Jewry: Fake and truth in the Old Testament (OT) according to documents and excavations. All chapters
New identity by new Jewish history by help of chronology and archaeological research
map with Israel, Juda, Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistaia, Araba.
Hill of ruins (tell) of Megiddo
Hill of ruins (tell) of Jericho, see: www.bibleplaces.com
by Michael Palomino (2006 / 2010).
from: Israel Finkelstein / Neil A. Silberman: The Bible unearthed. Archeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts; The Free Press, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2001; Deutsche Ausgabe: Verlag C.H.Beck oHG, München 2002;
Here in this analysis is used a German version "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho" of DTV, Munich 2004, second edition of 2005. All page indications refer to the German version. I hope the page numbers are not very different.
Israel Finkelstein, portrait
Neil Asher Silberman, portrait
Old Testament has to be written in an new manner. Some murders, some brave actions, and some slaveries can be omitted, and other culprits must be added, above all considering the policy of Egypt Empire and of the Empires in Mid East.
The presenting work is a survey in a chronological form of history of Jewry up to Nebuchadnezzar, always with indications about disagreements according to documents and archeology. Many Jews know about it, but most of the Christians don't know anything.
Christianity even refuses further education since centuries whereas Bible researcher and archaeologists are Jews in many cases.
There should change something: We need a new Old Testament by chief rabbis.
Here was analyzed the German edition "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho" edited by dtv 2004.
1. General information about Bible research, documents and archeology
2. The case of faked Abraham from Mesopotamia - Ismael - Isaak
3. Cycles of shepherd nomads and settling down in oval villages according to reality of archeology
4. Archaeological findings about Israeli tribes after the faked occupation: the occupation was a fluent one
5. The legend of Jacob ("Israel") who is said having fought with an angel
6. The legend of Jacob's son Joseph said having been sold to Egypt and having been minister for economic affairs in the government of the Pharaoh
7. The legend of faked exodus to Egypt under Jakob because of a famine
8. The legend of liberation under a faked Mose with a faked exodus from Egypt to the Red Sea
9. The legend of the God's rule of Sinai - the faked 40 years migration in the desert
10. The alleged occupation - the legend of Moses' death: Moses describing his own death...
11. The faked occupation under a Joshua appr. 1230-1220 B.C.: the real culprits were other ones
12. Documents in Egypt with the name of "Israel"
13. Alleged split of the land after the victory after the faked occupation
14. The fake of the coordination of 12 tribes - and also the wars between the 12 tribes are a fake
15. Helpless occupation theories from the 1920s to the 1970s
16. Claim of OT for a development of a big Empire: Saul - David - Solomon
17. The search for proofs for an alleged David Reich and for alleged destruction of Philistine towns
18. Archeology: the real structures in the highlands in the time of the faked kings David and Solomon
19. The kings after alleged king Solomon
20. Faked split of a Jewish Reich in an alleged Israel (northern Reich) and Judah (southern Reich)
21. 8th century B.C.: foundation of Judah and Israel - first climax of Israeli foundation of villages
22. Royal dominions in northern city state of Shechem (biblical "northern Reich of Israel") according to faked OT 884-842 B.C.
23. Documents about the northern Reich of Israel of Omrid dynasty
24. Archeology about northern Reich of Israel under Omrid dynasty 884-842 B.C.
25. Acropolis buildings of the Omrids
26. Arab trade gets a primary factor for war or peace in Middle East
27. North Reich between Omrid dynasty and Assyrian occupation 842-720 B.C. - destruction of northern kingdom of Israel
28. Split of ex northern Reich of Israel under the Assyrian government
29. Southern Reich of Judah according to OT and findings 884-842 B.C. up to the invasion of northern Reich of Israel
30. Growth of city state of Jerusalem / of southern Reich of Judah after the ruin of northern Reich of Israel since 720 B.C.
31. Conditions in ex kingdom of Israel
32. Southern Kingdom of Judah: religion is hot spot of conflicts - propaganda for a 1 god religion
33. Trial of upheaval for reconquest of ex North Reich Israel under king Hezekiah - destruction of Judah - reconstruction under king Manasseh
34. 639-609 B.C.: Mini Reich of Judah under child king Josiah - publication of the first 4 books of Moses - war propaganda books for a reunification
35. Alleged religious campaign under child king Josiah - 5th book of Moses is "found" - first social laws - religious cleansing
36. Since 609 B.C.: Nebuchadnezzar devastating Judah - Zedekiah's upheaval ending in ruin of Jerusalem - Babylonian captivities - province Yehud
37. Since 586 B.C.: first time of Yehud province - Edomites reducing Yehud
38. The events in the Babylonian exile (ban)
39. Yehud province: new structure of settlements and the population after coming back of the banned
40. Adaption of the "Holy Book" after the ruin of Judah
41. Yehud province with an alleged new temple - total racism of Orthodox Jews
42. New biblical research since the 17th century
43. Appendix: partition of the 5 books of Moses in the versions of J, E, D, P, and R
1. General information about Bible research, documents and archeology
There is a scheme of development for written documents
Strong written documents regularly are made in a strong state. There are characteristics for a strong state:
-- big houses
-- a specialized economy
-- a dense net of communities with villages up to big towns (p.34).
So, in a region where are only villages or nomads there is no great literature, economy or state's administration, and big houses are missing. When there cannot be found any remnants for a certain time, so this is an indication that the population was organized in a nomadic way without any army (p.34).
There are some methods of Bible research
-- by analysis of languages and by analysis of different kinds of texts with the research of the origin of the different texts
-- archeology is proving history by remnants found or can contradict faked legends by remnants - or not found remnants
-- so a big part of history in Israel-Palestine from 1,000 to 400 before "Christ" can be deduced today.
By all this the texts of the Bible can be classified in a new way and we can make a difference between poetry and historic descriptions (p.15).
Documents in Egypt are correcting the OT: there are letters from Pharaohs and the Amarna letters
Above all the letters of the Tell al-Amana contain the correspondence of the pharaohs. These are about 400 Amarna tablets which are distributed over all the world in museums today,
-- with letters of the Hittite kings (today Anatolia, Eastern Turkey) to the Pharaoh
-- with letters of Babylon Empire (today Iraq) to the Pharaoh
-- and above all with letters from the city states of Canaan when they were subordinated states, with letters from Jerusalem, from Sichem Megiddo, Hazor, and Lachish (p.90).
Archeology in Israel-Palestine is correcting the OT
-- archeology can state with remnants e.g. which agriculture in which time was applied, which tradition of meals were, how was the structure of the town (p.15), who were the trade partners etc. (p.16)
-- archeology is setting free all locations which are mentioned in the Bible, and basically can confirm or disprove the Bible text
-- archeology can make laboratory tests and can distinguish the civilizations of the Israelis, Philistines, Phoenicians, Aramaic, Ammonites, Moabites and Edomites
-- archeology can state inscriptions and seals, and by this archeology can connect the persons with the bible texts (p.16)
-- Arab word "et-Tell" and Hebrew word "ai" mean "the ruin" (p.96).
From the 1940s on archeology developed new methods of research finding pattern of settlements and maps of settlements of the past. By this also demographic developments can be stated (p.122).
Since 1967 complete archaeological groups (with students) are working in the newly Jewish occupied territories of the alleged tribes Judah, Benyamin, Ephraim, and Manasseh, and daily are investigating a surface of about 2.6 km2. There are excavations at many locations thinking something important could be found there (p.122).
By the remnants found in Egypt and by deciphering of hieroglyphs (p.28) and by findings of cuneiform scripts in Mesopotamia (p.28,30) history in Israel Palestine can be researched precisely, independent of Hebrew Bible. Many and essential lies in Old Testament can be made out (p.30).
[There are repeating political changes in the big Empires - but this for example is not mentioned but is presented as "God's miracle" etc.].
Figures in the Pentateuch
Pentateuch is brilliant indicating different dates for the same event:
-- leaving Egypt is said having happened 480 years before the construction of the temple in 4th year of Solomon's lordship (1st Kings, 6,1)
-- it is indicated that the Israelits had suffered 430 years of slavery in Egypt (Exodus 12,40)
-- Abraham, Isaak and Jakob are said having reached an age of over 100 years (p.47)
-- but the average life expectation in these times during the alleged person of Mose was only 40 years (p.64-65).
Comparison with European epochs
Compare the epochs in Middle East with the European epochs:
European data of epochs
Epoch date Early Bronze Age
3500-2200 B.C. appr. Interim period
2200-2000 B.C. Middle Bronze Age
2000-1550 B.C. appr. Late Bronze Age
1550-1150 B.C. Interval between late Bronze Age and Iron Age I
12th century (p.135) Iron Age I 1150-900 B.C. appr. Iron Age II 900-586 B.C. (Finkelstein / Silberman: Posaunen 2001, edition 2004, p.130)
The strip of Israel Palestine-- during the European Iron Age from 1150 to 586 B.C. there are developing territorial states [and also this development is later in the mountains] (p.32).
-- there are many dry times
-- this place is always a place of wars between the big Empires Egypt and Syria (p.15) because the leaders want to reign over the trade roads to Africa or to Arabia (p.289)
-- during Bible times compared with Egypt and Mesopotamia the strip of Israel Palestine has only a very little population and culture is very low (p.15)
-- there can be stated that there was an old agriculture
-- at the end of European Stone Age the populations are settling down
-- during the European Bronze Age in 3500 to 1150 B.C. there is developing a town's civilization (p.32) [above all on the coast line and in the plains, in the mountains only later]
There is an illiterate tradition in the mountains of Israel Judah
Judah tradition is archaic, and there has to be considered illiteracy:
-- belief is dominating that houses, farms and tombs will be inherited by the special Gods and by the ancestors
-- there are sacrifices on cases in the village, near family graves in the village (p.261), and on the open altars on the hills ("heights") (p.261-262)
-- during wars the locations of sacrifices on the heights are rated as intouchable and stay intact, and this is well described in OT: "The heights were not abrogated"
-- God JHWH is one of many Gods of the old tradition
-- for example there are also adapted cults from neighbor populations
-- God JHWH is adored in different kinds, sometimes presented with divine followers
-- archeology finds in Judah's old sites of settlement 100s of naked figurines of naked fertility goddesses
-- one inscription on North Eastern Sinai peninsula in Kuntillet Airud stays in cultural connection to the North Reich and refers according to Finkelstein / Silberman to Ashera as the wife of God. Also a latter inscription from the Judah mountains is speaking of God and Ashera as a pair of Gods (p.262).
[Ashera is an ugarite / Syrian fertility goddess, the wife of Creator God "El"].
OT: There is a mix of traditions in the Middle and Mid East region
There is the belief with sacrificial cults for Baal (weather god for rain and fertility), for Ashera (Aramaic fertility goddess) (p.298-299).
There are Gods, to whom are given sacrifices on the hills, for example
-- goddess of Sidon Astarte (goddess of love, fertility and night) (p.299), according to Finkelstein / Silberman represented with a figurine normally having both tits in their hands (p.309)
-- there is Moab god Kamos
-- there is Ammonite god Milkom (2d book of Kings, 23, 10-14) (p.299).
More cults are:
-- there is an astral cult: sun, moon and stars probably are rated as holy symbols and can often be seen on seals of Judah before the times of king Joshia (p.309)
-- there is a cult of heavenly hosts (p.298-299).
This is a total complex of rites: the sacrifices on the hills, the inscriptions in stones, and the Ashera pictures etc. The aim is pleading the divine powers for fertility and wealth. The neighbor populations have similar rites (p.261).
Biblical and archaeological information indicate this mix of cults for gods ("syncretism"). But OT is propagating a "1 god cult" and is claiming [in a religious racist manner] that all other religious orientations would be "atrocities" [without describing the cults precisely]. So, all cults for Baal, for Astarte, for the angelic hosts and for the gods of the neighbor countries are demonized [without giving information to the reader about what the fact is basically].
It's said that the cults also were performed in the temple of Jerusalem (p.262), but there is not one single remnant of the "First Temple" (p.261).
[It's possible that the first temple was only a big tent].
Astarte: Goddess of love, fertility and night. Jewish orthodox philosophy is forbidding Astarte, and so called "Christianity" is following in the same manner partly until today...
Figurine of Astarte: breasts in their hands 1
Figurine of Astarte of 8th century B.C., Jewish, carved ivory, finding place: Gaza strip
Figurine of Astarte with folded arms before their tits
Figurine of Astarte: Breasts in their hands 3, finding place: Lachish
Figurine of Astarte: Breasts in their hands 2
Mostly Astarte is presented with breasts presented in their hands, but also with simple big breasts.
So, it seems a basic need having big breasts giving milk to the baby later, and Israelites have celebrated also this cult. But this basic need is always damned in the patriarch population since the grounding of the North Reich Israel in 7th century B.C. So, the patriarchs have not recognized life, and "Christianity" is following this...
Cults of Baal (p.262)
Baal was a god of fertility and of weather, above all a rain good for the peasants. It's indicated that there were Baal festivals in spring like a free carnival. Oh, this has to be forbidden, orthodox Jews thought. In this case "Christianity" did not follow.
Figurines of god of fertility and weather Baal
Figurine of Baal
Figurine of Baal made of gold
Baal was a god for fertility and weather. This carnival god has to be prohibited, the patriarchs thought after the collapse of North Reich of Israel in 7th century B.C.
Relation to Egypt has always two sides
-- Egypt always is a sheet anchor when Canaan and the strip of Israel Palestine is affected by a dry period [because Egypt has got more or less regular harvests by the regular floods of Nile river]
-- but Egypt is also a permanent danger because Egypt military strategists always are ready making their campaigns to Mesopotamia [and for some periods this was also realized] (p.84).
Egypt wants the occupation of a part of "Fertile Crescent", the fertile part of territory in Middle and Mid East.
At the same time the Empires of Mesopotamia also want to dominate "Fertile Crescen" and the aim allways is the occupation of the delta of Nile.
Therefore there are always military campaigns passing Mid East.
Map of "Fertile Crescent"
The fertile territories go from Sinai to Persian Gulf and are the aim of the Empires Egypt and Mesopotamia. The military campaigns regularly destroy the Middle East.
Place names in the Bible and today
-- Gibeon = the ruins near ed-Dshib
-- Bethel = the ruins near Betin
-- Silo = the ruins near Selun (p.27).
-- Kadesh-Barnea (oasis in Sinai) = En el-Quderat, aside is the little spring En Qadis (p.77)
-- Debir (allegedly occupied during the occupation) = Tell Bet Mirsim (p.94)
-- Betin (Arab village) = Bethel, is said having been named Lus before the occupation (p.94).
Landscapes in the Bible and today
The landscapes are the same and the descriptions in the Bible correspond with the real landscape of today (p.27).
[But according to the documents and archeology the landscapes are the only thing which corresponds. And Dead Sea does hardly exist any more today (2010)].
["Christianity" and Orthodox Jewry are refusing modern Bible research
In many circles of so called "Christianity" Bible research is absolutely refused until today. The pastors, Fathers and self-made preachers in the house circles and on "missionary farms" etc. are preaching Bible word for word until today, and are preaching also the lies of Old Testament which are really disproved].
2. The case of faked Abraham from Mesopotamia - Ismael - Isaak
The legend of Abraham as progenitor of all Jews, with son Ismail as progenitor of all Arabs - and the legend of son Isaak
First book of Mose is describing a family saga with all possible dramatic art, about passion, discipline, justice, injustice, belief, godliness, immortality, claiming that God had "elected" it's nation and would "promise" some land, also wealth and growth. The patriarch are said to be Abraham, Isaak, and Jakob, and the first mothers are said to be Sara, Rebeka, Lea, and Rahel (p,.39).
Many of the scholars of the passed centuries had the meaning that these legends about the patriarchs in the Old Testament (OT) (p.45) with life of Bedouins, with sheep and herders (p.45-46), with their quarrels about springs of water (Gen. 21, 25-33) and with their quarrels about grasslands (Gen. 13,5-12) would be roughly right historically (p.45).
The legend of Abraham and the late birth of his children
Abraham's propaganda trip claiming a territory from Israel to Ur,
and the map shows a moment where the big Empires are blocking each other the trade routes
-- Abraham is said having been elected by God as the patriarch of the population of Israel (p.19), is said to be from Ur at the Euphrates (p.40), and is said having marched from Mesopotamia to Haran (p.40) and then to Canaan (p.19)
-- then Abraham is said having been a hiking outsider with his wife Sara (p.19)
-- Abraham is said to be the origin of all nations of the region of Israel Palestine, and it's said that he parted the territory with his competitors Lot and many shepherds (p.40)
-- after the collapse of Sodom and Gomorrah Lot is said having been the patriarch of the Moabits and Amonites in the Eastbank of Jordan river in the eastern highlands (p.40), and Lot had children with his two daughters founding the Moabit tribe (p.52)
-- the son of Abraham Ismael comes by a connection between Abraham and Hagar (the Egypt slave of his 90 years old wife Sara), and this son is said being the patriarch of all Arab populations in the southern desert (p.40-41), Ismael is said being misprized by Abraham and according to this the Arab tribes which are said to be originated by Ismael are devaluated in the invented 1st book of Mose, and at the same time the children of Ismael are said having had contacts to Judah kingdom (p.54)
-- Abraham's wife Sara is said having given birth to the son Isaak with 100 years yet, the only child of this connection (p.41)
-- and Abraham is said having almost sacrificed this son Isaak proving the loyalty to God, and when God allegedly saw Isaak on the altar God is said having promised to Abraham that Abraham's child will be the origin for a famous nation, and all peoples of Earth would be blessed by him, that says the prophecy of this invented OT (p.41)
The contradictions of 1st book of Mose about the patriarchs of IsraelThe details are giving a real effect. Ur and Haran as the origin of Abraham seem to be right because there oldest centers of Middle East civilizations can be found. And the birthright would also be right, the spiritual orientated Bible archaeologists meant in 19th and 20th century, so e.g. Roland De Vaux or William f. Albright (p.46).
There is no agreement about Abraham's way and his dates of life
Archaeologist Albright means that names of persons, rites of weddings and land purchasing laws as they are prescribed in 1st book of Mose could come from Mesopotamic society of 2d millennium B.D. where is said Abraham comes from (p.47).
But then archeology initiated by Albright searching for remnants of hiking shepherd groups between Mesopotamia and Israel Palestine (p.47-48) is showing another scenario:
-- there cannot be found any mass movement from Euphrates to Canaan
-- and the old traditions are that common that they could be element of practically any culture in old Middle East (p.48).
Several archaeologists are posting the time of Abraham in different epochs with differences of up to 1,000 years, always without any definite result. But the patriarchs themselves are never put into question (p.48).
The defamed Moabites
For the defamation of the Moabites in the family trees of the patriarchs with the indication that the Moabites have their origin by an incest, this indication only plays a role in the border wars between the Israel Reichs and Moab. During the times of Abraham Moab does not exist yet at all (p.52).
The contradictions about the story of Abraham are indications that Abraham hardly has existed, and in the case of the Moabites the story is an absolute lie].3 Cycles of shepherd nomads and settling down in oval villages according to reality of archeology
The oval principle of villages coming from the tent camps of the Bedouins
Tents of Bedouins in 1915
Bedouins: rest in an oval order
According to the archaeologists the first villages in the interval period between Middle and Mid East have the form of an oval ring. The houses touch each other, and the big inner courtyard seems having been a protection from thieves for the herds of animals in the night (p.127). Archaeologists can find only a few silos, few blades of sickles, and only few grindstones for corn cultivation (p.127-128).
Villages in an oval order also exist in the mountains of the Westbank and in the South of the Negev mountains. So, such villages not at all were a single case (p.128), but oval order of villages had a tradition in the whole Middle East and can be found in all epochs:
-- in Sinai
-- in Jordan
-- in other regions of Middle East (p.128).
This oval order of villages is typical for villages in the mountains in regions bordering to deserts. The construction in an oval form is similar to the tent camps of the Bedouins placing their tents in an oval until today, with an open courtyard. Also the dimension and the number of unities between oval construction of villages and the tent camps of the Bedouins is a similar one (p.128).
Finkelstein / Silverman come to the conclusion that the oval villages probably were built by shepherds when they needed a period of settling down when keeping the herd in a protected courtyard during the night had prior priority (p.129).
Development from the oval tent camp to the oval village of stones
-- the shepherd nomads had to give up their nomadic life at the eastern border of the region, not far away from the desert
-- the shepherd nomads hat to give up a part of their animals and had to cultivate the land with agriculture
-- this change is going on yet with the Bedouins of today, and the first built settlement is always in an oval form
-- the position at the border of the desert partly permits herds of animals and agriculture at the same time (p.120).
Archeology can state a repeating rhythm in Canaan
The excavations of many villages let detect a cycles between settling down and nomad life (p.130):
The cycles between oval construction of villages and nomadism in Canaan at the margin of the desert
Epoch Date Main characteristics
Early Bronze Age 3500-2200 B.C. appr. first wave of settlement, with proofs for about 100 villages
2200-2000 B.C. crises, most of the villages are given up Middle Bronze Age
2000-1550 B.C. appr. second wave of settlement, with proofs for about 220 villages
Late Bronze Age
1550-1150 B.C. crises, proofs for only about 25 villages Iron Age I 1150-900 B.C. appr. third wave of settlement, with proofs for about 250 villages
Iron Age II 900-586 B.C. the settlements are rising up to more than 500 villages (8th century B.C.)
(Finkelstein / Silberman: Posaunen 2001, edition 2004, p.130)
Facts of archeology about the early oval villages
-- the culture of the villages of the different epochs is not very different (p.131)
-- the culture in the villages consists of agriculture with a plow with a cattle before, according to the environment conditions and the economic conditions, what can be seen with the bones of the animals (p.132)
-- there is always cultivation of olives and vineyards [according findings of seed and tools]
-- findings say that the wine is exported even to Egypt: In Egypt pottery vessels with clay from the Canaanite highlands are found, one time even with a seed of a grape in it (p.131).
Times with empty villages
When the villages are empty again, the population have changed to be Bedouins again. Agriculture with cattle and plow hardly exists in these times, but there exist above all herds of sheep and goats. Cattle herds do not exist because they are not enough movable in the crises years (p.133).
The reasons for the cycles
The change between nomadism and sedentarism with it's oval villages is provoked by political, economic, or climatic reasons. Bedouins are converting into village settlers, or villages settlers take their flight from new taxes to the desert to nomadism (p.133). When the political situation is safe the Bedouins settle down building villages, and when the situation is dangerous the village inhabitants convert into Bedouins so they are left alone (p.133-134).
The last period of settlement with building of villages is connected with a forming of identity which is called in certain regions "Israel" (p.131).
[But in the Bible there is not one single indication of this cycles...]
Structure of the village population
The village population is parted into two parts:
-- one part is specialized in agriculture
-- another part is keeping on big herds [as half nomads] (p.134).
In this system there is a mutual dependency of farmers and shepherd nomads:
-- the monads are dependent on agriculture products from the villages: nutrition supplement with corn is important for life, or the Bedouins had to cultivate corn themselves
-- and the village population gets the meat from the nomads, and milk and skins, but this is not important for life (p.134).
Natural separation of northern and southern region as precursors for a North Reich Israel and a South Reich Judah
Every wave of settlement creates two different societies in Mid East with two different areas of settlement in the North and in the South, dependent from the topographic conditions. The border line of these two types of settlement areas correspond more or less to the territories of the later invented kingdoms of the North (Israel) and South (Judah) in OT (p.171).
Northern region of settlement
Northern region: soft hills in Jezreel plain
Southern region of settlement
Southern region: Dead Sea with steep coast
Early Bronze Age
-- one place is the center of the government with a religious center Tell el-Far'a, with a big spring of fresh water, later known in the Bible as Thirza, which is said having been the first capital of the North Reich (p.172)
Early Bronze Age
-- the territory mainly is not very populated, the population are shepherds of sheep and by farmers (p.12)
-- up to 8th century B.C. Judah is very isolated and only has little population, and reading and writing are hardly distributed (p.56)
-- the region stays with only little population, for example the places only have potsherds without buildings indicating that these were places for shepherds, all in all the territory is about 50 ha in these times (p.172)
Middle Bronze Age (2000-1550 B.C.)
