1942, the Germans rounded up 700 persons in the "C" category and dispatched them to the *Belzec death camp. The Judenrat meanwhile organized varied welfare activities to alleviate the suffering of the community. The Jews who escaped from the death train transports to Belzec were helped in particular. The train station in Zholkva served as a transit point for the death trains from the East.
Although education of their children was prohibited, the Jews managed to set up a clandestine education program for groups of six to eight pupils under 30 teachers. In a second Aktion on Nov. 22-23, 1942, 2,500 persons were shipped to Belzec. Numerous victims attempted escape from the trains; the rails were strewn with their corpses. Very few made their way back to the city.
[Ghetto with remaining Jews and with Jews from the countryside - epidemic - shooting action]
That month a ghetto was set up for the Jews of Zholkva and the vicinity - mostly from Mosty Wielkie, Dobroszyce, Kulikow, Glinsk, and Wola Wysoka. An epidemic broke out, with a mortality rate rising to 20 a day. On March 15, 1943, over 600 men were taken to the Janowska Street labor camp in Lvov. The Germans and their Ukrainian helpers broke into the ghetto on March 25, 1943, and the inmates were rounded up in Dominikanski Square and taken to Borek forest, about 2 mi. [[miles]] from the city, near the road to Kamenka Bugskaya; there they were murdered and buried in mass graves.
One hundred men and 70 women were spared and sent off to the Janowska Street camp. Only 70 others skilled craftsmen, were still left in Zholkva, interned in a building on Sobieski Street. Some of them were killed later. (col. 1015)
Zholkva was taken by Soviet forces on July 23, 1944. About 70 Jews survived the Holocaust.
-- M. Baracz: Pamiatki miasta Zólkiew (1877)
-- S. Buber: Kiryah Nisgavah (1903)
-- M. Balaban, in: Jednosc, no. 40 (1908);
-- Almanach gmin zydowskich (1939), index
-- Chajes, in: Literaturblatt des Orients, 2 (1841), 665ff.
-- B..., ibid, 3 (1842), 473f.
-- M. Balaban, in: Soncino Blaetter, 3 (1929/30), 14ff.
-- H.D. Friedberg: Toledot ha-Defus ha-Ivri be-Polanyah (1950), 62ff.> (col. 1016)
Sources for Zholkva (Zólkiew, Nesterov)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Zholkva (Zólkiew), vol. 16, col. 1014
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Zholkva (Zólkiew), vol. 16, col. 1015-1016
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Zholkva (Zólkiew), vol. 16, col. 1014, synagogue
from: Zolochev; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 16
Map of Ukraine with the positions of Kharkov (Charkow), Zolochev and Kiev (Kiew) 
[Jewish community since 17th century - discriminating tax system - synagogue - Jews as delegates in the Austrian parliament and as mayors - schooling and numbers]
ZOLOCHEV (Pol. Zloczow), town in Lvov oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.; formerly in Galicia, Poland; between 1772 and 1919 under Austrian rule; ceded to Soviet Russia in 1945.
At the end of the 16th century the key leasing enterprises there were in the hands of a Jewish contractor Israel b. Joseph Eideles (see *Poland; *Arenda [[Jewish leasing system]]). A Jewish community was formed during the 17th century, and in 1716 was required to pay a poll tax of 350 zlotys, while the tax levied on the *Lvov community for the same year was raised to only 140 zlotys. The *Council of the Four Lands would sometimes convene there. The old synagogue of Zolochev was built in the second half of the 17th century.
The maggid [[narrative preacher]] *Jehiel Michael of Zloczow, an early leader of the Hasidim, preached there from 1770. Under Austrian rule the Jews of Zolochev engaged in considerable political activity; between 1891 and 1907 Zolochev, together with *Brody, returned Jewish deputies to the Austrian parliament: E. *Byk, and after his death Joseph Gold, a physician who officiated also as vice-mayor of Zolochev. Both acted in conjunction with the other Polish deputies.
From 1892 to 1907 there existed a Jewish school supported by the funds of Baron Maurice de *Hirsch. In 1907, 128 Jewish students attended the local secondary school (out of 500).
The Zolochev community numbered 1,150 in 1765; 5,401 (51.9% of the total population) in 1900; 5,744 in 1921; and 5,700 in 1931.
Holocaust Period. [wave of Jewish refugees from western Poland - "Soviet" rule - deportations to inner "SU"]
When World War II broke out, on Sept. 1, 1939, Jewish refugees from western Poland arrived, and the Jewish population of the town increased to 14,000. Under Soviet rule (1939-41) the Jewish communal bodies were disbanded and the activities of the Jewish political parties were forbidden. A number of the Jewish refugees were exiled to the Soviet interior in the summer of 1940.
[[Withdrawal of the Red Army and organized Big Flight from Barbarossa within the Red Army or within industrial and administration staff are not mentioned]].
When the war broke out between Germany and the U.S.S.R. on June 22, 1941, groups of Jews attempted to cross over to the Soviet interior, but were turned back by Soviet patrols [[because arbitrary flight was hindered because these persons were not "strategic"]].
[1941-1944: German Nazi rule and Ukrainian collaboration: massacres, shooting actions, Judenrat, ghetto, deportations]
German forces reached Zolochev on July 1. Two days later, in a pogrom perpetrated by Ukrainians, with the sanction of the German authorities, 3,500 Jews were killed in the city's fortress. A Judenrat was set up, headed by Dr. Maiblum, a former deputy mayor of Zolochev. In November 1941, 200 Jews were taken to the forced labor camp in Lackie Wielkie. In early 1942 Jews were sent to labor camps in Kozaki, Jaktorow, Plew, Zawarnice, and Sasov. Many inmates died in these camps from disease or injuries. After a Selektion, on Aug. 28, 1942, at the railroad station, 2,700 victims were sent to *Belzec extermination camp. On Nov. 2-3, 1942, in a second Aktion, 2,500 Jews were sent to Belzec; among the victims were Samuel Jacob *Imber, the poet. On December 1 a ghetto was set up to include Jews from towns in the vicinity of Zolochev-Olesk, Sasov, and Bialy Kamien. Hunger and disease decimated the inhabitants. Jewish doctors, notably Shelomo Jolek, battled against epidemics. On April 2, 1943, the ghetto was liquidated; the inmates were shot in Jelechowice.
A small group of craftsmen, who were spared, organized two resistance units under Hillel.> (col. 1218)
 Sbarasch: http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zbara%C5%BC
 http://travel.kyiv.org/map/e_lviv.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lviv
 http://travel.kyiv.org/map/e_khark.htm; http://www.intute.ac.uk/sciences/worldguide/html/1051_map.html