-- the landscape has a dense population with settled down farmers (p.172)
Middle Bronze Age (2000-1550 B.C.)
-- populated villages are rare
-- there is a big number of shepherd groups with cemeteries offside the populated villages
-- second center becomes Hebron which is also well fortified and has got great temples (excavation site is Tell Balata) (p.172)
Iron Age I in the North (1150-900 B.C. appr.)
-- there is a great wealth and military power
-- reading and writing are well spread (p.56)
-- there is a dense population in big, middle and little settlements (p.172)
Iron Age I in the South (1150-900 B.C. appr.)
Iron Age II in the North
-- reading and writing are widespread, also bureaucracy and administration, a professional army, wealth and luxury, specialized industries (p.233)
-- there come provocations against Assyria and then ruin by the Assyrian occupation 720 B.C.
Iron Age II in the South
-- Arab trade with the camel caravans from southern Arabia is coming with trade of spices and incense, that is a significant economic factor for the kingdom of Judah since 8th / 7th century B.C. (p.53)
-- after the destruction of the North Reich Judah is developing impressive fortresses and monumental temples and governments (p.172).
Finkelstein / Silberman: Posaunen 2001, edition of 2004
Documents from abroad about Israel Palestine during Mid Bronze Age (2000-1550 B.C. appr.)
19th century B.C.
Inscription about the Egypt military campaign under leadership of Khu-Sebek - mentioning of a center Shechem
There is an inscription which archaeologists are dating in the time of Pharaoh Sesostris III (1878-1843 B.C.). This inscription describes an Egypt military campaign under Khu-Sebek up to the highlands of Canaan, Egypt name is "Retenu". The land Shechem is mentioned which is mentioned in an equal manner like "Retenu". So, Shechem in these times has having been a significant Jewish center in these times already (p.173).
There is no other information in Egypt Pharaoh's inscriptions about Canaan (p.173).
16th century B.C.
Facts of archeology indicate: The agricultural sector has impoverished
Latest investigations indicate that the agricultural sector has impoverished in 16th century B.C. already (p.120).
Data from abroad in the Late Bronze Age (1550-1150 B.C.)
The documents say: There was a geographic split between northern and southern states
In these times Canaan is often mentioned in Egypt texts, for example in the letters of Tell el-Amarna (14th century B.C.) (p.173). In these letters already is stated the partition of the highlands of the West Bank in two city states respectively in two separated territorial areas Shechem and Jerusalem with 2,590 km2 each,
-- with king Abdi-Hepa in Jerusalem (stands in the Bible always for "South Reich Judah")
-- with king Labaya in Shechem (stands in the Bible always for "North Reich Israel") (p.173).
Within the split city states of Canaan Jerusalem and Shechem are the biggest statal unities in the Late Bronze Age, but the populations are less than the dense populations in the little city states of the coastal plain (p.173).
The conditions for the development of the city states of Jerusalem and Shechem
Geographic conditions are very different for the city states Shechem in the North and for Jerusalem in the South. Bible claims later in OT a political "split", but this split always had been in an natural way and never was executed politically (p.175).
Development of the city state of Shechem (in the Bible "Israel")
Development of the city state of Jerusalem (in the Bible "Judah") - there are no big differences of altitude on the way to the East, transports and communication to the East are easily possible
- the area of Shechem partly consists of fertile farmland which is enough for the own nutrition
- in the plains cultivation of corn is possible, in the highlands is possible the cultivation of olives and wine
-- by the favorable transport channels and the own nutrition the North Reich has got a great economic potential (p.175)
- on the way to the East there are big differences of altitude, and the Dead Sea has to be crossed, and all this makes transports and communication to the East very difficult resp. practically impossible
- the territory of the city state of Jerusalem consists of dry and cliffy desert steps, and by this an own nutrition with agriculture is hardly possible
- by these bad conditions the economic potential of the city state of Jerusalem is very little (p.175)
- Shechem has great resources
- the sloped to the West are not very steep and stony, so terrace agriculture with olive trees and vines is well possible (p.176)
- Jerusalem hardly has resources
- the slopes are very steep and stony, so terrace agriculture with olives and vines is hardly possible (p.176)
-> with the possibilities of transports between the city state of Shechem and his neighbors are created markets, exchange of products, commerce e.g. with corn, animal products, and there are exports down up to Egypt to the coastal markets
-> city state of Shechem can develop a specialized economy (p.176)
-> northern highlands are populated from the West in early times (p.177).
-> city state of Jerusalem remains without possibility of transport and without agriculture
-> city state of Jerusalem develops only little markets and no exchange of products
-> the society in the city state of Jerusalem stays monotonous, poor and has only little growth of population (p.176)
-> southern highlands are populated from the West only late (p.177).
Finkelstein / Silberman: Posaunen 2001, edition 2004
The distinction in a northern and a southern state is happening by natural reasons. There is no proof of a political split in the documents or indicated by findings. The South is never a leading power against the North as it is claimed later in OT with the invented kings David and Solomon for Jerusalem (p.176).
[South Reich Judah with Jerusalem only develops it's power when the North Reich Israel is destroyed from the outside].
4 Archaeological findings about Israeli tribes after the faked occupation: the occupation was a fluent one
Archaeological facts: The differences between Canaanites and Israelites
Canaanites towns e.g. on the coast
Israeli villages bordering the desert
-- are towns full of arts
-- are towns full of ceramics
-- are towns with great buildings
-. are towns with imported luxury
-- are towns with fine worked ceramic vessels (p.116)
-- are villages with shafts without plans
-- are villages where only rough ceramics can be found as with half nomads (p.116)
-- are villages with only rough tools and instruments (p.116-117)
Finkelstein / Silberman: Posaunen 2001, edition 2004
The development of the city towns coming from the oval villages
Excavations in old villages in the today Israel Palestine are giving the result that in the population there was developed an ethnic Israeli identity only step by step (p.113).
The villages of today partly have essential differences:
Jerusalem / Urusalim
According to archaeological findings Jerusalem - which was called Urusalim in these times - never had any big monument or fortress, and according to historian Nadav Naaman this Jerusalem was the center of only a very small elite (p.259).
around 1,200 B.C.
Beginnings of an Israelite identity in 250 mountain villages (European Iron Age I)
-- archeology can state 250 new communities on mountain tops, and this was really a wave of foundations, in the South from the Jewish highlands up to the highlands of Samaria in the North
-- around 1,200 B.C. there had been a dramatic change as it seems, with a basic change of kind of living
-- there was no violent invasion or infiltration of another ethnic group, there are no findings for this [of fires, ashes or other findings of violence]
-- the villages on the mountain tops are populated until the times of kings
-- according to Finkelstein / Silberman the highland population of the highland villages can be considered as the first Israelite population (p.123).
Simple life in the mountain villages during European Iron Age I
The layout of the village
-- the villages contained approximately 100 inhabitants each on appr. 1/2 hectare, maximum were some 100 inhabitants on 1.5 hectares (p.124)
-- the villages mostly were on mountain tops or on a little ridge (p.123), and the territory mostly was not bigger than 1/2 hectare (p.123-124), mostly on the eastern margin of the fields, with a great view (p.123)
-- the forests consisted mainly of oaks and terebinths
-- sometimes but very seldom the village was founded also at the ridge of narrow valleys
-- water was collected for "winter" in water cisterns in the rock with rainwater, or there was brought water from a spring (p.123).
[Climate fluctuations with colder winters or summers are not mentioned by Finkelstein / Silberman].
The oval layout of the mountain top villages
First are constructed the villages on border to the desert where both kinds of living with herds and agriculture are possible. Only later the villages are constructed more in the West where it's less favorable for herds and for agriculture, but it's more favorable for olive cultures and for vineyards (p.120).
Political position of the mountain villages
-- the position of the villages is absolutely offside of the big trade routes, there is no foreign trade, and good craftsman do not exist either (p.126)
-- the villages have no walls, perhaps because it was not necessary, or because there were no means and no wisdom for it (p.125)
-- there is no indication of any attack by fire or destruction by violence (p.126)
-- the villages have no public buildings, have no documents, have no seals, and have no imported ceramics, and have hardly jewelry
-- all houses have more or less the same size, one house has a surface of appr. 56 m2, and by this it can be admitted that also the possessions were distributed more or less in the same quantities
-- all houses are made of rough field stones, rough stone columns are roof supports or are columns for the second floor (p.124)
-- between the the houses there are stony pits which serve as corn deposit (p.124).
-- in every house there are many grindstones and many sickle blades for corn economy
-- courtyards with fences are indications for keeping of animals where the animals were kept in the night
-- jugs and pots were of ceramics
-- there could be found findings from tombs, but hardly findings from cults, only in one single village in the northern highlands was found a figurine of a bull of bronze, an indication of a Canaanite cult (p.124)
-- [and there were found no skeletons?]
-- on Ebal Mountain there is a strange stony structure interpreted as an old Israeli altar, but the function of this installation around this stony structure is controversial (p.125)
-- nowhere could be found any weapon (p.126).
There was agriculture and pasture agriculture with plow of oxes and with sheep and goat herds (p.126).
-- the houses and farms are amplified during the decades and centuries
-- only in rare cases the original building has been preserved. It was mostly torn down and there was constructed a second building on the first one
-- in the village Izbet-Sartah there was preserved the old oval village center, and the new houses were constructed around the center (p.127).
Philistine ceramics coming up since 1,200 B.C. appr.
Archeology states that there is an ornamentation wave coming from the Aegean, so a new "Philistine ceramic" is formed. This wave of stylistic cultural influence of Philistine ceramic is reaching the foothills - according to the archaeological findings. This ceramic can always be stated in a certain layer, from the North down to Jezreel plain (p.151).
Map with the territories of the Israelites according to the old and wrong historiography "from Dan to Beersheba";
in dark red kingdom of Judah is painted.
Add to this neighbor states Phoenicia, Geshur, Philistine, Ammon and Moab are indicated.
Map with the different Egypt Empires
around 1000 B.C.
Climax of the mountain villages with almost 45,000 inhabitants
according to archaeological field research (p.124).
Ethnic differentiation between the Israelites and others: no pork
Ethnicities are manifesting themselves by language, religion, clothing, rites of burial, and nutrition rules (p.135). Israelite villages up to the kingdoms have got the characteristic that the archaeologists cannot find any bone of a pig. The population resigns to pork, as it seams, and by this they make a difference to the neighbor populations of Ammon, Moab, and Edom (p.136).
With the earlier waves of villages there were always bones of pigs to be found, but with the last wave of villages not any more (p.136).
To the contrary in the villages of the Philistines a considerable part of the bones is from pigs (p.136).
Finkelstein / Silberman admit that the prohibition of pork was an element of a common identity of "proto Israelites". By this the village populations created a new ethnic barrier. The reasons for the prohibition of pork and the ethnic barrier are not cleared. The custom resigning to pork is the oldest proven cultural custom (p.136).
In certain regions the pig was a holy animal. There was some reason to deny the pig, also making difference to other believes].
The legend of Isaak and the eternal quarrel of the twins Jacob and Esau about the right of primogeniture
-- Isaak is said having met "Abimelech, the king of the Philistines" in the town of Gerar (Genesis 26,1) (p.50)
-- the woman of Isaak, Rebeka, is said having been pregnant with twins and having received a prophecy that these twins would be the origin for two separate folks, "and the elder will serve the younger" (Genesis 25,23) (p.52-53)
-- the wife of Isaak, Rebeka, is said having born the twins Esau and Jacob, and their descendants are said having fought each other for centuries because Rebeka is said having sent her favorite son Jacob disguised to the deathbed of father Isaak, and by this method he is said having received the right of primogeniture whereas this right of primogeniture principally had been for Esau (p.43)
-- by this Esau allegedly has to found his tribe in the desert, and by this the Israelite tribes Esau and Jacob are said having made war for 100s of years because of this right of primogeniture: Jacob is said having taken the flight of the anger of Esau, but God is said having confirmed the right of primogeniture for Jacob (Gen. 18, 13-15) (p.53)
-- by this Jacob should rule as an educated patriarch over Esau who is only a hunter like patriarch of Edom (p.53).
The contradictions in the legend of Isaak: the criterion of the city of Gerar: Gerar only was a village in the times of Isaak
The town of Gerar and Isaak visiting the Philistine king Abimelech (Gen. 26,1) are not fitting together because the Philistines were constructing their towns in the coastal plane of Canaan coming from Aegean, but only after 1200 B.C. during the growth in 11th and 10th century B.C. They ruled Canaan until far in the Assyrian period (p.50).
Today the town of Gerar (today identified as Tel Haror north west of Beersheba) is mentioned in the text of Abraham (Gen. 20,1) and seems having been especially important in the moment of the writing down of Pentateuch (7th century B.C.), at least it was very known. But at the beginning of European Iron Age, in the period when Isaak is said having lived, Gerar is only an insignificant village at the beginning of Philistine history - according to excavations.
Then, in 8th and 7th century B.C., Gerar is growing much and is an important fortified Assyrian administrative center, "an obvious landmark". (p.50)
The town of Gerar which was only a little village in the times of Isaak, is an evidence that Isaak has not existed. But conservative scholars are writing these circumstances about the town of Gerar off as a secondary detail and believe until today that there existed the two twins Jacob and Esau always in wars (p.50).
5 The legend of Jacob ("Israel") who is said having fought with an angel
An angel is said having given Jacob the name of "Israel"
-- Jacob's father was a "straying Aramean" (1st book of Moses 26,5) (p.52)
-- Arameans mostly are the cousins of the Israelites and the Israelites are of Aramean origin (p.52)
-- Jacob is said having migrated to Haran in the North of Israel where he had domicile with a certain Laban, and then he is said having married his two daughters Lea and Rahel and their two maidservants, and with these four wived he is said having 11 sons (p.44)
-- following the order of God he is said having returned to Canaan and is said having fought with a mysterious man or with an angel passing the Jabbok river (Zarqa river), and this angel is said having given Jacob the name of "Israel" ("the man fighting with God") (p.19,44)
-- there is said having existed a camp near Shechem, and Jacob is said having installed an altar for God in Bethel (p.44)
-- Jacob is said having installed altars all over during his trip (p.19)
-- the caravan of Jacob ("Israel) is said having continued it's trip, and during the birth of the last son Benjamin the mother Rahel is said having died in Bethlehem, and shortly after also Isaak, with a funeral in the cave Machpelah near Hebron (p.44).
There are contradictions with this legend of Jacob
Jacob and the Arameans don't match together - Arameans only exist since 1100 B.C.
During the marriage of Jacob with Lea and Rahel and during the description of the host Laban Arameans are mentioned. But texts from Mid East only mention independent Arameans not before 1100 B.C. approximately. At the beginning of 9th century B.C. the Arameans are a dominating power at the northern frontier of the Israelites where they are a big threat together with Aram-Damascus (p.51).
The wrong indication about Arameans who have not existed yet in this time as an own political group is an evidence that the whole story about Jacob and an angel and a name of "Israel" is not true].
6 The legend of Jacob's son Joseph said having been sold to Egypt and having been minister for economic affairs in the government of the Pharaoh
Camel caravan in Sinai
Son Joseph (one of the sons of Jacob) is said having been sold to Egypt because of a dream
-- the son Joseph (one of the sons of Jacob) is said having dreamt that he would rule over a family later, and he is said having told this dream to other brothers and having been hated for that, and by this the brothers are said having sold Joseph to a group of Ismaelite merchants to Egypt bringing Joseph with their camel caravan to Egypt, and there are said having been resin, balm and myrrh within the goods of the caravan (p.44)
-- the 11 other brothers are said having claimed to their father Jacob that a wild animal had eaten Joseph (p.44)
-- Joseph is said having followed a career and is said having been brilliant with prophecies for the Pharaoh and is said having been minister for economic affairs of the Pharaoh predicting 7 bad years (p.44).
-- when after a long dry period the other 11 sons of Jacob came to Egypt with hunger and wanted to purchase food, brother Joseph is said having presented to them as minister for economic affairs, and the Israelites are said having changed their domicile all to Gosen where patriarch Jacob is said having blessed all his sons and Joseph's sons, the grandsons Manasseh and Ephraim, and where son Judah is said having received the royal birthright (p.45)
-- and it is said that Jacob - after his death - was buried in the cave of Machpelah near Hebron by his sons, but the Israelites are said having stayed in Egypt (p.45).
The contradictions in the legend with Joseph who was sent to Egypt
Transportation of Joseph to Egypt: the criterion of the camels
The documents say: In Assyrian sources of 7th century B.C. are mentioned the first camel caravans (p.50)
Archeology says: Archeology proves clearly that camels were not domesticated before the end of second millennium B.C., and only much time after 1,000 B.C. they were used as pack animals. In the book of Genesis (1st book of Moses) camel caravans are repeatedly mentioned, and the text describing Joseph sold to Egypt also describes camels as pack animals (Gen. 37,25). But according to the documents and the archaeological findings this is not possible because the culture of camel caravans did not exist yet in times of Jacob and son Joseph (p.49).
The location of Tell Gemme for example is an important crossing for caravan trails (p.49-50) and indicates a massive growth of camel bones in the 7th century B.C. These are almost only bones of adult camels, so they probably are from caravans, and not from cultivating farms (p.50).
Transportation of Joseph to Egypt: commerce with "resin, balm, and myrrh" did not exist yet
The goods like "resin, balm, and myrrh" carried in the camel caravan of Joseph to Egypt are main products of Arab commerce under supervision of Assyrian Reich in 8th to 7th century B.C. So, the book of Genesis surely was not written before the 8th century B.C. (p.49).
Evidence that the whole legend is a fake: The family trees after Jacob are very different and do not conform (p.47).
Evidence that teh whole legend is a fake: The names of the persons in Egipt in the Joseph legend are the favorite names of 7th and 6th century B.C.
The namings in Egypt according to the legend are like this:
-- Joseph as grand vizier of the Pharaoh is named Zaphnat Paneah
-- the supreme of the royal life guards is named Potiphar
-- the priest is named Potiphera
-- and the daughter of Potipheras is named Asnath (p.80).
All these names are favorite names in Egypt during 7th and 6th century B.C., but during the times of Joseph legend these names are rare [and never would have been for state's representatives and never would have been used in a religious main book] (p.80-81).
All the cited facts and evidence are indications that the legend about a Joseph sold and brought to Egypt is an faked invention between 8th and 6th century B.C.].
7 The legend of faked exodus to Egypt under Jakob because of a famine
The prescription about Jacob according to the outdated Bible
-- Jacob is said having had 12 sons
-- these 12 sons of Jacob are said having fled from a famine to Egypt, and Jacob's testament is said having rated the son Judah over all other (p.20)
-- Egypt is said having been full of Jews (Exodus 1,7)
-- a Pharaoh who did not know anything of Josephs history is said having claimed that the Jews could reveal Egypt to it's enemies
-- as a reaction the Pharaoh is said having enslaved all Jews, and the Jews are said having built as slaves the towns of the kings Pithom and Ramses
-- as enslaved Jews the Jews are said not having had children any more (Ex. 1,12)
-- and by this the slavery is said having been extended to heavy brickworks and heavy agriculture (Ex. 1,14)
-- under the alleged conditions of slavery the 12 sons of Jacob in Egypt are said having formed one nation (p.62).
The documents speak: the extreme poetry of Egypt historian Manetho in 3th century B.C. with a dreadful Hyksos dynasty
Egypt poet Manetho is writing texts with descriptions of invasions from the East:
-- Manetho is stating immigrants in the eastern part of the Nile Delta who have an extraordinary success, and he claims that these immigrants from the East (named "Hyksos", "rulers from abroad", he translates it as "kings of shepherds") are a national tragedy for Egypt as if there had been an invasion from the East (p.67)
-- these hyksos are said having settled in the delta in the town of Avaris (later Tell ed-Daba) and had founded an own dynasty governing in a dreadful way over Egypt for 500 years (p.67-68)
-- prescribing this invasion Manetho also is commemorating the latest invasions from Assyria, Babylonia and Persia in Egypt during 7th and 6th century B.C. (p.69).
So, there are new doubts what is true or not with this Manetho. Because of this there has to be more investigation.
The "scholars" - the Hyksos of the "mid Bronze Age"
For a long time the scholars rated the Hyksos as the kings of 15th dynasty of Egypt 1670-1570 B.C. (p.68), compared with Europe this would be in the mid Bronze Age (p.78). In mid Bronze Age around 1600 B.C. Canaan (today's Israel Palestine) is a wealthy society (p.91).
But how should ruled a foreign folk from Canaan in Egypt? This question has to be cleared.
Archaeological proof for the Jacob case
The Nile Delta is a center of safe nutrition during dry periods in Canaan - and there was constant immigration
The documents and archeology confirm a steady immigration from Canaan to Egypt to the eastern part of the Nile Delta (p.65). This immigration is a very old rhythm of the Middle East performed in all times (p.67). Egypt always was the spot of rescue and safety when there was a dry season or war in Canaan (p.65), because the flood of the Nile in Egypt was a guarantee for a good harvest every year, in case of doubt with irrigation. Add to this Egypt state had store houses for the case of dry seasons (p.66).
During Bible times the Nile Delta was parted in 7 arms and had a bigger territory than today with only two arms of the river. In Bible times the eastern Delta arm of the Nile for example arrived the north western Sinai. And corresponding to this also the irrigation system was more expanded. Excavations can prove this (p.66).
The Nile Delta of Bible times and of today
Nile Delta in Pharaoh's times: many arms, Memphis, Avaris, Canaan
Nile Delta of today: only 2 arms have left, and Suez Channel
Nile Delta in 1706: there are 4 or 5 arms
The immigrants in the eastern Nile Delta - making career in Egypt administration
Probably these immigrants were nomads and farmers of Canaan (p.66-67), eventually also economic refugees or merchants. They had their salary with jobs as landless workers. Add to this Canaan war prisoners were settled in eastern Nile Delta, when Egypt executed a punitive action in Canaan, and these war prisoners had to work in the Egypt temple plants. Some of the immigrants succeeded with their career and got posts of government, were soldiers and priests. Joseph who is said having sent with a caravan to Egypt would be not a singular case, but this would be only the most known case of many cases (p.67).
Archeology with seals, inscriptions and texts
-- in the Nile Delta of these times (which is situated more in the East than today) archeology finds inscriptions and seals with names of Canaanite origin (p.69)
-- latest excavations confirm the Canaanite origin of the Hyksos rule and an immigration step by step, but a sudden military invasion as it is claimed by the Egypt extreme poet Manetho is not confirmed by archeology (p.69)
-- the today's Tell ed-Daba in the eastern Nile Delta of these times is identified as Aurais / Avaris, the former capital of the Hyksos rulers (p.69)
-- archaeologists can prove that since 1800 B.C. appr. there was a Canaanite influence on the eastern Nile Delta enforcing with ceramics, architecture and graves. Since 1670 B.C. Avaris (today's Tell ed-Daba) was growing up to the 15th dynasty and was a huge town, mainly in Canaanite style. And there was a peaceful takeover of power to the Canaanites, because there are no fire traces or ash layers in the hill of ruins (p.69).
The documents speak: Pharaoh Ramses did not exist yet - and not either a town of Ramses
A name "Ramses" for a town which the Jews are said having constructed in 15th century B.C. during the alleged time of a certain Jacob is not possible in this 15th century B.C., because first Pharaoh named "Ramses" comes only in 1320 B.C. on it's throne, only over 100 years after the traditional date of the Bible (p.70).
Egypt sources report about a construction of the town Pi-Ramesse ("House of Ramses", "Palace of Ramses") in the Nile Delta under king Ramses II (1279-1213 B.C.), whereas it seems that Semites were the workers (p.71).
[If this was a slavery or not is not said by Finkelstein / Silberman].
Evidence: Later invasions of the Assyrians, Babylonians and Persians provoking anxiety in Egypt with reproaches to the Israelites
The immigrants from Canaan are confronted with the reproaches by Egypt (Genesis 42,9) that they would be spies investigating where "the country is open", and by this all Jews should be enslaved (p.81).
The documents say: Such reproaches of espionage have no reason before 7th century B.C., but after the invasions of Assyria, Babylonia and Persia in Egypt and in Mid East in 7th and 6th century B.C. such reproaches of espionage would have their reasons (p.81).
The contradiction about a steady immigration to Egypt because of dry seasons and wars and the contradictions about the fear of invasions and espionage in Egypt are provoking to put in doubt the events with the 12 sons of Jacob in Egypt. The evidence indicates that the history of Jacob was written in the 7th century B.C. only.
8 The legend of liberation under a faked Mose with a faked exodus from Egypt to the Red Sea
Moses is said having been the only survivor of a murder action of Egypt pharaoh against boys
-- Pharaoh is said having ordered to murder all Jewish boys by drowning interrupting all descendancy of the Jews in Egypt (p.62)
-- there is said that a Jewish boy in a little basket was put on the Nile river and was adopted by one of the daughters of the Pharaoh (p.62-63), a "Moses" (the name comes from the Hebrew word "draw out", drawing out from the water) (p.63)
-- Moses is said having observed the lashing of a Jewish slave and then having murdered the Egypt culprit and having buried the dead body in the sand, then Moses is said having fled to the desert to Midian and having lived there as a nomad, and near Horeb (the "Mount of God") he is said having received the revelation from the burning thorn bush which never stops burning (p.63).
Now Moses is said having been the liberator of the Jews from Egypt (p.20):
-- God is said having claimed by the thorn bush that he would be God JHWH and Moses together with his brother Aaron in Egypt should demand the liberty for the Jews
-- the first reaction of the Pharaoh to the demand of Moses of freedom for the Jews who suffered allegedly of slavery was negative: Pharaoh is said having worsened the situation for the Jews yet (p.63)
-- as next step God JHWH is said having ordered to Moses threatening the Pharaoh with plagues when he would not give free the enslaved Jews
-- after the alleged new refusal of the Pharaoh giving free the alleged enslaved Jews, there is said that plagues affected Egypt: Nile is said having converted into blood, and frogs, mosquitoes and flies are said having grown to plagues, all cattle is said having died of a strange illness, and the population and the surviving cattle is said having suffered of smallpox and ulcers (p.63)
-- but the Pharaoh is said having been stubborn not freeing the Jews yet, so other plagues are said having come: grasshoppers, a darkness, and the death of all first born of all families and animals are said having happened, but the Jews in Egypt are said having excepted from the dead of all first born children by a special sacrifice rite with sacrificial blood (p.63)
-- Pharaoh is said having lost his first born son by this God's murder action (p.64)
-- only now the Pharaoh is said having freed the enslaved Jews
-- the enslaved Jews are said having left Egypt with their cattle heading to the Red Sea allegedly for reaching Judah passing the desert, allegedly evading wars with the Philistines (p.64)
-- now the Pharaoh is said having got anxiety with the fear that the Jews would conspire with the enemies of Egypt against Egypt and would attack Egypt (p.81)
-- now the Pharaoh is said having ordered that the Jews should be captured and enslaved again, and he is said having sent 600 military cars for capturing them again
-- now there is said that Red Sea parted ant the Jews are said having been capable passing the Red Sea, and the Egypt troops were devoured by the Red Sea which came back (p.64).
What the documents and archeology say: There are many contradictions with the alleged "exodus"
General contradictions with Moses
-- four of five books of Moses are dedicated to the exodus from Egypt which is said having lasted 40 years, with all kinds of miracles (p.61)
-- it seems a great manipulation that for 40 years 4 of the 5 books are written, is seems a great manipulation against Egypt
-- God is said having been the universal divinity
-- the data stated by 200 years of intensive excavations in Egypt do not fit with the data of Moses in the invented Pentateuch (p.61).
The big contradiction is that after the alleged liberation leaving Egypt is said having followed another alleged surrender with the harsh Moses laws (p.62).
More contradictions with Moses:
-- it's not possible that Moses has described his own death
-- the events describe old places, and there is claimed several times that the proofs can for the events are visible "until today"
-- so, the Moses books at least were edited after Moses again (p.22)
-- in Pentateuch exist several versions of the same tale (p.22)
-- creation exists in two versions (1st book of Moses 1,1-3 and 2,4-25)
-- there exist two different family trees for Adam's descendants (4,17-26 and 5,1-28)
-- the migration of the patriarchs, the exodus from Egypt and the rule have two or even three different versions: doubled versions can mainly be found in Genesis (1st book), Exodus (2d book) and Numeri (4th book) (p.23).
Expulsion of the Hyksos according to Egypt historian Manetho
-- Manetho describes how a very good Egypt king is expelling the Hyksos allegedly pursuing them up to the Syrian border (p.69)
-- and Manetho indicates a little bit that these Hyksos found Jerusalem and have built a temple there (p.69).
Expulsion of the Hyksos according to other Egypt sources
-- in the Egypt source of 16th century B.C. there are described the heroic actions of Pharaoh Ahmose of 18th dynasty (p.69)
-- Pharaoh Ahmose let plunder Avaris and let pursue the fleeing Hyksos up to the main fortress of southern Canaan up to Sharuhen in Gaza which was besieged and taken by storm (p.70).
Archeology about the Hyksos, 1570 B.C.
-- according to mid of 16th century in 1570 B.C. Avaris (Tell ed-Daba) was given up by the Canaanites (p.70)
-- the name of "Israel" is never mentioned in Avaris, and there is also no Israelite or Jewish national feeling or identity (p.70)
-- archeology can confirm the existence of the town of Avaris, the expulsion from Avaris in about 1570 B.C., and the destruction of the Canaanite towns in Canaan in about the same time. So, this is a strong indication for a violent persecution or a persecution campaign (p.70).
Evidence: Invasions of the Assyrians, Babylonians and Persians provoking states of fear in Egypt with reproaches of espionage against Canaan
The Jews beginning allegedly an exodus from Egypt under Moses are said having been reproached by the Pharaoh that they would make an alliance with the enemies of Egypt and attack Egypt at the end (p.81).
The documents speak: Such reproaches of espionage have no base before 7th century B.C. But after the invasions of Assyria, Babylonia and Persia in Egypt and in Middle East in 7th and 6th century B.C. such reproaches of espionage would have their base (p.81).
The documents and archeology speak: There was a decline in Canaan after the Egypt expulsion campaign
After the expulsion campaign against the Hyksos in Canaan in the latter Bronze Age from 15th to 11th century B.C. Canaan is only a shadow of it's wealth of before in the mid of Bronze Age of 16th century B.C. (p.91).
According to Egypt Amarna letters to the Pharaohs in 14th century B.C. there are more events:
-- many towns in Canaan are given up or at least are reducing
-- the whole resident population of Canaan includes perhaps 100,000 inhabitants yet - according to archaeological field research, and other parts of the population have changed to be nomads
-- according to the documents tiny military units are enough for protection of Egypt occupations, for example 100 Egypt soldiers are enough for the protection of Megiddo against the attack of the king of Sichem (p.91).
But now comes a first forming of identity: Since the expulsion of Hyksos in 1570 B.C. there probably is a common memory (p.82), whereas details probably have been lost (p.83).
The documents and archeology speak: the new chain of fortresses in Egypt Reich along the coastal road
The emotion against the Hyksos and their expulsion in about 1570 B.C. probably provokes the construction of the chain of manned fortresses along the eastern frontier of the Nile Delta between Egypt and Canaan. This chain of fortresses is detected by archeology, and probably was constructed supervising immigration respectively reducing or blocking it (p.72).
According to archaeological excavations in the 1970s under the leadership of archeologist Eliezer Oren from Ben Gurion University (Tel Aviv) the fortresses erected in the following time are places in distances of daily marches and include corn deposits and wells resp. water deposits. It's a real system of fortresses (p.74).
In outdated Bible the Egypt fortresses are mentioned as "migdol". The Jews under Moses are said having installed their camp between the migdol and the sea (2d book of Mose (Exodus), 14,2) (p.73).
In 13th century B.C. the Egyptians even built some fortresses even in Canaan, and Egypt is the dominating power in Canaan with administration points. Egypt armies occupy the region up to Euphrates in Syria. The well fortified road between Egypt and Canaan becomes one of the strategically most important roads of Egypt (p.73). The road from Egypt to Gaza (250 km) is also called the "way of Horus" (p.73).
[Horus is a main god of Egyptian mythology].
Egypt ruler Thutmosis III reports having passed these 250 km with his troops in 10 days (p.74).
Considering that also First Book of Moses is invoking a frontier line with Euphrates river (in 1st Moses, chapter 15, phrase 18), frontier of Euphrates river in Middle and Mid East seems to have be a magic strategic significance like Rhine river in Europe or Mississippi river in "America"].
The documents speak: There was a new town Pi-Ramesse under ruler Ramesses II after the Hyksos were driven out
Despite a good documentation about the New Reich of Egypt in 13th century B.C. there is no indication of a mass flight from Egypt under a certain Moses. About Israelites in Egypt is not said anything, neither on the temple walls, nor in gave inscriptions, nor in papyrus.
Now, after the expulsion of the Hyksos, Ramesses II lets build a big town dedicated to him, the town Pi-Ramesse ("house of Ramesses", "temple of Ramesses"), near the ruins of Avaris (p.72).
For the time of Ramesses II archeology can prove many migrant workers in eastern Nile Delta. They come from many different regions, but not from Canaan (their immigration was blocked by a chain of fortresses along the coastal road). So, according to sure archeology not Canaanites, but workers from other regions built Ramesses town (p.73).
Mass flight under Moses was not possible because of the chain of fortresses - Hyksos mass flight was not an Israeli flight - no Jewish slaves for Ramesses town
A mass flight from Egypt under Ramesses in Moses times considering the chain of fortresses at the eastern border seems absolutely improbable. Also a migration passing the desert and an entrance to Canaan by the eastern side seems to be impossible because also Canaan was under Egypt rule (p.73). Egypt El-Amarna letters of 12th century say that 50 Egypt soldiers were enough to "pacify" upheavals in Canaan (p.73).
There can be admitted an expulsion of the Hyksos (Canaanites) in 1570 B.C. by some reason which is not mentioned, but the expelled surely had no Israeli identity.
Israel is not mentions during the dynasty of Ramesses, and there are no Canaanite findings in Egypt for this time of 13th century B.C. either. But there are findings of other foreign workers. By this it seems absolutely improbable that Jews have built Ramesses town in slavery (p.73).
All this is an indication that an exodus under Moses of 600,000 persons from Egypt has not happened but it's clear fake. According to archeology there was an expulsion of Canaanites from Egypt in about 1570 B.C. Exodus under Moses 200 years later has not happened because such a great event was not possible because of the fortification chain at the border, and because such an event would have been mentioned in the inscriptions of the Ramesses dynasty].
9 The legend of the God's rule of Sinai - the faked 40 years migration in the desert
600,000 persons are said having migrated for 2 years and having camped for 38 years without leaving traces?
Mount Sinai in daylight
Sun rise on Mount Sinai
Map of Sinai peninsula. It's surely possible to perform a camel migration tour from Egypt to Mount Sinai in mild winter. Meditation in this region must be a great event for sure, and also a new law coming by this meditation will be possible. But can 600,000 persons two migrate two years and camp during 38 years at oasis Kadesh Barnea (today En el-Quderat) without leaving traces? No.
Old Testament invents now a drama with invented 600,000 persons allegedly migrating in the desert.
Moses is said having made an alliance with JHWH on the base of stone tablets:
-- Moses is said having received a codex of laws on Mount Sinai making an alliance with God JHWH on the base of stone tablets (p.20) which are allegedly preserved in the Ark of the Covenant (p.64)
-- Jewish ambassadors are said having examined the possibilities for an occupation and are said having reported that the Canaanites are predominant and claimed for a return to Egypt where it would be possible to survive at least (p.64-65)
-- now God is said having punished the Jews in the Sinai because of their anxiety, and the Jews have to migrate 40 years in the desert, so the generation of anxiety will die and a new generation will not remember again to the good times in Egypt (p.64-65).
[Addition: In 7th century B.C. the average of life expectancy was 40 years. This indication can be taken really earnest].
And now let's analize the alleged migration of 40 years with 2 years of migration and with 38 years in a camp:
-- the Israelites - according to the Bible 600,000 persons - are said having crossed the desert and the mountains of Sinai, 40 years they had camped at different spots, and by this one generation had died (Numeri 33) (p.75)
-- 38 years the Israelites are said having camped at Kadesh Barnea (Qadesh Barne'a) (Numeri 34) (p.76-77) which is identified by archeology as En el-Quderat with a little spring with fresh water aside, En Qadis, with the word of Kadesh (p.77)
-- the migration in the desert is said having passed from Kadesh Barnea passing Araba, then passing the countries of Edom and Moab on the East Bank of the Dead Sea (p.65).
Archeology is speaking in Kadesh Barnea (today En el-Quderat): no findings
Map with Kadesh Barnea, Arad, Araba, Edom, Moab and Ammon, satellite photo. Half of the Dead Sea has disappeared in 2003 already.
600,000 persons, that is a complete metropolis like Essen (2006: 584.295), Rotterdam (2005: 589.156), Washington DC (2004: 553.523), Frankfurt (2006: 660.289) or Montenegro Republic (2004: 621.000).
In 40 years - 38 years in a camp and 2 years migrating - a complete generation of 600,000 Jews are said having died and reborn, so, there should be found potsherds, tools, graves or bones.
Archaeologists found remnants of shepherds from 3d millennium B.C. and remnants from Greek period and Byzantine period. But from the 40 years of the alleged stay of a huge Jewish group with 600,000 Jews in the time of 13th century B.C. in the Sinai desert NOTHING can be found (p.75-76), nothing at the alleged camp sites either (p.76), no camp site, no hill of ruins, not one single potsherd, not one single house, not one single skeleton etc. (p.75).
Archeology speaks about oasis Kadesh Barnea (today En el-Quderat): This was a fortress in the 7th century
-- in the middle of the oasis there is a little hill of ruins (Tell) with remnants of a fortress of the European Iron Age II (7th century B.C.)
-- but there are no remnants for European Late Bronze Age in 13th century B.C., not one single potsherd (p.77)
-- but in Kadesh Barnea was built a big fortress in 7th century B.C., whereas archaeological research is not sure if it was a fortress of the beginning of 7th century B.C. for Assyria or at the end of 7th century as an outpost of kingdom of Judah
-- in any case Kadesh Barnea is known in 7th century B.C. all over in the region of the Middle East as a desert outpost (p.81), and this is one more time an evidence that the book of Moses was written in 7th century B.C. taking reference to political structures of that time (p.77).
The allegedly bad states of Edom and Ammon: They are said having blocked passing the Jews
Map with Kadesh Barnea, Arad, Araba, Edom, Moab
and Ammon, satellite photo. Half of the Dead Sea has disappeared in 2003 already.
-- the fully developed states of Edom and Ammon are said having planned to block the passage for the Jews on the East Bank entering Canaan from the other side (p.78)
-- Moses in Kadesh Barnea is said having sent ambassadors to the king of Edom with the order handling out a passage right to Canaan
-- king of Edom is said having rejected this claim and the 600,000 Jews under Moses are said having been forced to make a big detour around kingdom of Edom (p.81).
Archeology speaks: Edom and Ammon were no states in these times
-- according to archaeological findings the Est Bank during the European Late Bronze Time in 13th century B.C. had only a little population, and only a little part of the population was resident
-- statal structures or kings of Edom and Ammon, who had the capacity blocking the pass of the Jews, did NOT exist in the alleged time of Moses in 13th century B.C. (p.78)
-- in these times Edom has only a little population and is a border region of shepherd nomads
-- and only as an Assyrian protectorate Edom develops the statal structures being a state in 7th century B.C. (p.81).
Edom had no army because there was no statal administration yet which would be necessary installing an army. The faked Moses cannot have been blocked by Edom in these times].
The alleged camp Ezion Geber
Map with Ezion Geber and the faked way of Moses' migration
-- Ezion Geber at the northern tip of Gulf of Aqaba is later an important port town
-- the hill of ruins ("Tell") shows remnants of the Iron Age II (7th century B.C.), but from Late Bronze Age of 13th century B.C. nothing can be found (p.77)
-- since 7th century B.C. Ezion Geber is in a full development (p.81), and this is another evidence that the book of Moses was written in 7th century according to the political conditions of that time (p.77).
So, there are no remnants for both camps of faked Moses during his alleged exodus in 13th century in respect of the alleged 600,000 persons of the migration under Moses [and there are no remnants of other persons either] (p.77).
The invention of an aggressive Canaanite king of Arad
Map with Kadesh Barnea, Arad, Ezion Geber, and Hesbon
Canaanite king of Arad is said having attacked the Israelis and kept some of them as prisoners of war. Then is said that the Jews had claimed to the sky for help pleading that all Canaanite towns will be destroyed (Numeri 21,1-3) (p.77).
Archeology speaks: There was NO king of Arad in these times
-- there were intensive excavations with the hill of ruins of Arad (Tel Arad) eastward of Beersheba. 20 years the archeolgists were digging and searching. Remnants of a big town of the European Early Bronze Age could be found, a surface of 10 hectares, as big as a fortress during the European Iron Age (p.77)
-- but from Late Bronze Age in 13th century B.C. there is NOTHING, is seems Arad was left during this time
-- these times of a populated period and an uninhabited period can be stated for the whole bay of Beersheba (p.77).
So, during Late Bronze Age in 13th century B.C. Arad seems having been left by some reason, and there was NO king for sure (p.77).
Migration around the Dead Sea up to the border of the West Bank??
During his migration faked Moses cannot have been blocked by any king of Arad because there was nobody in Arad at this time].
The allegedly bad Ammonite king in Hesbon (capital of Sihon) is said having blocked passing the Jews
Position of Hesbon, satellite photo
-- the mass of the 600,000 Israelites is said having migrated around the Dead Sea
-- Ammonite king of Sihon in his capital of Hesbon in the North of Dead Sea is said having blocked the Jews on their way to Canaan
-- the Jews are said having fought the army of the Ammonite king (p.77), like this it is described in Num. 21,21-25, Deuteronomy 2,24-35, book of Judges II, 19-21 (p.78).
Archeology speaks: Ammon was no state in Moses' times
During 13th century B.C. there was no statal structure and there was no Ammonite king who had been capable blocking the pass of the Jews in these times (p.78).
Archeology speaks: Hesbon did not exist in Moses' times
The hill of ruins ("tell") from Hesbon indicates no findings for Late Bronze Times in 13th century B.C. There was not even a village. Hesbon was without population in these times (p.78).
Faked Moses cannot have been blocked by a State of Ammon with a king in Hesbon when this State of Ammon and this town of Hesbon did not exist in these times].
10 The alleged occupation - the legend of Moses' death: Moses describing his own death...
Moses is said having proclaimed the laws
-- only in the Eastbank in the plain of Moab Moses is said having proclaimed the precise text of the laws which have to be followed when Canaan should be occupied well (p.65)
-- 5th Moses book (Deuteronomy) indicates that Moses is said having written on Mount Nebo the 5 Moses books with it's own hand shortly before his death (p.22).
The alleged warning of Moses that all laws have to be fulfilled precisely
God is said having stood before the Jews when they were at the frontier entering Canaan, and God is said having ordered an ethnic cleansing in Canaan destroying all traces of idolatry destroying all Canaanites (p.87).
Before his death Moses is said having stressed who important would be to fulfill all laws of god for a successful occupation of the promised land (p.87) respectively the new "Book of Law" claims that the new "laws" should be fulfilled in all their details so the sins of generations before will be overcome and the whole land will be Jewish (p.110).
Moses is said having stated that the Jews will perform the occupation of the land and will keep the occupation
-- when the law of the alliance will be followed strictly
-- when there will not be marriages with the neighbors [this law goes against any anti racism law]
-- when every involvement into heathen style of life of Canaan will be omitted (p.112).
[There is a big contradiction with this law
It's not comprehensible why God will "promise" land to a group of humans which has to be occupied first by wars and religious mass murder. Add to this this region is a transit country for the big Empires and will be occupied again and again by new powers. In any other region will be more peace than there].
The alleged appointment of the new war leader Joshua
Before his death Moses is said having appointed Joshua - his adjutant for many years - as the war leader for the alleged occupation of the land (p.87). Joshua is the sun of Nun. Joshua is said having been the new war leader for the occupation and ethnic cleansing action (p.65).
The alleged death of Moses
-- Moses shall die as the last member of the group which had the experience in Egypt (p.87)
-- Moses himself is said having died on Mount Nebo (p.65).
Moses is said having prescribed his own death. This is really not possible...
Map with Mount Nebo with the towns Dibon and Jericho. In the period of Moses Jericho has no population.
Conclusion: Heroism of Moses exodus is a fake in combination with the political situation of 720 B .C. appr.
All proofs and evidence indicate that the exodus of Moses was written in the second half of 7th century B.C. and in the first half of 6th century B.C., because many places refer to the political landscape of the 7th century B.C. (p.82). But during the alleged exodus these places had no population and played no political role (p.78).
So, the exodus from Egypt is a composition of different periods of times (p.78):
-- not one single Egypt ruler of the time of the claimed exodus is mentioned with it's name in OT, but later the rulers are always mentioned with their names
-- the only real reason for a migration in the desert migrating on Sinai peninsula would be the fright of the of the coastal road by the Israeli masses of 600,000 migrants, but the Egypt fortress system is never mentioned in the Moses books, and at the same time the supervision of the coastal road is very strong during 7th century B.C. as it was during the alleged exodus from Egypt (p.79).
[The evidence of the Egypt chain of fortresses is missing in the Bible
The fact that the Egypt fortress system on the coastal road is missing, this is a main evidence that the whole exodus of Moses is an invention. Or the fortresses had been empty for 40 years during the exodus, but archeology would have made out this jump in the cultural development comparing articles of daily use, and empty fortresses would not make any sense].
[Calumniation of kingdom of Moab and kingdom of Ammon also is wrong - the war since 1948
The invention of kingdoms having blocked the masses of population under Moses also is wrong because these kingdoms Moab and Ammon did not exist in these times according to the archaeological excavations. So, Old Testament is a systematic calumniation having a propagandistic war reason for a later time. It can even be admitted that the wars between racist Zionist Israel and its neighbors since 1948 always get new mental stipulation by these calumniations].
Donald Redford: Exodus under leadership of Moses is a legend in combination with the geographical conditions of 7th century B.C.
Archaeologist and egyptologist Donald Redford comes to the conclusion that all geographic conditions of the exodus are implanted from 7th century B.C. So, all events with the faked exodus can be explained (p.79):
-- the location of Pithom in the eastern part of Nile Delta was constructed as a town at the end of the 7th century B.C. and before hardly is any population there
-- the designation of Migdol is a general denomination for fortresses in the New Reich, but as a geographic name in the eastern Nile Delta Migdol is only important in the 7th century B.C., mentioned in Jeremiah 44,1 and 46,14
-- Gosen as a location for Jews coming from Canaan arriving in Egypt (Genesis 45,10) is not an Egypt name, but is a Semite name of Arab Kedarite kings, and only since 6th century B.C. Arab population is coming to the delta taking over the power there in 5th century B.C. (p.80).
A short summary is like this:
Jewish immigration to Egypt and also the exodus under the leadership of Moses seem to be a free composition of histories and legends. But casually all mentioned places and states correspond with the map of 7th century B.C. (p.82).
Finkelstein / Silberman are joining this thesis because "Torah and history presented in Deuteronomy in fact has got characteristics having been written in the 7th century B.C." (p.34)
Identity of Israelites (Jews) is formed in the mountain villages of Canaan and in the desert of Jordan of today, and in Egypt the Jews hardly had something to do.
Slavery in Egypt is a lie and can be dropped. The construction of a town Ramses with slavery is a lie and can be dropped. And also heroism of a child of Moses found in a little basket in Nile river, and the great migration 40 years in the desert under leadership of Moses are a lie and can be dropped, and also the laws of Moses are a lie and can be dropped. All this is an invention of Orthodox priests who abused their competence being able to read and to write - to the contrary the masses of the populations in these times were illiterates yet. And by this all reasons of hatred against Egypt fall away for all Jews - oh, this is bad for war mongers racist Zionists. There is no propaganda against Egypt any more!!!].
11 The faked occupation under a Joshua appr. 1230-1220 B.C.: the real culprits were other ones
Was there a conquest of land with a mass of hungry Jewish men, women and children?
After the alleged prophecy is said that there was a conquest of land resp. an occupation (p.20).
Map with Jericho, Ai, Hazor, Gibeon and Lachish, satellite photo
-- there was a mass of Jewish men, women and children - and they were handicapped in their health and did not have much with them - and this mass are said having performed an invasion against the big fortresses of Canaan and are said having won (p.86) and they are said having needed appr. 10 years for this, according to the Bible this is said having happened from 1230 to 1220 B.C. (p.89)
-- the book of Joshua claims when the rule would be observed well, so there will fail no victory (p.110)
-- claimed occupied cities are Jericho, Ai, Gibeon, Lachish and Hazor (p.86).
The composed myths and stories about an Israelite past are compiled to one single military campaign under Joshua (p.106), and the whole invasion with mass murder is said having happened with the blessing of God (p.107).
The alleged fall of Jericho
-- Joshua is said having performed one successful siege after the other
-- first it is said that Joshua had taken the bridge head of Jericho: When the mass was crossing Jordan river, two spies are said having been sent to Jericho evaluating the situation and returning that a whore Rahab had informed them that whole Jericho would be very afraid of the future Jewish invasion (p.87)
-- it is said that crossing the Jordan river was no problem, and the Ark of the Covenant is said having borne in advance of the mass of the people
-- it is said that after 7 days of siege the Israelite war trombones had provoked a fall of the strong walls of Jericho (Jos. 6) (p.87).
The alleged fall of Ai bei Bethel
-- as a next town Ai bei Bethel is said having been sieged (p.87-88) with a double tactic: Joshua is said having installed a big military camp in the East and a little one in the West, so the men of Ai had stormed against the big camp, and they are said having pursued the Jews up to the desert
-- then the little part of the Jewish army is said having occupied the town of Ai from the West without any fight putting fire on the whole town
-- then Joshua is said having slaughtered all inhabitants of Ai, having collected all cattle and prey, and Joshua is said having hanged the king of Ai on a tree (Jos. 8,1-29) (p.88).
The alleged panic in Canaan
There is said that after this panic broke out in whole Canaan (p.88).
The alleged claim of the Gibeonites that they would not be natives and by this should not be defeated
The Gibeonites allegedly claim for mercy and are enslaved by the Jews.
-- Gibeonites in panic living in four towns in the North of Jerusalem (p.88) (Gibeon, Kephira, Beeroth, Kiriat-Jearim) (p.97) are said having pleaded for mercy claiming that they would be foreigners and not natives, and by this the order of extermination would not be valid for them, and Joshua is said having agreed to this (p.88)
-- but then there is said that it was stated that the Gibeonites were natives and Joshua is said having enslaved the Gibeonites for ever to "woodcutters and scoops" (Jos. 9,27) (p.88).
The alleged counter coalition against the alleged Jewish invasion
Map with Jericho, Ai, Gibeon, Jarmuth, Lachish, Eglon, Hazor and the Hermon mountains (2814m)
-- there had been a counter coalition under the king of Jerusalem, Adoni-Zedek, with the king of Hebron and with the kings in the Western highlands (Jarmuth, Lachish and Egon)
-- the Canaanites are said having unified their armies at the central place of Gibeon
-- the Canaanite army is said having fled in panic to the steep mountain crest of Beth Horon in the West, and God is said having rained big "hail stones" on the Canaanite armies, so by the hail stones were more deaths to deplore than by the fights (Jos. 10,11)
-- Joshua is said having pleaded to God before sunset keeping the sun without movement winning time for the killing of all enemies (p.88)
-- then it's said that in fact the sun made no movement during a complete day, and by this God had helped Israel (Jos. 10, 13-14)
-- the fled kings are said having been seized and executed (p.89).
The alleged further destruction in the South of Israel Palestine
The alleged big stone at the entrance of the cave of Makkeda
-- five Canaanite kings (king of Jerusalem, of Hebron, of Jarmuth / Jarmut, of Lachish and of Eglon) are said having fled of Joshua's troops to a cave near Makkeda
-- Joshua is said having received the report that the five kings had hidden themselves in the cave
-- then Joshua is said having put big stones closing the entrance of the cave locking the cave until all enemies of the region were killed
-- after the population had been allegedly killed, Joshua is said having ordered to hang all five kings on five trees
-- in the evening Joshua is said having ordered to bring down the dead bodies of the kings throwing them into the cave, and then the cave is said having locked with stones again "up to the present day" (Joshua 10, 16-27) (p.106).
[The place where should be the cave of Makkeda cannot be found. In Ethiopian language the word Makkeda is the word for "queen"].
Under Joshua the Jewish warriors are said having destroyed all towns of southern Canaan and occupied the southern region (p.89).
The alleged final battle in the North of Israel Palestine against the northern coalition under the command of Jabin of Hazor
-- in the North a coalition of Canaanites kings under the supreme command of Jabin of Hazor is said having built a big army against the alleged Jewish murder invasion against any international law (Jos. 11,4)
-- the armies of the Canaanites under Jabin are said having been confronted with the Israeli army in Galilee on an open field
-- Joshua's warriors are said having completely destroyed the north Canaanite troops
-- then Joshua is said having occupied Hazor and put fire on the whole city, the most important city of Canaan, according to the OT "the main town of all kingdoms" (Jos. 11,10) (p.89).
In this way Israel Palestine is said having been occupied by the Israelites from the desert in the South to the snowy mountains of Hermon mountains in the North, and God had given this land to the Jews. Then the land is said having been split to the Israeli tribes (p.89).
Documents and archeology are speaking that occupation under Joshua is a fake
Book Joshua is a collection of myths
-- German Bible searchers of 19th century are defining the book of Joshua as a collection of myths, heroic stories and local ideas
-- above all Albrecht Alt and Martin Noth mean that the book Joshua would be a product of aetiological [searching the origin] tradition with myths about processes of growth [and destruction] (p.106).
The faked warlord Joshua is presented like a king
-- the alleged takeover of power for example is described like an enthronement (Joshua 1, 1-9) (p.110-111)
-- the faked warlord Joshua is said having given a profession of loyalty (Joshua 1,16-18) that reminds to the oath of obedience to a king
-- the faked warlord Joshua is said having led a ceremony to revive the alliance with God (Joshua 8,30-35) as all kings of Judah have done
-- God is said having ordered to faked Joshua studying day and night (Joshua 1,8-9) how also king Josia is said having done (2d book of Kings 23,25) (p.111).
The order of the towns in the book of Joshua corresponds with the order of the 7th century B.C.
It seems very strange, but the strategic military aims in the fake Joshua book correspond with the strategic military aims of later war of king Josia (p.111):
-- the list with the towns on the territory of the tribe Judah (book of Joshua 15, 21-62) corresponds exactly to the development as it was under king Josia. Finkelstein / Silberman say:
"This list corresponds exactly with the border lines of of the kingdom of Judah under Joshia's rule." (p.108)
-- and the names of the locations are corresponding almost exactly with the layout of the settlements of the 7th century B.C.
-- some of the mentioned places "were only populated in the last decades of the 7th century B.C." (p.108)
-- so, also the campaign project corresponds with the situation of the 7th century B.C. (p.108).
-- and also the prescription of northern territories corresponds to ex North Reich Israel under Assyrian occupation and the latter Assyrian province [Samaria] (p.109), since the Assyrian occupation named as "Samerina" (p.241).
The documents speak: Canaan in 13th century B.C. was an absolute Egypt province - and any Jewish invasion is not possible
-- according to letters of Egypt Pharaohs found in Tell el-Amarna, Canaan is an Egypt province during the faked Jewish invasion
-- there was a strict Egypt administration, the capital of Canaan province was Gaza
-- Egypt garrisons were distributed in all the country at the strategic hot spots, for example in Beth-Shean in the South of Lake Gennesaret, or in Joppa (today's Jaffa, a part of southern Tel Aviv at the coast)
-- in the OT the Egypt dominance over Canaan during the faked Jewish occupation is concealed
-- the Canaanite rulers themselves hardly had to say anything corresponding to the Egypt documents (p.90)
-- it can be admitted that Pharaoh Ramesses II did never relax his control over Canaan because his military forces were one of the strongest of Egypt history and his goal in foreign affairs was very high
-- upheavals were answered with Egypt troops immediately, and they could come fast by the well prepared road along the Mediterranean Sea between Egypt and Canaan (p.91).
The impossibilities of a Jewish invasion in Canaan in 13th and 12th century B.C.
-- it's proved that there was never any exodus under Moses, so there is the question, how had been a conquest (p.86)
-- Egypt is said having been passive during the Jewish invasion which also seems impossible (p.92)
-- Egypt documents never mention any Jewish invasion nowhere, but such an invasion surely had been mentioned [in such an important territory like Canaan] when it had been executed (p.92)
-- the only source mentioning the name of "Israel" in the 13th century is a stele of Pharaoh Meenptha (1235-1224 B.C.) where is indicated a victory against the Israelites (p.92).
Archeology speaks: There were no city walls nowhere in Canaan in 13th century
-- the Canaanite towns of these relevant times had fortified administration seats of the leading ruling class with the ruling family and their administrators, with palace, temple complex, and with some public buildings
-- the Canaanite towns themselves had no city walls
-- the farmers were dispersed in little villages
-- all sieges and city walls in Old Testament are a fake, so (p.90).
There can be presumed the reasons for the missing of city walls in Canaan of these times in 13th century B.C.:
-- perhaps because of the military dominance of Egypt, so it was considered that a construction of city walls would not be necessary (p.90-91)
-- perhaps because of high taxes for Egypt, so the local rulers had no means for the construction of city walls any more
-- or perhaps Egypt forbade the construction of city walls controlling more the population (p.91).
According to archaeological findings there was a high Egyptian influence and control in Canaan for a long time after the faked Jewish conquest until came the time of Ramesses VI at the end of the 12th century B.C. (p.92).
Findings of statues and hieroglyphs at Beth-Shean [Greek: Scythopolis]
Map of Decapolis in the Middle East with Scythopolis / Beth Shean
Beth-Shean / Scythopolis: a part of the high hill of ruins (tell)
"Christian" religious schools, priests, pastors and layman preacher mostly mean that such town hills should not be taken earnest. They are going on claiming that the letters in the Bible are right...
In the 1920s there was excavated an Egypt fortress in Beth Shean [also: Beth Shan, Greek: Scythopolis] (p.91). The findings were statues with texts in hieroglyphs from the time of the Pharaohs
-- Sethos I (1294-1279 B.C.)
-- Ramses II (1279-1213 B.C.)
-- Ramses III (1184-1153 B.C.) (p.92).
These findings are absolute proofs for a strong Egypt dominance in the region in this time, and in other hills of ruins more such fortresses can be found].
Excavations in Jericho (hill of ruins Tell es-Sultan) say: there was no population in 13th century B.C.
The hill of ruins (tell) of Jericho, see: www.bibleplaces.com
The excavations at the hill of ruins (tell) of Jericho (also called: Tell es-Sultan, er-Riha, Eriha, Yeriho) give the following information:
-- for the 14th century B.C. there can be proved only a little village without any fortification
-- for the 13th century there is no trace of any population at all, the spot was without population
-- and traces of destruction are missing also (p.96).
So, according to Finkelstein / Silberman, the trombones which allegedly have destroyed the city walls of Jericho, are a big lie (p.96).
[No city walls and no population were there: That is a double lie].
Archeology says about Ai (hill of ruins called Chirbet et-Tell): there was no population in 13th century B.C.
The hill of ruins (tell) of Ai, Chirbet et-Tell, see: www.bibleplaces.com
-- the excavations of Jewish woman archaeologist Judith Marquet-Krause 1933-1935 showed ruins of a huge town from Early Bronze Age in appr. 2300 B.C.
-- from Late Bronze Age during the alleged Jewish invasion was not found anything, the location was without population
-- and new excavations in the 1960s have not brought anything new (p.96).
According to archaeological excavations Jericho and Ai had no population during the conquest of the Jews in Canaan (p.96).
Bible-believing archaeologist Albright means that the alleged events of Ai had happened in Bethel near Ai (p.97).
Excavations at the four Gibeonite towns which allegedly pleaded for protection: Gibeon, Kephira, Beeroth, Kiriat-Jearim: there was no population
-- the scholars can find an agreement that the excavation in the village ed-Dshib in the North of Jerusalem would be the hill of Gibeon
-- then remnants of Middle Bronze Age and of Iron Age are found, but nothing is found of Late Bronze Age. So Gibeon in these times also had no population
-- in the other three towns populated allegedly by the Gibeonites during the Late Bronze Age (Kephira, Beeroth and Kiriat-Jearim) there cannot be found anything either of Late Bronze Age (p.97).
The stone of the cave of Makkeda: that's nothing more than a rumor
One rumor indicates that in a cave of Makkeda had been captivated 5 kings of the Old Ages with a stone (Joshua 10, 16-27).
It can be that a big stone before an entrance of a cave has impressed the population all the time. And according to the Bible researchers Albrecht Alt and Martin Noth it can be that there are created new heroic stories and rumors about such a stone (p.106).
[There is nothing more about this stone and it's cave, neither a stone, and neither a cave].
More excavations: towns without populations and fire storms
There are more excavations and more towns without population are found, but also traces of fire storms are found. The stated fire storms are dated in a range of time of 100 years. But there cannot have been an invasion of Joshua of over 100 years, but here were other culprits doing their work. So, Jewry has never committed any genocide under Joshua, and this is principally only good news.
But there are stated many fire storms in Canaan with ash layers with fallen walls and burnt wooden beams, but there are no city walls (p.94). The ruins of the burnt cities are building a "layer of destruction" with a thickness of 1 to 2 meters (p.105).
Map with Megiddo and Debir, satellite photo
Excavations in Megiddo in Jezreel plain indicate that there was no populationAccording the excavations Megiddo had a territory of 10 hectares (p.95). Remnants of Middle Bronze Age and of Iron Age are found, but from Late Bronze Age is not found anything (p.97).
The hill of ruins (tell) of Megiddo
Excavations in Debir (at the Tell Bet Mirsim) show a fire storm
Between 1926 and 1932 the archaeologist and language researcher William Foxwell Albreight is leading excavations at the Tell Bet Mirsim south west of Hebron:
-- the Tell Bet Mirsim is identified as the town of Debir
-- in the OT there is mentioned a Jewish occupation three times (Joshua 10, 38-39; 15, 15-19) and in the book of Judges 1,11-15
-- according to the excavations Debir was a little, poor town without city wall
-- according to Albright a big fire storm destroyed the whole town in 1230 B.C.
-- rough potsherds are identified by Albright as Israelite
-- and by this Albright means that the invasion of the Jews had really happened (p.94).
Excavations at the Arab village Betin: Lus becomes Bethel: and there was another fire storm
-- the location near Betin is identified as Bethel
-- archeology states that Betel was a Canaanite town with population during the Late Bronze Age
-- at the end of the 13th century Bethel was destroyed by a fire storm, and during the Iron Age I it was populated by another population as it seems (p.94).
Archaeologist Albright means that the book of Judges 1,22-26 and the conquest would be fulfilled by this: The Canaanite town Lus had been occupied by relatives of Joseph and the name had been changes into Bethel (p.94).
But it's not necessary that Bethel has been destroyed by Israelites (p.97).
around 1170 B.C.
Excavations in Lachish (hill of ruins Tell ed Duwer): and there was a fire storm again
The hill of ruins (tell) of Lachish, see: www.bibleplaces.com
In the 1930s British archaeologists are excavating a big town of Late Bronze Age (p.94) with a layout of 10 hectares (p.95), and again is found the trace of a fire storm. For the archaeologists the Bible text of Joshua 10,31-32 is fulfilled by this (p.94).
The impressive Canaanite town of Lachish was burnt down and then given up (p.105). The date of the fire storm is proved for around 1170 B.C. because there are peaces of metals in the "layer of destruction" - probably from the main town gate - with the inscription of Pharaoh Ramses III who had it's governance from 1184 to 1153 B.C. (p.105).
But it's not necessary that Lachish has been destroyed by Israelites (p.97).
Excavations in Hazor (hill of ruins Tell el-Waggas): and once again there was a fire storm
The hill of ruins (tell) of Hazor (Tell el-Waggas), see: www.bibleplaces.com
Hazor: a six chamber gate was found, but there is the question who built it
In 1956 the Jewish archaeologist Yigael Yadin begins with his excavation of Hazor (p.94). According to Joshua 11,20 "this was the capital of all these kingdoms" in Canaan (p.94-95). Can be confirmed this?
Tell el-Waggas is a huge tell:
-- according to archaeological research Hazor was the greatest town of Canaan in the Late Bronze Age, 80 hectares was the layout (p.95)
-- according to the archeology the climax of the development in Hazor was in the European Mid Bronze Age (2000-1550 B.C.), but the boom of the town lasted far into the Late Bronze Age
-- there are many temples and huge palaces excavated
-- the palace is excavated in the 1990s under the leadership of archaeologist Amnon Ben-Tor from Hebrew University [Jerusalem] (p.95)
-- there are cuneiform findings indicating an archive, and among others there is mentioned the king of Hazor: Ibni, which is mentioned in the Mari archives as Ibni Addu
-- Finkelstein / Silberman presume that the name stays in connection with the king of Hazor Yabin, eventually this was a dynasty (p.95).
And then was a fire storm and the destruction:
-- in the 13th century B.C. the boom of the time finds a sudden end, the town is destroyed and put on fire, the mud bricks of the palace walls are burnt in red and are standing today yet with a height of 1.8 meters (p.95)
-- the town is destroyed relatively soon, at about 1350 B.C., and this is provable with ceramic findings: The ceramics found don't have yet the typical form of the late 13th century (p.105)
-- god's statues are beheaded and broken (p.104).
But it's not necessary that Hazor has been destroyed by Israelites (p.97).
And then was a poor population:
After some time of being lost a poor village was found in the center of this huge field of ruins which can be proved with potsherds similar as in the early Israeli villages in the highlands of the West Bank more to the South (p.95).
Other excavations in other towns of the alleged conquest: Arad, Hesbon a.o.: more fire storms
Also in the hills of ruins of Arad, of Hesbon etc. are found remnants of the Mid Bronze Age and of the Iron Age, but nothing can be found of the late Bronze Age (p.97) resp. there are traces of fires, but there is no obligation that Jews were the culprits who put the fires (p.97).
Villages are not destroyed
Another mystery is the fact that some spots are totally destroyed, but others not, without any destruction (p.107). The majority of the villages in Canaan are not burnt. And the villages are not left either (p.120).
Map with Kadesh Barnea, Arad, and Hesbon, satellite photo
-- there were no city walls in Canaan (p.96)
Clearance of the contradictions: The real culprits were wild pirates ("maritime nations") exploiting the peace
-- and the peace between Egypt and the Hittites in combination with a hyperextention of the borders gives way to the negative ideas of pirates looting the towns (p.99-100).
In the beginning of the 13th century B.C. both Empires of the region, Egypt and Hittites, have a great military battle with a draw between the Egypt Pharaoh Ramesses II and the Hittite king Muwattalli on Orontes river (western Syria, today's Lebanon).
Map with the Empires of Egypt and the Hittites with Orontes river as
borderline: Jerusalem did not exist in these times yet.
There is an agreement between the successor of Muwattalli, Hattuschili III and Ramesses II with a peace treaty "for ever" (p.99), and Ramesses even is taking a Hittite princess as his wife, as a symbol for the peace treaty (p.100).
In the region of eastern Mediterranean until far into the 13th century B.C. there are governing Egypt in the South (p.97) with the capital of No-Amon, today Luxor (p.101), and in the North are governing the Hittites with the borderline in Syria (p.97) with their capital of Hattusha in the East of the today's Ankara (p.101). It could be that the trade power of Mycenae (Peloponnese of Greece) has used the situation for attacks. This Mycenae is managing the whole trade in the eastern Mediterranean under the observation of the big powers, altogether with the strategic island of Cyprus (p.100).
There is a dramatic change of the societies. The heavy crises is devastating the kingdoms of the Bronze Age (p.97) and there are new kingdoms coming up (p.98). The precise cause for the collapse of the Reichs of the Later Bronze Age is not known. The source of violence is not clear. [It was surely not a Jewish invasion after 40 years of migration in the desert].
-- possible is a war about essential land strips and farmer's villages
-- or harassed farmers and shepherds have attacked the big towns (p.104)
-- or there were invasions from different sides
-- or the society collapsed
-- or there was a civil war (p.105).
There was mass pillage and setting fire in the whole region of eastern Mediterranean Sea
-- scholars mean that the fires were put by violent maritime nations in combination with an invasion on the land (p.101)
-- there had been huge maritime nations having made an alliance with the Philistines, Sicels, Shekelesh, Denyens, and with the Weshesh
-- according to drawings and paintings these maritime nations are foreign ethnic groups, some have helmets with horns, others have headdresses with feathers on their heads (p.102)
-- there are also reports from Ugarit [a city state in northern Syria on the Mediterranean coast] and also from Egypt are reports from the early 12th century mentioning such looters (p.101).
Other scholars mean
-- that there had been an easy alliance of pirates and rootless souls
-- there had been a change of climate and foreigners from the North had been driven away by this and had arrived in the Mediterranean (p.103) provoking a forming of wild groups of pirates and looters (p.104)
-- the whole society of eastern Mediterranean had suffered an over specialization and a block of development and could have collapsed by this (p.104) provoking the forming of wild pirates and looters (p.104).
Finding of text: Ugarit is in danger by hostile ships and pillage
The last king of the Ugarit, Hammurabi, reports to the the king of Alashiya (today Cyprus) claiming hostile ships and pillages. Hammurabi warns that Ugarit will not be able to defend itself because his troops were in the land of the Hittites and his boats in Lycia (p.102).
Map with Ugarit at the upper Mediterranean coast opposite to Cyprus.
Other finding of a text: The king of Chatti [Anatolia] claims an invasion of the maritime nations
The king of Chatti reports to the prefect of Ugarit [city state of today's Syria] that there are maritime nations as "Shiqalaya [...] living on boats." (p.102)
The northern part of the eastern Mediterranean is in ruins
Up to 1175 B.C. the maritime nations have destroyed the complete north eastern Mediterranean region:
-- Chatti [Anatolia]
-- Alashiya (Cyprus)
-- Ugarit [city state in today's Syria on the Mediterranean coast] (p.102).
[Conclusion: This wave of destruction was abused for Jewish war heroes
Now also neighboring regions of Israel Palestine are in ruins. It seems as if the writer of the OT wanted to use this wave of destruction for an invented war hero].
Resistance of Canaan can inhibit the destruction
-- Canaan can inhibit it's destruction for almost 100 years - in contrast to the Hittite Empire
-- but then more and more violence also destroys the order in Canaan
-- and also Canaanite town are victims of fire storms or come down more and more (p.104).
There is another inscription: Egypt is preparing the defense - and Egypt can defend the invasion
According to monumental inscriptions of Ramses III in the temple in Medinet Habu in Upper Egypt the Egyptians are preparing their defense in this time against the conspired maritime nations coming more and more to the south (p.102).
A group of seven Sea Peoples invaded Egypt in the days of Ramses III. On his mortuary temple at Medinet Habu, the pharaoh had depicted his successful land and sea battles against these migrant peoples.
Inscriptions at the temple in Medinet Habu, built under Ramses III
The temple in Medinet Habu, built under Ramses III
The temple complex in Medinet Habu, built under Ramses III, air photo
Inscription in the temple wall of the temple of Ramses III in Medinet Habu, left side of the wall
Inscription in the temple wall of the temple of Ramses III in Medinet Habu, middle and right side of the wall
These illustrations of the fights show the strong ethnic difference of the invaders and the Egyptians. Some have helmets with horns, others have headdresses with feathers on their heads (p.102)
Philistines with feathers on their heads. Illustration in the temple in Medinet Habu, built under Ramesses III
The Philistines are known by their use of feather head dresses, swan decorations, two edged swords, spears, and rounded shields. The majority of the Sea Peoples are clean-shaved, but a few Philistines are depicted with beards.
The army of Egypt under Ramses III can stop the invasion of the conspired maritime nations on the Egypt border (p.102).
Destruction of the Philistine towns of Ashdod and Ekron
The Philistine towns - they are allies of the maritime nations - show the catastrophe very well:
-- above all Ashdod is a wealthy center of Canaan in the 13th century B.C. under the influence of Egypt with constructional engineering in Egypt Canaanite mixed style in architecture and pottery
Map with Ashdod, Ekron, Aphek (in the coastal plain) and with Megiddo, satellite photo
Ashdod: the hill of ruins (tell) is almost invisible by the fields
The hill of ruins of Ekron (Tell Miqne) is only some meters higher than the fields
-- and then Ashdod is destroyed after the times of Ramses III by a fire
-- in 12th century B.C. new towns are founded on the ruins of Ashdod and Ekron by Philistine immigrants, and the towns again are wealthy, with a new material culture, but in a completely new Aegean inspired style in architecture and pottery (p.104).
about 1230 B.C.
Fire storm in Aphek in the coastal plain
This fire storm is happening around the year 1230 B.C. This is stated by archaeological findings: In the "layer of destruction" is found a letter in cuneiform writing mentioning Ugaritian and Egyptian officials who can be dated precisely with other sources (p.105). The letter of Aphek in cuneiform writing describes a vital corn trade between Ugarit and Egypt (p.105).
1140 B.C. appr.
Fire storm in the town of Megiddo
-- main witness of this fire storm at the end of Late Bronze Age are burned mud bricks
-- the "layer of destruction" with all it's rubble has got a thickness of 1.8 meters (p.105)
-- the evidence for the date of about 1140 B.C. is a metal socket of a statue found in the layer of destruction with the name Ramses IV who was governing 1143 to 1136 B.C. (p.105).
On the countryside life is going on as usual (p.179).
The hill of ruins (tell) of Megiddo, see: www.bibleplaces.com
The big Empires in the eastern Mediterranean are all destroyed
The changes in the region are dramatic, and also Egypt is affected:
-- Egypt is a shadow of it's past and a big part of the Empire is destroyed
-- the Hittite Empire with its capital Hattusha is in ruins
-- Mycenaean world with it's center of Crete is destroyed
-- trade with Cyprus with it's copper mines is stopped
-- Canaanite ports are only ruins, also the great sea power of Ugarit
-- Megiddo and Hazor are fields of ruins (p.101).
Stop the bad fantasies: There is a logic of time: 100 years of Joshua campaign are not possible
It's proved that the towns of Hazor, Aphek, Lachish and Megiddo are destroyed within 100 years. And it's impossible that Joshua has made an invasion over 100 years (p.105).
[Conclusion: The faked war hero Joshua has got ruins that are not from him
The Jewish priests of the 1 God movement who have written the Old Testament, they meant that the ruins of the former times could be used for the creation of a faked Jewish war hero. And many believed it].
12 Documents in Egypt with the name of "Israel"
There is a stele of victory of Pharaoh Merenptah mentioning a great victory against the Israelites
Victoria stele describing victories of Pharaoh Merenptah
Pharaoh Merenptah is the son of Ramses II. According to this "Merenptah stele" he is said having defeated the Israelites in a successful campaign at the end of 13th century B.C. The Israelites are said having been expelled and massively reduced claiming that Israel's "seed would be off" (p.71).
This stele is the first safe historical proof of a text mentioning the word "Israel" (p.71). But the location of the alleged battle is not mentioned. So, since 1207 B.C. it's only proved that in Egypt it's known that some group exists with the name of "Israel" (p.89).
According to archeology there are founded many new villages in the highlands of Canaan at the same time. These founding wave of new villages can be connected with the expulsion of Israelite population (p.71).
[It can be that the Israelites have played with the sea peoples against Egypt, and Jerusalem was at another place and is not detected yet? Archeology cannot say anything yet. This stele is a mystery. Speculations may go on...]
12th century B.C. / interim period from Bronze Age to Iron Age / end of Late Bronze Age / 1150 B.C. appr.
Collapse of Egypt and Hittite Empires - wave of villages - villages and towns in the highlands - independences
The powers are collapsing (p.134). City states of Canaan are weakened
-- by raids of the sea peoples
-- by rivalries
-- or by social upheavals
-- accompanied by a fast economic decline.
Weakening of the city states of Canaan permits the independence for the city states in the highlands - Shechem (Bible name for "Israel") and Jerusalem (Bible name for "Judah") (p.178).
The survivors of the regions win the independence. The populations of the villages are probably producing just for their personal needs. But the heaviest consequences suffer the Bedouins: They cannot change corn in the villages any more and have to cultivate corn themselves now, and now they are settling down, and there are more villages installed (p.134).
So, according to Finkelstein / Silberman the genesis of villages is the result of the collapse of Canaanite culture, and the importance of the Israelite villages is rising. The native people were the Canaanites. Other peoples as the foreigners, Bedouins who are called Israelites later, were not from the coastal region (p.135)
Wave of villages also in the Eastbank of Jordan river
Also in the Eastbank of Jordan river can be proved the same wave of foundations of villages. But this local population is not Israelite, but is forming the kingdoms of Ammon and Moab and Edom later (p.135).
1180-1130 B.C. appr.
Towns without population
Some decades the big towns are left without population, for example Megiddo, Tel Dor, or Tel Rehov (p.179).
1150-586 B.C. / European Iron Age
The highlands of Canaan are developing a change into territorial states
since 1130 B.C. appr.
New population in the towns of Canaan
The fields of ruins are populated by the native Canaanite population again. There follows a regeneration of the towns, for example Megiddo, Tel Dor, or Tel Rehov, but the towns are not that big like before (p.179).
[Town on hill of ruins ("Tell"): by this are acropolis created
Every town constructed on a hill of ruins is 1.5 to 2 meters higher. The repeated events of destruction and reconstruction gives the result of towns on hills, and at the end these towns are on an acropolis].
13 Alleged split of the land after the victory after the faked occupation
There are different versions of victories for the faked occupation: total victory or partial victory
-- the whole land is said having occupied by the Jews and all enemies are said having defeated (Joshua 21, 43-44) (p.112)
-- "The land was calmed by the war" (Joshua 11,23)
-- all Canaanites and other native peoples are said having been destroyed (p.113).
But according to other passages in the faked book Joshua many Canaanites and Philistines are going on living as neighbors of the Israelites (book Joshua, book of Judges) (p.112). The same book Joshua stating that all land would be occupied (p.113) is stating in other passages that big parts of Canaan are waiting to be occupied yet (p.113-114):
-- all territories of the Philistines on the southern coast
-- the Phoenician coast farther to the North
-- the whole Beka'a valley in the North East (Joshua 13,1-6)
-- and in over 50% of the tribal homeland would exist big enclaves with Canaanites yet
-- according to book of Judges, Megiddo, Beth-Shean and Gezer are not under Jewish occupation, but according to book Joshua the rulers of these towns are in the list of the alleged defeated kings
-- the Ammonites and Moabites on the Eastbank of Jordan river, [the invented] Jewish enemies, are said having been not defeated, as also the Midianites and the Amalekites with their alleged assaults on camels coming from the desert (p.114).
[All these contradictions provoke that the events of Joshua's victories are not very trustworthy. But there are other facts].
Life of the early Jewish tribes according to outdated OT: book of Judges
At the beginning of the outdated book of Judges is indicated the warning of assimilation in chapter 2,11-19 [racism with prohibition of marriage], and inspired persons, fair-minded men and women, so called "judges", have to save the population of Israel of critical situation (p.115).
But ethnic mixed connections also were known, e.g. the case of Simson (p.112).
The invented distribution of land according to outdated OT
-- Joshua is said having called all tribes for a land distribution
-- the tribes Ruben, Gad, and the half of the tribe Manasseh are said having received land on the Eastbank of Jordan river
-- all other tribes are said having received land on the Westbank of Jordan river
-- the tribes Napthali, Asser, Sebulon, and Issashar are said having received land in the mountains of Galilee
-- the second half of the Manasseh tribe and the tribes Ephraim and Benjamin are said having received the big part of the Westbank mountains, the territory of Jezreel plain in the North down to Jerusalem in the South
-- the tribe of Judah is said having received the territory between the southern mountain of Jerusalem down to the bay of Beersheba in the South
-- the tribe Simeon is said having received the dry plain of Beersheba and the coastal plain aside
-- the tribe of Dan is said having received the coastal plain and is said having shifted his territory to the North of the country
-- then the tribal territories are said not having been changed any more (p.113).
[Well, all these distributions are a big invention indicating a right of territorial power. But the events were other ones].
14 The fake of the coordination of 12 tribes - and also the wars between the 12 tribes are a fake
The contradictions concerning the life of the tribes in the OT
-- the tribe Benjamin is said having been attacked by a coalition of other Israelite tribes, and the coalition is said having sworn that no marriage will be permitted any more with the tribe of Benjamin (book of Judges, 19-21) (p.112)
[Again we have here an ethnic racism with prohibition of marriages]
-- according to the song of Deborah many tribes cannot be loyal to God's law, get disloyal and are not doing it's best for the "case of whole Israel" (p.112-113).
OT claims a danger of the 12 tribes from the beginning
The Israelite tribes are said having been encircled from the beginning by enemies and by hostile enclaves in the tribal territories having been in a dangerous position from the beginning, in a military and in a religious way, and the "people of Israel" is said having stood one performance test after the other, with all possible "heroic deeds", but these "heroic deeds" are only death and murder:
-- according to the book of Judges 3,7-11, Othniel, a Calebite, is said having repulsed the mysterious enemy Kusan-Risathaim, the "king of Mesopotamia" in an action alone
-- according to the book of Judges 3,12-30, Ehud from tribe of Benjamin is said having killed the great and fat king of Moab in his private room (p.114)
-- according to the book of Judges 3,31, Sambar is said having killed 600 Philistines with one prick for bullocks (p.114)
-- Deborah and Barak are said having startled the Israelite tribes against the staying Canaanite kings in the North
-- according to the book of Judges 4,1-5,31 the wife of the Kenite Heber, Jael, is said having killed the Canaanite General Sisera with a stake during he was sleeping (p.114)
-- according to the book of Judges 6,1-8,28, Gideon from the Manasseh tribe is said having executed a cultural cleansing of the land against idolatry and is said having defended his folk from the Midianite thieves who operated from the desert (p.114)
-- according to the book of Judges 13,1-16,31, Simson is said having seduced by Philistine Dalila and is said having been robbed of his curls (p.114), and then he is said having been blinded and humiliated in Gaza (p.114-115) and [after the hair was growing again] he is said having destructed the columns of the big Philistine Dagon temple in Dan (p.115)
[perhaps a suicide attack].
The facts of archeology: There was a reconstruction on or besides the ruins - and there was a legend formed
The real life of the Israelites is hardly mentioned in OT, neither in the book of Joshua (p.115) nor in the book of Judges (p.115-116). According to Finkelstein / Silberman the Israelites - after having migrated during 40 years in the desert and after 10 years of wars of conquest - were badly prepared for a peasant's life in a completely destroyed country (p.116)
[respectively there had been famine and mass death, or the neighboring "enemies" had converted into "friends" sharing the food, or other enemies from abroad had defeated the weak Israelis and had accepted well the "preparatory work"].
since 1100 B.C. appr.
Reconstruction of Canaan - independences of later territories of Shechem and Jerusalem are not affected
The Philistines in the Canaanite plain are working for their power and gaining the power in the towns back. The independences of the city states in the highlands (territories of future kingdoms of Shechem and of Jerusalem) is not affected (p.178).
Map with Shechem, Samaria, Jezreel, and Jerusalem. For Jerusalem there are no findings for this period.
The Phoenician descendants of Canaanites are occupying the harbor towns in the North (p.178-179).
Megiddo and other towns are amplified. Megiddo is reconstructed as a representative town. Archaeologically there can be shown the whole development in Megiddo in the layers (Stratum VIA). The refoundation contains practically all characteristics of the former Canaanite culture
-- with a similar ceramic stile as in 12th century B.C.
-- with a similar layout as in 12th century B.C.
-- with Canaanite temple complexes etc. (p.179).
Such a development also have Tel Dor and Tel Rehov. But this new growth is not for a long time (p.179).
Rubble mountains provoking legend forming - example Bethel
It can be admitted that the huge rubble mountains of the towns had a tremendous effect in the memory of the population.
According to Bible researchers Alt and North there are legends formed with the topic of the rubble mountains with all possible heroism,
-- because the painful experience of a destruction of a town is not passing without effect
-- but the memory is always more blurred and is becoming the rough material for all possible legends and claims (p.107) [with the climax of the legends in OT since 7th century B.C.[.
In the case of the town of Bethel for example the huge rubble mountain ("tell") in the East with the ruins from Late Bronze Age is 10 times bigger than the reconstructed city (p.106).
15 Helpless occupation theories from the 1920s to the 1970s
The different conquest theories, and nothing helps with it
Since the 1920s up to 1967 war actions in Israel Palestine are blocking any excavation activity in the West Bank [these are wars on the base of the book "The Jewish State" of Herzl with the hope for a big Jewish Empire from Nile to Euphrates according to 1st Moses book 15,18].
By this block archeology is looking for the origin of Israeli identity on the wrong spots for decades (p.121).
Occupation theory of Albrecht Alt: "Peaceful infiltration" has not stayed peaceful
In the 1920s Albrecht Alt is giving the theory that the occupation had been of Bedouin's migration from the Arab desert, and the Israelites had been one of many groups (p.116). Until the 1970s traditional "science" is believing the theory of a "peaceful infiltration" of Albrecht Alt. But:
-- but the reasons for this infiltration are not clear
-- Alt states that the Jews had also cleared land (eliminated forests) and begun with agriculture
-- Alt states that Jews had settled down by the time and had constructed villages
-- by growing infiltration there had been fights with the Canaanites how they are described in the book of Judges (p.117).
[Conclusion: According to Albrecht Alt the book of Joshua is not right, but the book of Judged with it's wars and mass murders shall be right].
The occupation theory in combination with Egypt sources: the societies of Apiru and Shasu
Egypt sources state that there were two outsider groups of Canaanite society, the Apiru and the Shasu (p.117).
Apiru (also Hapiru, or Habiru)
The Apiru are presented in a very negative sense in Egypt sources (Amarna letters etc.). They are expelled people driven to the margin of the society, parts of the population which are expelled by war, hunger or heavy taxes or by another reason, and they are defamed in the Egypt sources or are presented as thieves or soldiers for hire, or also as foreign workers (p.117).
When there is an alliance with the Apiru, so this is the most negative alliance according to Egypt sources (p.118).
Scholars make a connection between the Apiru and the name "Ibri" or "Hebrew". The scholars are stating for some time that Apiru would be the oldest Israelites (p.118).
But new source research in other regions gives another state of facts: The term "Apiru" was known in all Middle and Mid East for centuries and probably was a sociological name for a social class or profession sector. The derivation from Apiru to Hebrew remains nothing more than a hypothesis and is very unlikely (p.118),
[and could be possible only when the Jews had been scattered in whole Mid and Middle East].
Shasu in Egypt sourcesShasu are mentioned in a papyrus report in the time of Ramses III. The report says that Shasu Bedouins are robbed a total tent camp with all cattle and possessions. So, Shasu are probably nomads with sheep and goats in the frontier region between Canaan and East Bank in the desert and in the highlands. Shasu also had the custom migrating down to eastern Nile delta crossing the Egypt fortress lines (p.118).
[But Moses never had been possible because with 600,000 Jews under suspicion of conspiracy Egypt never had let them go].
The new conquest theory in the 1970s by George Mendenhall and Norman Gottwald
There had been no wars between shepherds and farmers - thesis of an exodus from the cities to the forests because of high taxes
The contradictions in the theory of Albrecht Alt with its thesis of infiltration by Israelis and the following wars with Canaanites only get a new scientific answer in the 1970s. Archaeologists find out that wars between foreign Israeli shepherds and native Canaanite farmers are not believable. Science states that both groups knew each other and accepted each other (p.119).
Bible researcher George Mendenhall and later Bible historian and sociologist Norman Gottwald are stating according to Egypt documents (above all in reference to the Amarna texts):
-- that the Israelites were the rebels who had to take their flight from the Canaanite towns to the empty highlands
-- that in the late Bronze Age tensions and inequality grew in Canaan
-- that the elite in the towns controlled the country, wealth and commerce
-- that the farmers had no rights and had to pay more and more taxes
-- that many farmers had gone to exile, eventually some had converted into Apiru, other had migrated to the forests in the uncontrollable highlands
-- that there had been a great solidarity between the discriminated who had taken their flight, and they had formed a new social class, the "Israelites" (p.119)
-- Norman Gottwald means that the core of the ideology would have been brought from the Echnaton revolution in Egypt to Canaan, brought by a little revolutionary group from Egypt having formed bigger groups in Canaan
-- by this social revolution had begun and would have been the origin of an Israelite identity (p.120).
[This would be very good when Israelites had worked out their national consciousness by a social revolution and would live with this philosophy].
But: For Gottwald's thesis is missing any archaeological finding. And the findings of the reconstructed towns after the big fires are contradicting Gottwald's thesis that people had taken their flight from the towns into the forests. There had to be more similarities in respect of the construction style and architecture (p.120).
16 Claim of OT for a development of a big Empire: Saul - David - SolomonLegends in the book of Judges about the cults and ideas in the northern Reich and in the southern Reich
Map of Assyria, Babylonia and Elam of about 1,050 b.C. Breakthrough to Mediterranean is coming soon...
The book of Judges with it's events about the alleged kings Saul, David, and Solomon consists of reminders to local fights and is describing heroes in form of epic poems, folktales (p.137) and myths (p.151).The claims of the old scholars according to the Bible
According to the book of Judges king David and Solomon are said having ruled from 1005 to 930 B.C. approximately (p.145). Historicaly there cannot be proved anything. Eventually hero stories of former times are mixed within (p.137). But the book of Richter is presenting excellent geographical descriptions of the landscape which has hardly changed until today (p.151).
[Geographic precisino shall give the impression that also the historic connectsions could be true].
The stories of the book of Judges shall serve as a "lesson" to the population of Judah in 7th century B.C. after the ruin of the North Reich Israel (p.137-138), and the situations and stories can be interpreted directly to situation in 7th century B.C. (p.138).
The book of Judges states an alleged cult between "sin" and rescue
-- Israeli population lived in a repeated rhythm of sin, punishment by god and salvage (book of Judges 2,11-19)
-- by the installation of kingdoms this repeated rhythm of "sin", punishment and salvage is said having been broken (book of Judges, 21,25)
-- the relation between Israelites and God always is said having been in danger, this interpretation is arbitrarily made by the authors
-- God is said having done the Israelites into the hands of their enemies because of disloyalty, so the Israelites will beg for help with God, and then the Israelites are said having regeretted and God is said having saved the Israelites resp. having helped to victories over their enemies
-- this is a religious cycle with alliance - promise - disloyalty - regret - salvation which is always repeated
-- it seems that the situation of the kingdom of Judah was similar in the 7th century so there were many hopes for a salvation (p.137).
OT: Alleged destruction of all other faith groups as a condition for a salvation
[and this is a total religious racism].
-- all other faith groups in the southern half of the alleged tribal territories shall have been destroyed fulfilling the will of God (p.138) resp. in the southern part all Canaanetes are said having been destroyed (p.168)
-- the alleged trials for an ethnic cleansing and mass murder in the northern part are said having failed all, and there shall have existed Canaanete enclaves (book of Judges, 1,21; 1,27-35) (p.138)
-- by this reason - because the other faith groups were not totally destroyed in the northern half - is said that the split North Reich of Israel had been destroyed later, and teh alleged later South Reich Judah is said having rated as the "better" Reich (p.138)
-- it's stated that in the northern part the Canaanetes have mixed with the Jewish tribes, and this shall be a sin which leads to the later foreign occupation of the northern part (p.168)
-- Bible describes that the South Reich Judah is stronger whereas the North Reich is stronger in fact (p.169).
OT: The faked king Saul
-- from an alleged tribe named Benjamin has come an alleged first ruling king Saul (p.140)
-- the alleged king Saul was the king of the alleged North Reich, and after a military defeat against the Philistines he is said having committed suicide (p.168)
-- Saul and his son Jonathan are said having been killed in the Philistine wars (p.151)
-- the Philistines are said having won the battle of Eben Ezer and are said having robbed the Ark of the Covenant (p.151)
-- then the northern tribes are said having proclaimed David (king of South Reich Judah) for the king of whole Israel (p.168).
OT: The faked king David - the faked culture of David
-- David is said having occupied Jerusalem in a hit-and-run style and is said having installed an own regency in this way (p.260)
-- then king David is said having made an alliance with God, and David is said having banned all foreign gods and is said having ordered the daily cult (p.138)
-- king David is said having defined Jerusalem as the single capital of the Jews (p.138)
-- kind Gadiv is said having defined a definite place for the Ark of the Covenant (p.138-139)
-- king David is said having ordered the tempel in Jerusalem so there was adorated only one single god (p.139)
-- David temple is said having been the key for the salvation of Israel and of the destruction of all other faith groups, and is said having benn the "key" for the stop of the negative events for Israel and for growing wealth (p.139)
-- the alleged king's palace in Jerusalem is said having been a mental hot spot
-- David, the son of Isai, is said having been anointed as the king of all tribes of Israel and by this the promise of God which was given to Abraham is said having been fulfilled (p.140)
-- David is said having been a fair-minded king and is said having represented a myth figure in the history of Israel (p.140).
King David is said having completed the "work" of ethnic cleansing and genocide which was begun under Joshua:
-- king David is said having occupied the rest of the land
-- king David is said having amplifyed the Reich to the frontier lines of Abraham [according to 1st book Moses, chapter 15, phrase 18: Nile and Euphrates as border lines]
-- king David is said having founded a famous Reich (p.161).
[And with this conquest and occupation and ethnic cleansing is connected "Star of David", and that's why Zionism is never giving up it's conquests against the Arabs, and that's why all Arab countries never will accept a "Jewish State" with the "Star of David" in it's flag. Also stupid journalists should see this connection].
This invented king David is described and gloryfied in many songs and stories.
-- king David is said having occupied Jerusalem and a big Reich
-- king David is said having hit Goliath with one single stone with a slingshot and killed him in this way
-- king David is said having reached to the court of the king playing harp in a skillfull way
-- king David is said having been a rebel and a pirate
-- king David is said having persecuted Bathseba in a lustful way (p.140)
-- king David is said having won many battles against the Philistine towns (p.151).
OT: the faked cult of Solomon
-- king Solomon is said having ruled from the Egypt frontier down to the Euphrates (p.182)
-- David's son Solomon is said having treated the northern tribes like colonized subjects, with high tax and compulsory service (p.168)
-- king Solomon is said (1st book of Kings 11,4-8) having seduced to "idolatry" by a foreign woman, to a cult for the goddess of Sidon, Astarte, and for the cult of the dreadful god of the Ammonites, Milkom (p.182), and king Solomon is said having accepted these cults then: the cults for god Milkom of the Ammonites, for the god Kamos of the Moabites (p.262), and for the goddess Astarte of the Sidonites (1st book of Kings, 11,5; 2nd book of Kings, 23,13) (p.263)
-- Solomon is said having sunk in "sin", according to 1st book of Kings 2,1-89 he is said having brought a harem of foreign women to Jerusalem (p.162)
-- and then (according to 1st book of Kings, 11,11-13) God is said having punished king Solomon with the split of the "Reich of Israel" (p.182).
Depsite of all David's son Solomon is said having been the king with the maximum of wisdom, and he is said having been a great building owner, and he is said having been able deciding sharp witted verdicts, and he is said having been very rich, and he is said having constructed the tempel of Jerusalem (p.140).
The readers of the Bible is presented a "Golden Age" of Israel under David and Solomon, but this is only a fake. The scholars partly believe in this yet today, and archeologic findings are classified to David Solomon story despite of all contradictions,without calling the story well into question (p.140).
-- Israeli settlements are said having grown under the kings of Saul, David, and Solomon
-- there is said that there were installed many centralized forms of organization
-- there is said that the danger by Philistine coastal towns has driven the development to an Israelite monarchy (p.141).
"Allocations" with much fantasy
-- the geological layers with the destructed Canaanite towns are allocated to the conquest under David (p.141)
-- the city gates and findings of the palace are generally allocated to the construction activity under an alleged king named Solomon (p.141).
In this way was performed archeology for centuries.
17 The search for proofs for an alleged David Reich and for alleged destruction of Philistine towns
Archaeological findings for the structures of a Reich of David are missing
Some of the Philistine towns are excavated in big parts (p.151).
-- where can be stated a fire around 1000 B.C. destroying a town of the Philistines (p.151-152) - and this can be detected with layers of ashed in combination with overturned stones (p.152) - the scholars of before state that the fire was from an expansion under David, e.g. in the case of Tel Qasile where archaeologist and historian Benjamin Mazar states this (p.151-152)
Map with Jerusalem, Megiddo, Geser, and Hazor, satellite photo. Jerusalem does not exist at this time.
The case of Jerusalem: where was the temple?
-- archaeologists never can find any little peace of the alleged temple of alleged king Solomon (p.152)
-- the scholars simply are searching in other places than in Jerusalem finding alleged traces of the Reichs of David and Solomon, e.g. in Megiddo with findings from Iron Age (excavations in the 1920s and 1930) (p.152).
The case of Megiddo
-- Megiddo is a cross point between the roads to Egypt, to Mesopotamia, to Anatolia (p.152), and to the Jezreel plain (p.154)
-- the buildings are - according to the constructional engineering described in the Bible (in 1st book of Kings, 7,12) - interpreted as the "cattle sheds of Solomon" (this says the leader of the expedition P.L.O. Guy) (p.154)
-- from Iron Age also a city gate is excavated, a six chamber gate, and scholars are stating that it would be from king Solomon (p.154).
The case of Hazor
-- in the 1950s there are excavations under the leadership of archaeologist Yigael Yadin (p.154)
-- there can be found a big city gate from Iron Age, a six chamber gate as it was found in Megiddo
-- and again the scholars state that the gate would be from Solomon (p.155).
The case of Geser
-- the first book of Kings states in chapter 9 phrase 15 that Solomon had made reconstruct the town again
-- and by an excavation under the leadership of R.A.S. Macalister at the beginning of 20th century Yigael Yadin [in the 1970s?] can find another six chamber gate (p.155).
The claim of Yigael Yadin about an architect of Jerusalem
Now, archaeologist Yigael Yadin claims that a royal architect from Jerusalem had made reconstruct the towns again because there would be the evidence of the three six chamber gates which are similar one to each other (p.155).
Archaeologist Yigael Yadin states that 1st book of Kings chapter 9 phrase 15 describing the construction of towns under Solomon would be true (p.156).
Megiddo: search for a palace and a claim for a palace
-- in Megiddo was found a city gate, and now the archaeologists mean that there also could be found a palace
-- the excavations under the alleged "cattle sheds of Solomon" show several palaces, but this are palaces in a north Syrian stile "bit hilani" of Iron Age
-- and now the archaeologists state that these rests of palaces would stand in connection with the six chamber gate (p.156).
Pupil of Yadin, David Ussishkin, states
-- the palaces of Megiddo had been constructed under king Solomon because the biblical description of the alleged palace of Solomon in Jerusalem would also fit to the palaces of Megiddo
-- the "cattle sheds of Solomon" are said having built under king Ahab in 9th century B.C. (p.157).
But archeology states clearly: kingdom of David and kingdom of Solomon never have existed
Reich of David and Reich of Solomon never existed. For these kingdoms any findings for structures of such Reichs are missing.
According to Finkelstein / Silberman archeology can find on the territory of alleged South Reich Judah for the time of David and Solomon only 8 little villages with appr. 1,500 resident inhabitants. According to the archaeological research it can be admitted that there were more shepherd nomads than resident inhabitants (p.259).-- latest analysis in Megiddo, Geser and Hazor about the architecture styles and ceramic forms, and new precise radio carbon methods can state that the excavated city gates are from early 9th century B.C., when the invented Solomon is said having died since decades already (p.158)
There is no trace of any kingdom of David. When king David had occupied Jerusalem, so this has not changed anything with policy of isolation and of illiteracy with shepherds. When there was a Reich of David and a Reich of Solomon, so these Reichs practically had no power (p.260). Ruins or findings of a temple of Solomon cannot be found (p.152).
According to archaeological research social structures correspond with these of isolated regions: Possible are discriminated "Apiru", or people like Bedouins "Shasu", or independent clans acting for their own (p.259).
[Just a main temple with it's dimensions and massive, high walls should provoke ruins which stay for ever, just when it should be a temple for a Reich from Egypt to the Euphrates. So, it can be that this temple only was a simple room, or it that this temple only was a tent, or Jerusalem was at another place for this time and the temple would be not detected until today.
The rise of the highlands to a kingdom after all the destructions by the sea folks would be logic. But for the whole time findings are missing. So there can only be nomad Reichs, without army, without administration, without written documents, without poesy. David psalms and Solomon sayings would be from another person, so. Speculations may go on...]
Finkelstein / Silberman mean that David and Solomon were nothing more than tribal leaders (p.209). OT describes the relationships between North Reich and South Reich before the ruin of the North Reich Israel, but in only one passage in a realistic way, in 2d book of Kings 14,9: Judah is described as a "thistle on Lebanon", and Israel is described as a "cedar on Lebanon". According to Finkelstein / Silberman these were the real dimensions (p.250).
A verification of the excavations gives new sociological facts
There is stated by a new verification of the excavations which were performed until now that the excavations cannot fit into the allocated ages:
The monuments which were allocated to Solomon times have to be allocated to other kings, and the expansion of Reich of David is absolutely controversial:
-- the type of palace in north Syrian style "bit hilani" is coming up in Syria in early 9th century B.C. for the first time (p.157-158), and so the palaces are not from Syria (p.158)
-- and in Jerusalem doesn't exist any palace like this (p.158)
-- the end of Philistine ceramics in appr. 1000 B.C. accidentally comes at the same moment as the alleged destruction and occupation under David (p.158)
-- new archaeological findings in the late 1990s can proof (p.147) that there was a kingdom of David, but it had been only little, and not at all as big as described in the Bible (p.148).
Verification of Jerusalem: there are no findings for David or Solomon - and no literature can be found
-- the excavations in Jerusalem don't show any new proof for buildings of the alleged times of kings of David or Solomon, because for there cannot be found any temple for David or Solomon, and add to this there cannot be found no finding at all for this time (p.141)
-- according to excavations in the 1970s and 1980s in Jerusalem there cannot be stated any significant population in this region for the time of 10th century B.C., the time of the alleged kings of David and Solomon, no monumental architecture either, and no potsherd from this time either (p.150)
-- but from other periods there are many findings, e.g. from Mid Bronze Age and late Iron Age (p.150)
[so, the claim that all ruins had been destroyed by later construction work and by this there would not be any finding of David and Solomon, cannot be right - but this state the Bible believers. Well, it can be that the temple only was a room, or only was a tent, or Jerusalem was at another place than today].
-- in 19th and 20th century there were excavations around the Temple Mount, but there is not found any trace of Salomon's great temple (p.145).
At most David and Solomon were ruling a very little Reich Judah with no political significance in the offside of the great political events. There did not exist any big richness or central administration as it is indicated in the Old Testament with a temple town of Jerusalem. Kingdom of Judah has a steady development for centuries. Jerusalem at most was a religious place among others without any findings, and Jerusalem was not at all a center (p.258).
The growth of literature, of religious thinking and of historiography as it is indicated for the time of the alleged kings of David and Solomon and their sons in OT, cannot be found in any place. To the contrary: The population is mainly illiterate and for sure have never read any literature or noted down history. Historical texts - as they are put into stone as in Egypt or Mesopotamia - are missing for North Reich Israel and South Reich Jerusalem for the time of David and Solomon (p.255).
Monumental inscriptions and seals of the kings - the main characteristics for a developed state - are totally missing for the territories of North Reich Israel and South Reich Jerusalem up to the late 8th century B.C. (p.255).
The documents: the neighbor states never mention any Reich of David or Reich of Solomon - the Syrian type of palace - Jerusalem without palace
-- investigating the documents of the neighbor states there cannot be found anything about a Reich of David, and no commercial relation is mentioned etc. (p.157)
-- in texts of Egypt or of Mesopotamia "King David" and "King Solomon" are never mentioned (p.145)
-- in 1993 there was found a peace of a stele in Tell Dan with an inscription mentioning the house of David, probably with the description of the attack of Damascus under Hasaël against the North Reich Israel in 835 B.C. (p.146).
More precise archaeological data: the city gates are from 9th century B.C. - Jews were in illiteracy and there was at most a village of Jerusalem without any trace
-- by this the palaces in Canaan have the same age like the Syrian palaces, that is 9th century B.C. (p.159)
-- so, in the epoch from 1100 to 1000 B.C. no palaces were constructed in the alleged South Reich Judah, but this territory was absolutely natural yet and without any construction of any town (p.159)
-- David and Solomon are left as figures without Reich (p.159). Finkelstein / Silberman say:
"There is hardly any reason doubting the existence of a David and a Solomon. But there are many reasons to call into question the dimension and the richness of these Reichs." (p.159)
-- David and Solomon as great kings - this is nothing more than a myth (p.160)
-- written documents or inscriptions of the alleged South Reich Judah don't exist (p.160)
[but great kingdoms normally always are immortalizing themselves with monuments and memorial texts in stoned walls]
-- it seems that in South Reich Judah the population consisted mainly in illiterate farmers yet. But monarchy with illiterates is impossible. Finkelstein / Silberman say:
"The land [the highlands of the alleged South Reich Judah] was mainly populated with farmers - without any trace of written documents or inscriptions, and not at all with characteristics of a wide spread capacity for reading and writing which would be necessary for a well functioning monarchy." (p.160)
Jerusalem in these times is at most nothing more than a village of illiterate people. Finkelstein / Silberman:
"Jerusalem itself could have been at most nothing more than a typical village in the highlands." U(p.160)
[According to archaeological truth Jerusalem did not exist as a settlement during the alleged times of David and Solomon, respectively is was an empty hill of ruins].
18 Archeology: the real structures in the highlands in the time of the faked kings David and Solomon
The real kingdom of David: tiny dimensions in the highlands
Kingdom of David which is provable by archeology goes from the southern part of the highlands from the northern border of Negev and to the southern region of today's Jerusalem. This kingdom of David was only heavily accessible and hardly had agricultural resources (p.148). Central highland from Jerusalem to Hebron was stony desert in these times. Only step by step this stony desert is liberated from it's stones and is converted into fertile earth as it is today (p.149).
[The change from a stony desert to a fertile plain happens only later by a hardship when the big Empires are cutting more and more the little Reich Judah].
In the kingdom of David
-- people are illiterate, shepherds and farmers are mixed, there is no writtenness, and there are no structures of any Reich (p.160)
-- it can be estimated that there lived 45,000 persons in the highlands, perhaps 40,000 in the North, not in the South near Jerusalem (p.160)
-- the visit by queen Saba in Solomon's house claimed in the Bible (1st book of Kings 10,1-10) in combination with the country Ophier and far commercial expeditions to Ezyon Geber (1st book of Kings 9,26) are only possible 300 years later when the structure of Judah had developed managing big commerce (p.161)
-- add to this - according archeology - Ezyon Geber at the Red Sea has no population before the "late time of the Kings" (p.161)
-- the construction of Thamar (1st book of Kings 9,18) in the desert also is only possible 300 years later, and according to archeology has got a population also only during the "late time of the Kings" (p.161)
-- during Bronze Age and in the beginning of the Iron Age the region is stony with tense thicket and forests, farmland hardly exists (p.149)
-- at the time of the Jewish highland villages (12th to 11th century B.C.) hardly 10 Jewish settlements are found there (p.149)
-- the number of villages is rising step by step, but the system of villages is the same also in 10th century B.C. (p.149)
-- in the North of the alleged South Reich Judah are installed fruit and vineyard cultures on the western slopes, in the territory of proper South Reich Judah the soil is too stony (p.149)
-- according to archeology up to the rule of invented Solomon the invented kingdom of David is in complete isolation and is hardly populated by resident population, is blocked in it's development without any bigger urban settlement (p.149)
-- Jerusalem in these times of invented David and Solomon is even no meeting point for Bedouins, the site has no findings at all from this time (p.150)
-- according to archeology appr. 20 little mountain villages can be stated for the territory of Judah in the 10th century B.C., with some 1,000 inhabitants, a big part of them are shepherds (p.150).
No writing ability in Israel Palestine up to the end of the 8th century B.C.
Up to the 1990s philologists and anthropologists suppose that there was a strong and fully formed state under the kings of David and Solomon. But the Bible text about Jerusalem describing Solomon and David in the 10th century was probably written only to the end of the 8th century B.C.,
-- because until this time there are no findings indicating that there was a writing ability
-- because until this time there are no findings indicating a statehood of Judah or Jerusalem (p.34)
-- a big Reich under David and Solomon from the Red Sea up to Syria is not possible without knowledge of writing and reading (p.150)
-- without army and without developed weapon production such a big Reich would never be possible against the big Empires of Egypt and Mesopotamia, there should be a lot to be found when there had been such a weapon production for such a huge Reich (p.151)
-- also remnants of a big administration of such a big army are missing, and without such a big administration rule of such an Empire with this dimensions under Solomon is never possible (p.151).
Only since 8th century B.C. there can be stated a scripture in both city states of Shechem (Bible says "Israel) and Jerusalem (Bible says "Judah"), and it's a common scripture (p.178).
[Inversion of argument: with ability of writing and reading also manipulation is possible now
As soon as the power of Jerusalem is big enough and ability of writing and reading is spread enough, also mass manipulation will be possible, which is executed by invented OT.
There are other cases where the populations won the ability of writing and reading and then suddenly were manipulated into the ruin, with Mao in China and with Lenin and Stalin in Russia].
Egypt: Pharaoh Shishak = Sheshonk I.
Pharaoh Shishak (Bible, first book of Kings, 14,25) is identified as Sheshonk I from 22th dynasty in Egypt. Pharaoh Sheshonk I is leaving a report of a military campaign at the wall of Amun temple in Karnak in Upper Egypt, but this text leaves open any speculation. Clearing of this text only comes with precise archaeological methods of date determination (p.28).
Amun temple in Karnak
Amun-temple in Karnak, outer front
Amun-temple in Karnak, columns with inscriptions
Map with Karnak, Luxor, Thebes, Giza, and Cairo on the Nile river
Assyria is developing more aggression
According to excavations of towns, huge palaces and archives of cuneiform writings in Asia Minor the Empires with it's capitals Ninive (Assyria) and Babel (Babylonia) are detected as aggressive (p.28).
God Ashur, the supreme Assyrian god. Like him all Assyrian rulers want to look like...
Clay tables with cuneiform writing from Babylonia, 2000 to 1700 B.C.: article of a lexicon with the report about different kind of fish
Map with Ninive, Ashur, Babylon, Mari, the rivers Euphrates, Tigris and Orontes
Clay table with cuneiform writing from Lagash, appr. 2500 B.C., with a bill of cost for clothes of the temple of the main goddess
Main archives are the one in Mari and in Nuzi Licht (Mesopotamia, cuneiform writing) and Tell el-Amarna (Egypt, hieroglyphic writing) (p.30).
[Nuzi consists of several hills of ruins "Yorghan Tepe" and is called also Ga-Sur].
The findings prove the ability of administration for big Empires. Artists and writers are documenting the events in clay tables and in stone. In the cuneiform writing archives of Mesopotamia are even indications for some Biblical kings, for example the Israeli kings Omri, Ahab (p.28), or Jehu, and also kings of Judah are mentioned like Hezekiah and Manasseh (p.30).
[But there is no David and no Solomon mentioned].
OT: Pharaoh Shishak is said having plundered the temple of David
-- Pharaoh Shishak (named in Egypt sources like "Sheshonk"), the founder of the 22th dynasty, is said having committed a violent assault (p.179)
-- Pharaoh Shishak [also: Sisak] is said having robbed all temples and also the temple of David resp. the temple of Solomon (1st book of Kings 14,25-26) (p.179-180).
The documents and archeology about Shishak / Sisak: It was king Hazael - and there are no findings of temples
Map with Beth Shean, Rehvo, Megiddo, and Tanaach, satellite photo
Bible does not mention the dimension of world's policy. For Pharaoh Shishak the little kingdom of Israel only was a station on the way [during the war against Mesopotamia] (p.180).
The big Canaanite towns of Rehov, Beth-Shean, Ta'anach and Megiddo are destroyed. There are thick layers of rubble (p.180).
The inscription of victory on the walls of the big temple in Tarnak in Upper Egypt is reporting the invasion counting 150 destroyed towns and villages:
-- in the South
-- in the highlands of the West Bank
-- in Jezreel plain
-- and in the coastal plain (p.180).
But Finkelstein / Silberman are asking why Shishak is said having destroyed the towns when he wanted to rule in this territory later. When the North Reich would be destroyed so Canaan would have most profit of this, and this was surely not what Shishak wanted (p.180).
According the new allocation of time with the correction of 100 years Shishak is liberated from the invasion, and there is a new culprit detected, king Hasaël from Aram Damascus: He made the destructive invasion (p.221,223).
Archeology: growth in city state Shechem in the 10th century B.C. - city state of Jerusalem is a shepherd land yet
Northern city state Shechem (later "North Reich Israel") is a fully developed state with strong relations to it's neighbors (p.178). City state Shechem can have a free development now after the Canaanite towns were destroyed, and Shechem can expand to the bordering plains (p.181).
Map with Shechem, Samaria, Jezreel, and Jerusalem. For Jerusalem there are no findings.
[Writings for Shechem are: Sichem, Sychem, Sechem, Salem, in Greek and Latin Sikima, or Hebrew Shechem, with "Tell Balata"].
The southern city state of Jerusalem (after the ruin of the "North Reich Israel" came the rise to "South Reich Judah") has hardly relations to it's neighbors because of the geographic conditions with steep slopes and the Dead Sea (p.178). In souther city state Jerusalem shepherd life is going on with illiteracy and without any administration, statal structure or army. By this, Shechem and Jerusalem are not at all two "twin states" as it is prescribed in the OT (p.181).
Common characteristics of the city states of Shechem and Jerusalem
-- in both territories is adored God JHWH besides other gods
-- the populations have many common myths, heroes and stories about the past
-- the populations have similar language and dialects of Hebrew (p.178).
For the northern city state of Shechem the southern city state of Jerusalem is a rural backcountry. And the Canaanite city states in the plain and on the coast are normally always more developed than Shechem (p.178).
[Considering their development there is the following ranking: first come the coastal towns, then Shechem (later with the capital of Samaria), and at the and comes the South Reich Judah with Jerusalem].
What tells archeology about the city states of Shechem and Jerusalem of the 9th century B.C.?
Sichem / Shechem: hill of ruins Tell Balata, satellite photo
According to archeology, city state of Jerusalem - named "Judah" in the Bible - has only little population during 10th and 9th century (p.176) and has hardly 20 villages (p.177).
City state of Shechem - named "North Reich Israel" in the Bible - has a dense population with differentiated population structure, from big regional centers to little hamlets, with an economic "growth" (p.177).
Shechem's commerce during the early 9th century B.C. with it's neighbor regions leads to growth,
-- so there come regional fortified administration centers
-- so there can be built great palaces of blocks of stone, for example with stony capitals, for example in Megiddo, in Jezreel, and in the capital Samaria (p.177).
Around 900 B.C. city state of Shechem (later "North Reich Israel") has got a full administration apparatus and a social stratification. In it's commerce luxury is handled. And luxury architecture is completing the picture of "representation" (p.177).
19 The kings after alleged king Solomon
King Jerobeam and prophet Ahijah - Jerobeam is said having installed two golden calves in Bethel and in Dan - "disloyalty" to God and prophecy of Ahijah
For this period there are no archaeological finding available.
Map with Bethel and Dan where is said having installed the two golden calves, satellite photo
-- king Jerobeam is said to be the son of Nebats of the Ephraim tribe which is responsible for the search of serf laborers in the northern tribes (p.182)
-- king Jerobeam is said having governed for 22 years (p.189)
-- king Jerobeam is said having received a prophecy of prophet Ahijah (p.182) that the alleged Solomonic Reich will be split (1st Kings 11, 31-39) (p.183)
-- king Jerobeam is said having installed two golden calves in Bethel and in Dan (1st book of Kings 12, 25-30) (p.183) respectively king Jerobeam is said having ordered the construction of a temple in Bethel (p.297) and by this Jerobeam is said having been more disloyal to God yet (p.183)
-- during a sacrifice action in Bethel king Jerobeam is said having received the prophecy from a "man of God" that Josiah will be born who will slaughter the priests on the heights and will burn human bones on Jerobeam (1st book of Kings 13, 1-2) (p.184).
This prophecy is said having been uttered before 300 years, and Josiah is said having fulfilled this prophecy later (p.184). In this manner Bible actions are "coordinated"...
Illness of Jerobeam's son Abijah - the alleged prophecy of the extermination, and dogs and birds
After the latter prophecy Jerobeam's son Abijah has fallen ill, and Jerobeam's wife is said having asked for help at prophet Ahijah. Prophet Ahijah is said having answered the wife,
-- that because of disloyalty to God there will come evil to the house of Jerobeam
-- the house of Jerobeam will be exterminated and the town the dogs will eat the dead bodies and in the fields the birds will eat the dead bodies
-- the son will die when the woman is returning to the town (p.184)
-- the son will die because he is the only loyal to God in the Rehab clan (p.184-185)
-- God will destroy Israel as a punishment and will disperse them at the other side of the Euphrates (1st Kings 14, 7-16) (p.185).
According to Finkelstein / Silberman there is the strong suspicion that Josiah has written all this himself "coordinating" his prophecies (p.185).
According to OT Jerobeam was followed by his son Nadab (p.189).
20 Faked split of a Jewish Reich in an alleged Israel (northern Reich) and Judah (southern Reich)
There were a northern and a southern religion - but never as a political unity - and by this there was no split either
In the books of OT history of both kingdoms is [in a tendentious way] mixed (p.35), and the "scholars" believe a long time in these OT stories (p.169), [partially until today (2010)].
King Rehobeam is said having discriminated the northern tribes so they split from him
The alleged northern tribes are said having split from the son of Solomon, Rehobeam, because of tax claims (p.167):
-- the son of Solomon, Rehobeam, is said having discriminated the northern tribes even more with taxes and military services (1st King 12,16), then the minister of Rehobeam is said having been stoned to death and Rehobeam is said having fled to Jerusalem (p.169)
-- the northern tribes are said having proclaimed Jerobeam as their own king having provoked a split by this (p.169)
-- the newly proclaimed king of the northern tribes, Jerobeam, is said having defined Thirza as a new capital and having ordered a new cult with two calves against the cult of the temple of Jerusalem, whereas the golden calves are said having been installed at the outer posts of the alleged northern Reich: at Dan in the North, and at Bethel in the South (p.169)
-- then there is said having developed split and hatred by 200 years and there is said that both kingdoms had attacked each other (p.167), with rivalries and struggle of dynasties against the alleged "house David" in the South (p.167)
-- generally the kings of the northern Reich Israel are described in the outdated Bible as stubborn sinners, and the kings of the southern Reich are committing only little sin (p.21)
-- according to OT idolatry and violence in the northern Reich was normal, with alleged counter temples and with new cult centers against the alleges temple of Jerusalem of Solomon (p.167)
-- according to OT the altar sites of Abraham in the northern Reich, Bethel and Sichem, are polluted by the Israelite kings by idolatry (p.57).
The documents about the northern and the southern region
The texts about the two regions are texts from Egypt with condemnations and curses. These texts are written on figurines of war prisoners found in graves. The figurines were found in a broken condition. By this the enemies of Egypt should be brought bad luck, with sorcery as it is applies with Woodoo puppets (p.173).
There are mentioned the Canaanite sites which were considered a danger for Egypt, and there are described the social structures of Jewish life. From the mountain region only Sichem and Jerusalem are mentioned (p.173).
Archeology knows a northern religion and a southern religion
There was never a political unity, and by this there cannot have been a split either
The frontier between the northern Reich and the southern Reich prescribed in OT corresponds more or less to the traditional and natural frontier of the settlement area in the region. The Bible propaganda of OT is defining the natural frontiers of the differently developed regions to political frontiers (p.171).
northern Reich: The northern area is developing to a rich, cosmopolitan and powerful Reich in the region (p.35), and that's because the traffic routes to the East are relatively simple to handle (p.175) and also because of the agriculture which is well to handle on the West slopes which are not too steep and in the valleys (p.176)
southern Reich: The traffic ways to the East are steep with much height difference and with the Dead Sea between it and by this the traffic can hardly be executed (p.175), and the cleft valleys and the desert steps are hardly fertile, so there cannot be any economic growth with that (p.176). southern Reich is isolating itself with a hight tradition for the temple and royal dynasty (p.35).
There was never a political split because both territories never had a common policy and never formed a common state (p.167-168). Both city states incorporate different culture and identity (p.35).
21 8th century B.C.: foundation of Judah and Israel - first climax of Israeli foundation of villages
Since the 8th century B.C. the neighbors relatively often mention a kingdom of Israel
After the foundation of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel the climax of wave of settlement has reached in 8th century B.C., with over 500 locations with about 160,000 inhabitants. Economy is among others above all cultivation of olives and vineyard cultivation (p.131).
[How the foundations of the kingdoms have been executed is not prescribed. According the documents and archeology surely not were founded by a David or by a Salomo, or the temple was only a room or a tent or had been in another site, or Jerusalem had been at another site in David Salomo times as the only town of the region. It's fix that since 8th century Northern kingdom Israel relatively often is mentioned by their neighbors, but Southern Reich Judah only rarely. So, David and Solomon have no world wide relevance at all and are no factor of power in the region - when they had existed].
Begin with propaganda for a "liberation" with an "exodus from Egypt"
Already in 8th century B.C. there is mentioned an exodus from Egypt:
-- in the oracle sayings of prophet Amos (2,10; 3,1; 9,7)
-- in Hosea texts (11,1; 13,4) (p.82).
8th to 7th cent. B.C.
Important caravan commerce with Arabia
The caravan trails from Arabia end all in Gaza (p.288). By this the caravan trails passing the North Reich Israel are always more important for the big powers (p.289).
In 8th and 7th century come spices and rare incense from Southern Arabia. The caravans pass the desert reaching Mediterranean [one can admit that the deserts were more little than today because of climate fluctuations]. So, nomad populations in the South and in the East of the Israeli region are important now, and they are cited in Genesis book with some family trees (p.53).
22 Royal dominions in northern city state of Shechem (biblical "northern Reich of Israel") according to faked OT 884-842 B.C.
Old Testament describing only violence, idolatry, and greed for the northern city state
According to OT policy of the northern Reich of Israel consisted only of violence, idolatry, and greed (p.188), and all is only presented roughly (p.189). OT claims criminalities of the Omri dynasty with a moral finish, so, with the destruction of the Omri dynasty. But that's nothing more than an invented novel (p.194).
[The events in the OT are full of "false" gods, of "exterminations" and of families who have the "wrong" belief, and there are many prophecies with "exterminations" etc.].
When there are filtered the anachronisms, the wrong prophecies and the threats, so there stay according to Finkelstein / Silberman
-- the chain of the Israelite kings in the North Reich
-- some well known building projects
-- some military actions (p.195).
until 884 B.C.
The alleged overthrow up to the takeover of power of the Omrid dynasty according to OT
Northern kingdom of Israel under king Nadab
-- the son of Jerobeam, Nadab, is said having been overthrown and all family members of the Jerobeam family are said having been killed (p.189)
-- by this the alleged prophecy of Ahia is said having been fulfilled that no heir of Jerobeam will survive (p.189).
Northern Reich of Israel under king Baesa
-- king Baesa is said having taken over the power by a revolt, eventually he is a former military commander
-- king Baesa is said having declared war to "kingdom of Judah" and is said having occupied Jerusalem
-- the king of Damascus, Benhadad, is said having used the weak defense of "northern Reich of Israel" for an invasion
-- then king Baesa is said having relaxed the pressure against "South Reich Judah" (p.189).
Northern kingdom of Israel under king Ela
-- after the alleged death of king Baesa his alleged son Ela is said having been the successor in "northern Reich of Israel"
-- soon after the takeover of power the army is said having overthrown king Ela under leadership of the rebel Simri, and all members of the Baesa dynasty are said having been killed (1st book of Kings 16,8-11), (p.189)
Northern Reich of Israel under king Simri - king Omri
-- the leader of the rebels, Simri, is said having governed only for 7 days, because there was another rebel movement of the population in the "North Reich" proclaiming Omri as a new king of "northern Reich of Israel", Omri is supreme commander of the army
-- the royal capital Thirza is said having been sieged for a short time and the royal palace is said having been put on fire
-- the alleged rebel Simri is said having committed suicide in the flames of the royal palace (p.189).
Northern Reich of Israel governed by the dynasty of Omri with king Omri: new capital is Samaria
The OT claims:
-- Omri is said having consolidated his power by his inauguration as a king, and there was the foundation of a dynasty for the next 40 years, Omri himself is said having ruled the "northern Reich of Israel" for 12 years (p.189)
-- Omri is said having defined Samaria as a new capital and under his leadership is said that the new capital was amplified (p.189,191).
Northern Reich of Israel under the dynasty of Omri: king Ahab and the foreign wife Jezebel - cult of Baal
King Ahab is said having served Baal and Ashera
-- after king Omri is said having succeeded his son Ahab ruling "northern Reich of Israel" for 22 years
-- king Ahab is said having had a foreign wife Jezebel, he is said having fostered the connection for abroad and he is said having fostered idolatry (1st book of Kings 16,30-33) (p.191)
-- king Ahab is said having married Jezebel, a daughter of Ethbaal, the king of the Sidonites
-- king Ahab is said having served god Baal
-- it is said that king Ahab in Samaria gave an order for the construction of a Baal temple (p.191) [Syrian god for mountains, weather and fertility]
-- king Ahab is said having painted a picture of Ashera [Syrian goddess of fertility]
-- king Ahab is said having provoked the fury of God by idolatry more than all other kings before him of "northern Reich of Israel" (1st book of Kings 16,30-33) (p.191).
The prophets of Baal of the queen Jezebel are said having been killed by adherents of God (JHWH) near Kishon creek
-- queen Jezebel is said having promoted the Gentile priests in Samaria, she is said having served "450 Baal's prophets and 400 Ashera prophets" on her royal table
-- Jezebel is said having ordered the murder of all prophets of God (JHWH) in northern Reich of Israel
Map with Kishon river in Jezreel valley and with mount Carmel
-- there is said having developed a steady mental fight with the two prophets of God, Elia and his pupil Elisa who are said having migrated in the whole "North Reich"
-- the prophet of God, Elia, is said having claimed from king Ahab that the prophets of Baal and Ashera should unify on mount Carmel for a holy fight
-- this holy fight is said having been performed: there is said having been a sacrifice of a bull on mount Carmel and God is said having accepted this bull and having eaten this bull by a fire, but Baal is said not having touched the bull of the Baal adherents
-- the mob is said having recognized the prophets of Baal as wrong prophets and is said having killed all prophets of Baal near the Kishon creek [in Jezreel valley, Bible writes "Kison"] (p.191):
"But Elia spoke to them [to the mob]: Catch the prophets of Baal, so there cannot escape anyone of them! And they caught them. And Elia leaded them down to the Kishon creek and slaughtered them there." (1st book of Kings 18,39-40).
The holy oracle for Elija is said having prepared the destruction of "Israel": with Hazael, Jehu, and Elisa
-- queen Jezebel is said having reacted with a great fury and the prophet of God, Elija, is said having taken the flight to Horeb mountain, the mountain of God, and there Elija is said having received a holy oracle (p.191)
-- God is said having uttered the prophecy that the Omri dynasty will go down (p.191) and is said having ordered to Elija that Hazael should be anointed as a new king in Aram Damascus, the most dangerous enemy of the "North Reich" (p.191-192)
-- add to this God is said having ordered Elija to anoint the military commander of Ahab, Jehu, as the next king of "northern Reich of Israel", and Elisa should be proclaimed as the new prophet (p.192).
Hazael (the king of Amar Damascus), Jehu (the new king of the North Reich), and Elisa (the prophet of God in spe) are said to punish the "northern Reich of Israel" for their sins according to the will of God (p.192):
"Who escapes the sword of Hazael, these should be killed by Jehu, and who escapes the sword of Jehu, they should be killed by Elisa." (1st book of Kings 19,17).
According to the stele in Dan there was the occupation of the town of Dan under king Hazael in 835 B.C. only [so, this was after the dynasty of the Omrids] (p.196-197).
The alleged siege of Samaria by Aram Damascus - an alleged victory against Damascus without murder of Benhadad
-- then, the king of Aram Damascus, Benhadad, is said having performed an invasion in "northern Reich of Israel" and is said having sieged Samaria (p.192)
According to archeology this invasion under Benhadad was not performed in Ahab times, but later (p.194).
-- then, God is said having been merciful and is said having saved the "northern Reich of Israel" one more time (p.192)
-- God is said having made possible a victory for king Ahab against the army of Benhadad near the lake of Gennesaret
-- but king Ahab is said not having killed Benhadad but there was an agreement: Former Israeli town were given back, and market rights in Damascus was given, and by this Ahab let Benhadad live, and by this he had violated the order of God (p.192).
The prophecy of the coming death of king of Ahab as a punishment for the clemency to Benhadad: There is an affair about a vineyard of Naboth-- now, the son of king Ahab, Ahaziah, is said having been enthroned in "northern Reich of Israel", and also king Ahaziah is said having committed heavy "sins"
-- prophet of God (prophet of JHWH) Elia is said having threatened to king Ahab that Ahab will die soon because he kept Benhadad alive and had not fulfilled the claim of God killing Benhadad by sword (p.192)
-- now the royal couple Ahab and Jezebel is said having acted against the population: king Ahab is said having planned an amplification of his palace and by this he claimed the property of a vineyard of a certain Naboth, but Naboth resigned to all offers of King Ahab selling the vineyard for a good price, because Naboth is said not to be willing selling the family property
-- then queen Jezebel is said having started a defamation campaign against Naboth saying that there would be proofs that Naboth had committed blasphemy, and then Naboth is said having been stoned under the control of Jezebel (p.192)
-- then king Ahab is said having occupied the vineyard (p.192).
Prophecy about the death of king Ahab at the same place where Naboth had been killed - the dogs and the birds - death of king Ahab and the dogs are licking up it's blood
-- now the alleged prophet of God (prophet of JHWH) Elija is said having uttered the prophecy to Ahab that he will die at the same place where the alleged Naboth had been killed, and the whole dynasty will be eliminated (p.192)
-- Elija claims that dogs will lick up Ahab's blood where Naboth had been killed (p.192)
-- and also queen Jezebel will be devoured by the dogs on the wall of Jezreel
-- those family members of Ahab who would die in the town, would be devoured by the dogs, the other members who would die on the field, would be devoured by the birds (1st book of Kings 21, 19-24) (p.193)
-- and then king Ahab is said having been hurt badly in a battle against Aram Damascus and is said having been brought to Samaria in his war chariot, and then the dogs are said having licked the blood near the war chariot, and by this one prophecy of Elija is said having been fulfilled (p.193).
Bible is "arranged" like this...
Northern Reich of Israel with it's dynasty of Omri: king Ahaziah is dying by the "wrong faith"
-- Ahaziah is said having suffered a heavy accident in his palace in Samaria falling by a grating in his room upstairs and is said having been suffered heavy injuries
-- then the heavy injured Ahaziah is said having asked the Baal god Baal-Zebub if it would be possible being cured or not
-- Elija is said having communicated to Ahaziah that he will die immediately because he he had adhered the Baal god Baal Zebub, and then Ahaziah is said having died immediately in fact (p.193).
ggg-- as a side effect also the king's son Ahaziah was wounded on his flight and is said having died in Megiddo (p.194).
Northern kingdom of Israel with Omri dynasty: king Jehoram is in coalition wars with "Judah" and Edom against Moab
-- the alleged brother of Ahaziah, Jehoram, is said having been the new king of the "North Reich of Israel"
-- the kingdom of Moab is said having released the cohort alliance with "northern Reich of Israel" and then king Jehoram is said having made an alliance with the "southern Reich of Judah" (under king Jehoshaphat) and with the king of Edom against Moab and had performed a campaign against Mohab (p.193).
According to archaeological findings this alliance of northern Reich of Israel with the king of Edom is hardly possible because findings for a monarchy in Edom exist only 100 years after the destruction of the Omri dynasty (p.194).
-- the prophet of God, Elija, is said having predicted the victory against Moab, but only because the "fair-minded king Jehoshaphat" is also a member of the coalition
-- the towns of Moab are said having been destructed and Jehoram is said having won with Jehoshaphat (p.193).
Northern Reich of Israel under the Omri dynasty: Hazael is enthroned as new king of Aram Damascus - and now follows the ruin of the Omri dynasty
-- since Hazael is enthroned as the new king of Aram Damascus, the ruin of the "northern Reich of Israel" is said having been determined: the armies of Hazael are said having won against the armies of "northern Reich of Israel" in Gilead in the East of Jordan river, and king Jehoram is said having suffered heavy injuries (p.193)
-- prophet Elisha is said having sent one of his prophet followers, and this follower is said having anointed the army commander of the "northern Reich of Israel" Jehu as a new king and is said having uttered the prophecy that Jehu would definitely destroy the Ahab dynasty (house Omri) (p.193)
-- during the return to the palace Jehu is allegedly said having killed the alleged king Jehoram by one single arrow shot in his heart when Jehoram was in the vineyard of Naboth (p.193-194)
and by this another prophecy is fulfilled, because the king died at the same place where Naboth was killed. Bible is "arranged" like this...
Northern Reich of Israel under Omri dynasty: The extermination of the Omri dynasty under supreme military commander Jehu
-- Jehu is said having ordered that Jezebel would be tossed out of the window, and it is said that this also had happened
-- the dead body is said having been devoured by the dogs, and only the head, the feet and the hands are said having been remained
-- by this another prophecy of Elija is said having been fulfilled.
Bible is "arranged" like this...
-- Jehu is said having ordered to arrange a burial for the remnants of the dead body of queen Jezebel
-- add to this it is said that 70 sons of the king of "northern Reich of Israel" were slaughtered in Samaria, their heads were put in baskets and were sent to Jehu in Jezreel, and the heads are said having been piled on two heaps at the entrance of the city gate by an order of Jehu (p.194)
-- then Jehu is said having exterminated all remaining family members of Omri dynasty in Samaria, respectively all family members of king Ahab (p.194)
-- and Jehu is also said having exterminated the worship for god Baal and is praised in Old Testament for this, but he is also said that he did not refuse the "sins of Jerobeam" (p.243) [installing golden calves, see chapter 19].
23 Documents about the northern Reich of Israel of Omrid dynasty
The sources of the neighboring countries prescribing the northern kingdom of Israel of the Omrids
Now we can compare again the Bible text with the sources of the neighboring countries:
-- there are monumental inscriptions put into stone in steles, in monuments, in house walls or in temple walls
-- there are written sources of well developed Assyrian bureaucracy and texts of some less powerful states in the Middle East with descriptions of the events of the dynasty of the Omrids and with descriptions of the events in Aram Damascus and in Moab (p.195).
Monumental Israeli inscriptions from Israel or Judah could not be found (p.195). It seems that there is no traditional writtenness in the Jewish population up to the Omrids (p.195). But according to all sources the Omrid kingdom of Israel for example had a huge army as it's described in the Assyrian sources (p.197).
[It seems that the kings of the Omrids had a unilateral militarism without inscriptions, or archeology has not excavated the inscriptions yet and has searched at the wrong places].
North Reich of Israel of the Omrids could have be like this for a long time
The stele of king Mesha of Moab in Dibon: Israel is dominating Moab - followed by a reconquest step by step
According to this stele northern Reich of Israel has occupied territories of Moab, and then king Mesha of Moab performed a reconquest.
Map with Dibon, the capital of Moab, satellite photo
Here is the stele of Dibon found in 1868 in the ex capital of Moab, with a long text in Moabite language (familiar to biblical Hebrew). The text gives many details:
Victory stele of king Mesha, copy of the original
Victory stele of king Mesha, the text
-- all in all the kingdom of Israel is said having had it's borderlines up to far in the East and in the South
-- the stele describes the Omrids with the king Omri of Israel who had "suppressed Moab many days"
"And Omri had occupied the land of Madeba. And he lived in it. His days and the sum of the days of his sons are 40 years."
-- the successor of king Omri, king Ahab, "his son followed him, and also he said: 'I will humiliate Moab' "
-- king Mesha of Moab succeeded with a reconquest of the northern territory of Moab. Then he founded the capital of Dibon where the stele was found (p.196)
-- the stele describes the achievements of king Mesha: the reconquest is performed step by step with the destruction of the Israeli capitals on the East Bank
-- at the same time king Mesha can fortify and beautify the own capital (p.196).
According to the stele of Mesha king Mesha is mizprising the Omrid dynasty (p.196).
The stele of Dan: there was an Israeli attack on Assyria - and Hazael occupied parts of Israel
The peaces of the stele of Dan (with the only indication of a "house of David") are found in 1993 (p.193).
Peaces of the stele found in Dan in the hill of ruins of Dan (tell Dan)
According to the interpretation of the inscription of Tel Dan by Finkelstein / Silberman the death of king Jehoram is not caused by a vineyard, but is provoked by an Aramean victory of Aram Damascus with king Hazael [also Hasa'el], and also the son of Jehoram, Ahaziah, was killed. The completed stele text in a translation is like this:
This stele could be from Aramean king Hazael from Damascus. The text makes sense when king Hazael of Aram Damascus is put in as the actor. So - according to Finkelstein / Silberman - there had been the following scenario (p.196):
-- the king of the northern Reich of Israel is said having attacked Assyria passing Moab up to the borderlines of Damascus:
"The king of I[s]rael before [before the military campaign of Damascus against Israel] stepped on my father's land." (p.197)
-- so, the northern Reich of Israel has been a colonial power with an invason up to the borders of Damascus (p.197)
-- the occupation of the town of Dan under king Hazael follows only in about 835 B.C. [after the Omrid dynasty] (p.196-197).
The death of king Jehoram in the war against king Hazael - the completed text of the stele
"[I killed Je]horam, the son of [Ahab], king of Israel, and [I] killed [Ahaz]ia, the son of [Jehoram, kin]g of the house of David. And I made [their towns to ruins and] gave their land [to be destructed]." (p.221)
But there will never be a safe information, if Jehu or the king of Aram Damascus, Hazael, was the murderer (p.221).
Assyrian sources: Monolith inscription from Assyrian Nimrud says the invasion under Shalmaneser III was a draw
-- in 853 B.C. the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III (858-824 B.C.) is looking for a way to the coast and lets start a big army against the little states of Aram Damascus,Phoenicia and Israel
-- at Karkar at Orontes river in western Syria a battle with the anti Assyrian coalition is held with the strongest parts of the war chariots from king Ahab from Israel (p.197)
-- according to the monolith inscription of Shalmaneser III [inscription in one single big stone] king Ahab is one of the main enemies against the Assyrian dominance in the Mid East (p.226)
-- Shalmaneser III describes himself as a big winner against the big coalition
-- but the battle at Karkar reduces the army of Shalmaneser that much so he is not capable continuing his invasion but has to return to Damascus (p.197).
There is never mentioned any South Reich "Judah" (southern kingdom of Judah) or "Jerusalem" (p.198).
Finkelstein / Silberman mean that the dynasty of the Omrids had the biggest professional army of the region in this time, and that the policy of dominance of the Omrid dynasty was on a relatively bad base, with regional rivals and with a constant danger of Assyria (p.198).
Later Assyrian sources name the northern Reich of Israel even as "house of Omri", and this is an indication that the new capital of Samaria really was founded by the Omri family itself (p.198).
24 Archeology about northern Reich of Israel under Omrid dynasty 884-842 B.C.
The Israeli Omrid Reich with an army, gorgeous towns and a well developed administration - and the Old Testament says practically nothing about it
-- king Omri is constructing one of the strongest armies (p.188), a professional army (p.189)
-- king Ahab is achieving a brilliant international reputation for the Omrid kingdom
-- the marriage with the Phoenician daughter of the Phoenician king Ethbaal [today's Lebanon] is a diplomatic maneuver - according to Finkelstein / Silberman (p.188)
-- the Omrid dynasty is building gorgeous towns as administration centers
-- king Ahab is continuing with the amplification of the army
-- all in all territories in the North and on the East Bank are occupied
-- Omri and king Ahab are not "pious", but sometimes they are even freakish and brutal as all monarchs in the Middle East are basically (p.188).
All in all the Omrid Reich (Bible says: "kingdom of Israel") is the first right Jewish "kingdom" with all possible achievements. The Old Testament conceals this Omrid Reich (p.189). After the destruction of the Canaanite coastal towns the rulers of the northern highlands realize their Empire which has a multiplex character with dominance over rich agricultural regions and with international trade routes (p.211). Military, architecture and administration are well developed in this Omrid Empire (p.214) [but inscriptions are missing].
But there are other consequences by this amplification of the Omrid Reich, above all there is a multi ethnic society
-- with Israelite villages in the core land around Samaria
-- with Aramaic Syrian culture in the far North
-- with Phoenician culture at the coast (p.211)
-- the Israeli population stays in the highlands
-- the Canaanite population stays in the Jezreel plain
-- the disposal of the villages does not change under the Omrids (p.212).
In a parallel way to the rise of the Omrid dynasty there are Damascus, Phoenicia and Moab trying to extend their power. So, fortresses at the borderlines are absolutely necessary. The composed population can be used for agriculture, building projects and for wars and indispensable (p.212).
Archeology about the Omrid Empire: economic growth by trade with the Phoenician coastal towns - multiplex Omrid Empire
The findings with the buildings confirm for the Omrid times a "Golden Age" of Israelite kings. Bible never mentions this wealth of the northern kingdom, but only mentions palaces in Samaria and Jezreel (p.198).
Samaria: ruins of palaces in the northern Empire of Israel
Samaria: ebony reliefs in the palace of northern Reich of Israel (northern kingdom of Israel), Egypt style
The trade relations with the Phoenician coastal towns [today's Lebanon] are developing in a very intensive way. Marriage of king Ahab with a Phoenician princess is surely not just a coincidence. Emerging of many vessels in Cyprus Phoenician style is only explainable with intensive trade relations with the Phoenicians (p.213).
The Omrid buildings are similar to those in the Canaanite capital towns in the Late Bronze Age (p.213).
The excavations of ruins at Samaria are executed from 1908 to 1910 and in the 1930s. The Samaria of the Omri times has got it's site in an region rich of agriculture on a little hill. Before the Omrid times this site is a village or a little town- according to archeology (p.198).
All in all this Omrid Empire is not especially "Israeli", but is an absolute mixed Empire (p.213). The historian of the faked OT rates this policy as a "sinful behavior", and the punishment of the ruin of the dynasty would be just (p.214). The faked stories in the Old Testament are systematically concealing the true and proved history of Israel which is proved by archeology since decades (p.215).
Archeology did not see the Omrid period for a long time - big water systems
For a long time archeology said that all palaces in Palestine would be from the faked king of Solomon (p.202). For a long time archeology did not see the Omrid period as a decisive period of Israel. About king Ahab and queen Jezebel simply was no further research because in the outdated OT was this "clear" moral stories about them. Only by the new precise methods of determination of time and by new archeology [field research and comparing research] the contradictions between Solomon period and Omrid period can be solved (p.205), for example in reference to the big city gates (p.206), and by the cognition of the wrong age determination the contradictions can be solved (p.205).
The Omrids are said having installed also great water systems against sieges of their towns. In certain distances these water systems have shafts for control. Later king Mesha of Moab also let install big water systems and had Israeli war prisoners for their construction (p.204). Eventually the water systems have to be dated in a later period (p.209).
25 Acropolis buildings of the Omrids
about 880 B.C.
Reconstruction of Samaria as an acropolis in the Omri period
[Further names for Samaria are Sebaste, Sebastia, Sebastiya, Sebastiyeh, Sebastos, Sebustiyeh, Shamir, Shomeron, or Shomron].
Omri lets destroy and flatten the village respectively the little town of Samaria and lets build his palaces. Around the hill a big circular wall is constructed, in "casemate technique" (casemate chambers filled with earth mitigating the pressure of the filling). The inner space around the hill is filled with earth (p.199).
According to archeology the central building of the palace had alone about 2000 m2,
-- with architectonic ornaments
-- with similar to Aeolian stony capitals ("proto Aeolian") (p.199)
-- with monumental city gates (p.201).
There is coming out an acropolis. The houses of Samaria ware along the slopes outside of the acropolis (p.201).
[There is the question where the acropolis technique comes from, and what copy the acropolis of Athens is e.g.].
Samaria: Acropolis, ruins
from 880 B.C. on appr.
The Omrid reconstruction of the town of Megiddo as an acropolis
Also the town of Megiddo is reconstructed as an acropolis
-- with palaces in the North and in the South like in Samaria (p.201, 208)
-- the palaces are built in a stony block technique, but without casemate installations (p.207,208)
-- both palaces are in a North Syrian style of bit-hilani (p.207), the southern palace has got capitals similar to Aeolian style ("proto Aeolian") (p.208)
ggg-- the layout of the town is similar to the one of Samaria, with a huge town wall with a four chamber gate (p.202)
Map with the acropolis towns reconstructed under the Omrids: Megiddo, Gezer, Hazor, Dan and Jezreel. There are no findings for Jerusalem in these times.
-- Megiddo has got a deep spring of fresh water in a cave, and the cave's entrance is locked by a wall and concealed (p.204).
The palaces in Samaria and Megiddo have the same seal of stonemason (p.208).
The Omrid reconstruction of the town of Hazor as an acropolis
-- Hazor is built as a huge fortress (p.202), as an acropolis with casemate wall, with a large ditch U(p.207)
-- on the platform of the acropolis was installed a three pointed building complex in stony block technique, really Omrid style (p.207)
-- Hazor had a great water system torn through the rocks and was prepared against any siege (p.202): The rocky chamber is as deep so the groundwater is coming out (p.204).
The Omrid reconstruction of the town of Dan as an acropolis
-- with a huge fortress
-- with a great and elaborated city gate
-- with a holy place of the Omrid period on a platform
-- with further monumental buildings of the Omrid period
-- with a great water system torn through the rocks being prepared against any siege (p.203).
The Omrid construction of the town of Jezreel as an acropolis - this is a good example
Jezreel is only excavated in the 1990s. The basic walls of the ruins have got the layout as in Samaria with an enormous casemate wall, with a filled territory with a palace on it, with large ditches (p.206) and with one single great city gate (p.206-207). But according to archeology the town of Jezreel is inhabited only for a short time, and after the Omrid period is soon destroyed (p.206).
For archeology Jezreel is a lucky chance because this town precisely existed only during the Omrid period. By this, the style is exactly datable and is a criterion for other towns. Ceramics are quasi identical with the ceramics of the palace of Megiddo. In this way there are comparisons and it's proven that the town of Jezreel is from the Omrids (p.207).
The palace of Jezreel is kept as a little town for some time. The definite destruction could have been in connection - according to Finkelstein / Silberman - with the rebellion of Jehu or with the later Syrian invasion under Hazael (p.222).
The Omrid reconstruction of the town of Geser as a "half" acropolis
-- has got an an artificial terrace on the slope with a filling
-- has got a palace with a six chamber gate, in stony block technique, in connection with a casemate wall (p.208)
-- the palace had capitals similar to Aeolian style ("proto Aeolian") (p.209).
Omrid buildings outside of the origin city state of Shechem
For a complete overview of the buildings of the Omrid Reich one has to investigate also remnants of the Omrids outside the core Reich. Mesha stele of Moab reports for example that king Omri had two towns built in Moab, Ataroth and Jahaz. According to Finkelstein / Silberman these frontier fortifications in today's Jordan (p.209).
The Omrid buildings in the East Bank are hardly excavated until today. Ataroth is said to be Tell Chirbet-Atarus in the South West of Madeba in Jordan, Jahaz has not been found yet. Eventually it is the ruin of Chirbet el-Mudeyine (p.210).
In Jordan many fortresses are yet in the sand which could be outposts of the Omrids, eventually more distant as admitted until today (p.210).
26 Arab trade gets a primary factor for war or peace in Middle East
The trade routes provoking new wars
For the powers in the Mid East - not important which it is, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, or Persia - now is growing a profitable Arab trade. So, these trade routes become one of the main criterions of policy now. Safety and disponability of the trade routes have first priority for the Empires of the Mid East (p.288).
Gaza for example is rated as a customs zone of Assyria - that is said in a victory inscription of the Assyrian king Tiglath Pileser III. Gaza is the traditional terminal station of the desert routes where the caravan routes are coming together (p.288).
27 North Reich between Omrid dynasty and Assyrian occupation 842-720 B.C. - destruction of northern kingdom of Israel
Assyria is standing before the city gates...
Map: Israel, Judah, Aram Damascus, Phoenicia, Ammon, Moab, Edom.
-- Moab is independent from Israel since 843 B.C.
-- territories in a light red are occupied by Assyria from 850 to 722 B.C. (occupied are Aram Damascus and Phoenicia)
-- the yellow territories are occupied by Assyria in 722-721 B.C., kingdom of Israel
-- territories drawn in a dark red are territories devastated by Nebuchadnezzar in 587-586 B.C. (kingdom of Judah).
The documents and the excavations of the time under king Jehu speak: there was an invasion of Aram Damascus under king Hazael in northern Israel
-- OT invents an "disloyalty to God" finding a cause for suffering, expropriation and at the and a ban
-- for the collapse of the North Reich of Israel there is invented an disloyalty to the temple in Jerusalem, and this disloyalty would have had provoked one catastrophe after the other and by this the self destruction of the Reich of Israel would have had favored
[whereas there cannot be found any remnants of the temple of Jerusalem for the Omrid period]
-- there is said that alleged prophets had warned in vain of an disloyalty to the temple of Jerusalem
-- there is said that the invasion of foreign armies and the devastation of the North Reich of Israel had been a part of a divine theological plan (p.216).
The archaeologists believe for a long time in a continuity without developments and by this neglect any investigation. Proofs for great changes and military defeats have not been taken earnest for a long time (p.220).
The northern Reich of Israel under the Omrids develops a prosperous society with all it's strong sides, weak sides, and tensions, and the wealth of the "North Reich of Israel" is attractive for certain elements in Assyria (p.216).
[Addition: Independence in this region is a big exception
Considering the geographic position of Israel and Judah as a territory which is always fiercely disputed between the great Empires of Mesopotamia and Egypt, so an independence seams to be a great exception, and it was a big exception that there was any independence for a certain time at all].
Northern Reich of Israel with king Jehu: There comes an invasion under Hazael
-- idolatry under the king Jehu had risen on and on
-- also king Jehu is said never having considered Jerusalem as a cult center.
Well, according to archeology Jerusalem was no town until this point of time and there was no temple at all then...
-- king Jehu is said - as a "good deed" - having performed a cleansing against the cult of Baal organizing a Baal festival and encircling the visitors an slaughtering them, and the temple of Baal is said having converted into a "latrine" respectively a toilet complex (2d book of Kings, 10,18-28)
-- but king Jehu is said having continued with the "sins of Jerobeam" going on adoring the golden calves in Bethel and Dan (2d book of Kings 10,29): The own centers of cults are not eliminated, so that the competition to Jerusalem is going on (p.217).
But according to archeology Jerusalem was not at all a center of any cult in this time...
-- Got is said having uttered the prophecy to king Jehu that from his gender will rule only four generations (2d book of Kings, 10,30) (p.218)
-- the plan of God shall be that the northern kingdom of Israel should be punished by an invasion of Aram Damascus: king Hazael of Aram Damascus is said having defeated the Israeli armies in the East Bank and in the coastal plain (2d book of Kings, 10,32-33; 12,17-18; 13,3,7,22) (p.217)
-- according to OT this is the first invasion against Israel since the conquest under Joshua (p.222)
-- the territories of the northern Reich of Israel are said having been reduced by the occupation under Hazael
-- and the normal population is said having kept loyalty to God (2d book of Kings 13,23) (p.217).
According to the stele of Dan already king Jehoram is killed by king Hazael (p.221), and Hazor and Dan are said having belonged initially to Aram [the country of the Arameans] (p.224). The occupation of the town of Dan under king Hazael comes in 835 B.C. (p.196-197). According to the stele of Dan these invasions were weakening Israel decisively (p.221).
Assyrian sources also give a report about the invasion of king Hazael in the West and in the South down to the northern kingdom of Israel. Hazael can perform this invasion only because Assyria is occupied with own rebellions in its interior (p.225).
Hazael replaces Sheshonk
When there is considered a dating of Solomon the invasion of Hazael with it's destructions cannot be found in the layers (p.221). But when one considered the changing of dating with the allocation to the Omrids - considering that the city gates are not from the invented Solomon but from the Omrids, so all data get their correction: Not Sheshonk was the destructive force at the end of 10th century B.C., but Hazael was it in 835 B.C. (p.223). In this way many layers of destruction can be explained in the town hills. The new dating lets fall the layers of destruction to Hazael (p.223).
Map with Beth Shean, Rehov, Megiddo and Taanach, satellite photo.
The destruction of northern Reich Israel north of Samaria by the invasions of Hazael from Aram Damascus
As always the wars are for fertile soil for agriculture in the western "crescent":
-- king Hazael has the Aramean territories in the East Bank occupied
-- king Hazael has some of the most fertile agricultural regions of Israel devastated (p.222) with pillage of the rich valleys in the North, the valleys from Tel Rehov to Beth Shean, Taanach and Megiddo (p.223)
-- also great Israeli administration centers in the plain of Jezreel are destroyed, eventually also the town Jezreel itself (p.222)
-- king Hazael has the trade routes interrupted (p.222).
Some locations never recover completely again (p.223). But all in all the armies of Hazael can only destroy the region, but cannot perform an occupation (p.223).
[And as it seems Samaria is kept untouched. The invasive armies can be stopped before].
But according to new archeology Aram Damascus under king Hazael 835-800 B.C. can occupy decisive territories at the end:
-- the upper Jordan valley
-- and key territories in the North of northern kingdom of Israel (p.222).
The period without population in some towns
Map with Beth-Shean, Megiddo, Jezreel, Tanaach and Samaria.
The regions of the plain of Jezreel and the region of the bay of Beth Shean have no populations for some decades and are running down (p.223). Megiddo for example, the administrative center in the North of the northern Reich is kept lost for almost 50 years (p.223-224). So, there was possible a destruction of this region, but there was no annexation. The towns of Jezreel and Taanach never reach their significance they had before (p.223).
Fortification works under king Hazael of Amar Damascus
Amar Damascus achieves putting forward it's borderline (p.224), and this borderline receives it's border marks:
Fortress of Dan: Hazael's victory stele of Dan indicates that Dan was occupied as it seams and the victory stele was erected only when the town was totally reconstructed presenting the dominance in that spot. Dan is reconstructed immediately, with massive town walls. There is an Aramean cult with a horned god now probably (p.224).
Fortress of Hazor: Hazor also is reconstructed immediately because this strategic center should function. On the acropolis was built a new town, with a new massive town wall, with a new palace or citadel, and eventually only now the big water system is installed. There is an Aramean cult with a horned god now probably (p.224).
Fortress of Bethsaida: The fortress at the Lake of Gennesaret is reconstructed. Archeology can find a basalt stele there with a picture of a horned god, probably from the Aramean culture (p.225).
According to archeology the populations are Aramean before and after the occupation by Aram Damascus. There is no settlement of foreign deportees (p.225).
Jehu gets the status of a vassal and has to bow himself to king Shalmaneser III on the "black obelisk"
King Jehu also is painted on the "black obelisk", the obelisk of the main chef of Mesopotamia, the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III. Jehu is presented in a position of a deep bow before Shalmaneser, and has to pay tributes which are counted by Shalmaneser:
The text of the stele: "I got from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with a pointed bottom, golden cups, golden buckets, tin, a stick for a king." (p.226)
So, northern Reich of Israel is a vassal of Syria now (p.226).
Map: Assyria, Syria and Israel in 820 B.C.
Northern Reich of Israel under king Jehoahaz
OT claims: Jehoahaz is a son of Jehu (p.217)
Documents and archeology for the time of king Jehoahaz say: Assyria is occupying Syria - and Israel is recovering
According to the documents and to archeology Syria is now directly occupied, and Israel can recover from the occupation of Aram Damascus and a new period of growth can begin. The Bible is concealing this.
Enthronement of Adad-Nirari III in Assyria
since 806-770 B.C.
The son of Hazael, Benhadad III, probably sieges Samaria
Benhadad III probably has continued with the invasions against northern Reich of Israel, at the end with a siege of Samaria. According to Finkelstein / Silberman the dates of the Bible with its indication of a siege of Samaria in the time of the kings of Ahab and Jehoram is much too early (p.223).
When there was an occupation of Samaria, so it could be that the core land of northern Rich of Israel has been suffered an Aramean Syrian occupation for some time (p.223).
The relation to Hazael is only possible with a change of dating from the Solomon allocation to an Omrid allocation (p.223).
Assyria destroys Aram Damascus - and this means a recovery for Israel
-- Adad-Nirari III of Assyria is renewing the pressure and has Damascus besieged
-- Barhadad III of Aram Damascus has to surrender and has to pay a high tribute to Assyria
-- with this Israel is liberated from the pressure of Damascus and gets new possibilities for new, own developments (p.225).
Archeology can confirm this development (p.226).
The events according to the reproaches of the historians of the OT, that there was a "godlessness" which caused the occupation, and that there was a "mercy" provoking the liberation, is an absolute fake and finds its explanation by the events in the neighbor states (p.226).
Northern Reich of Israel under king Jehoash: reconquests
-- king Jehoash is said having organized new expansions and had occupied the towns of Aram Damascus (2d book of Kings, 13,25) (p.217)
-- king Jehoash is said having organized a punitive action against Judah (p.218).
Documents say about king Jehoash: There is a new rise and there are reconquests
But the historian of the OT describing the political change and stating the reason of God's mercy has forgotten some documents as it seems: Israel becomes the most favored vassal, and in the northern Reich of Israel wealth is growing again (p.226).
Northern kingdom of Israel under king Jeroboam II
-- king Jeroboam II is said having ruled in peace in Samaria (p.218)
-- he is said having organized more expansions (2d book of Kings, 14,25 and 28)
-- but all "sins" are said having continued which had committed the "first Jeroboam" because the holy places of the "northern Reich" are maintained (p.218)
-- and the prophets Amos and Hosea allegedly are said having warned of disloyalty to God (p.218).
But according to archeology Jerusalem does not exist yet...
Alleged corruption under Jeroboam II: there are charges of the God's prophets Amos and Hosea - and there comes a "1 god movement" with texts of prophets
There are God's prophets protesting against luxury. These are recordings of the prophets Amos and Hosea, and they have survived originally. These texts claim a big corruption and a godless aristocracy how the upper class is organizing luxury by corruption (p.233).
Amos and Hosea - like Elia and Elisha - represent a "1 god belief". They insist that only one single god should be adored (p.268).
Amos and Hosea also present the idea of a revenge of God, and this idea will be imprinting after the ruin of the northern Reich of Israel in the ideology of Deuteronomy in southern Reich Judah (p.233).
God's prophet Amos: According to the book of Amos he is a shepherd from the Jewish village of Tekoa and is changing his domicile from the southern to the northern Reich. His oracles are a sharp damnification of luxury and of materialistic northern Reich of Israel (book of Amos 6,4-6) (p.233).
God's prophet Hosea: Hosea deplores lies and violence increasing daily, and deplores the alliance with Assyria and the trade policy with Egypt (book of Hosea 12,2) (p.233).
Amos and Hosea are denouncing
-- cases of social injustice
-- inner tensions by international trade
-- the dependence from Assyria ("Assur")
-- the simulation of following religious laws, but every day there are bad actions and richness is compiled, and the poor are defamed (p.234).
The new 1 god movement
According to Finkelstein / Silberman the followers of Amos and Hosea represent the origin of the "1 god movement" (p.268). Their followers beware the texts of the prophets (p.234) with the sermons against injustice in the northern Reich of Israel. These texts are the base of the "1 god movement" (p.268). The movement is waiting for the collapse of the northern Reich of Israel. After the collapse of the state they want to take action against wealth and against foreign kind of living and against foreigners [in a racist way] (p.234).
[Addition: these prophets have a senseless and racist thinking of scapegoats
Stupidity blaming certain groups of humans for situations of tensions of for the "collapse" of a state is obvious: Foreign belief is said to be the cause of certain bad states of affairs. But bad states of affairs are not cleared by intolerance, but by change of structure in the state's apparatus. This fault also is committing "Christianism" later against the Jews, or movements in Asia against the Chinese, in the "USA" the white racists against Chinese and against Japanese etc.].
Documents and archeology speaking about the time of king Jeroboam II: There is an expansion and wealth and much corruption
Reconquests under Jeroboam II
Assyria accepts the Israeli reconquest of the East Bank:Wealth under Jeroboam II: Population boom, strong army, and architecture
-- king Jeroboam II organizes the reconquest on far Aramean territories (p.227)
-- in Dan the victory stele of Hazael is destroyed and the pieces are used for the construction of Israeli buildings where they are found 2000 years later by archaeologists and are composed again (p.227)
-- in Bethsaida the Israelites find a stele with a horned god in Aramaic style turning this stele by 180 degrees and installing it on it's top (p.227)
-- Hazor is destroyed by the Israeli troops and then is reconstructed in an Israeli style, whereas here can be states Hebrew inscriptions the first time (p.227).
Wealth under king Jeroboam II
King Jeroboam II can compile a "wealth beyond example" (p.226). The royal dynasty under Jeroboam II has a cosmopolitan political line (pl.232-233). It's Israeli aristocracy is compiling a great richness and is living in a great luxury. For example furniture in the king's palace have got ivory elements (p.232). Writing and reading is widespread and by this also a bureaucratic administration and a professional army are possible. And economy is specializing (p.233).
Historiographers of OT declare that this wealth would be a sudden "mercy" of God without mentioning the collapse of Aram Damascus (2d book of Kings 14,26-27).
But the facts do not at all indicate a certain "mercy of God", but there are real capital concerns between Assyria and Israel because it can be admitted that Israeli economy can take part in the Assyrian world wide economy and by this there was new streams of cash (p.227).
Wealth under Jeroboam II: Export of olive oil and wine
King Jeroboam II develops a strong economy and a strong agriculture with a specialized industry of olive oil. There is a great growth of the population and new villages and towns are founded on cliffs in regions with olive cultures. In olive farms are founded specialized villages. Olive miles are installed in the rocks and other machinery is installed processing the olives, installed in the rocks. The olive oil is exported to Assyria and to Egypt, with high profits, because in Assyria and Egypt the conditions for the cultivation of olives are missing (p.227).
In the same manner is installed the cultivation of vineyards (p.227-228).
The explosion of the population in the agricultural interior is going on up to the end of the 8th century B.C. According to area-wide archeology and ethnographic estimation the region of the northern kingdom of Israel becomes the region with the densest population of wholeFertile Crescent (p.228).
[Addition: Probably the profits by olive oil and wine were that great so many persons were attracted from abroad, or there were special laws for big families].
The population boom also is the the base for the troops and for building activity, for the reconstruction of Megiddo, Hazor, Geser (strategical an important town on the border line to Philistine) etc. (p.229).
It seems that the historian of the OT had assigned this building activity under Jeroboam II to the faked Solomon (p.229-230).
Under king Jeroboam II first king's seals are produced (found in Megiddo in the 20th century) with a yelling lion and with Hebrew inscriptions, whereas the logos of the seals with a lion are typical for the 8th century and by this it can be excluded that they are from Jeroboam I of a time before (p.229).
Speculation about buildings in Megiddo similar to cattle sheds
According to the new manner of dating with the Omrids the buildings similar to cattle sheds in Megiddo were built under Jeroboam II. There is no purpose found until today because no remnants of animals have been found. The claim that the buildings were a center for horse breeding for the export of horses as war material seems to be nothing but a speculation. But Assyria mentions the exportation of horses by it's vassal states (p.231) as it has happened for example in Anatolia in the vassal state of Urartu where similar buildings could be found (p.232).
Southern Reich of Judah is envying the wealth in northern Reich of Israel
According to Finkelstein / Silberman it can be admitted that the population in Judah (Jerusalem) knew about the wealth under Jeroboam II and there was a certain envy (p.229).
Death of Jeroboam II - the northern Reich of Israel is mentally empty
The structure of northern Reich of Israel is mentally empty. [It seems that Jeroboam II has not arranged an order of succession]. Finkelstein / Silberman admit that after the death of Jeroboam II groups in the administration were formed, with high militarists and mafia. Many kings are following being murdered after relatively short time by upheavals (p.234). At the same time there are massive changings in the Mid East (p.234-235).
[Assyria is preparing the ocupation of the northern Reich of Israel because it's not stable any more. Therefore the collapse of teh northern Reich of Israel does not at all come from God and not at all is a singular case. Southern Reich of Judah is not affected by the invasion because the traffic routes are very steep and the position is not so favorable not blocking any traffic routes].
Northern Reich of Israel: king Zechariah, son of Jeroboam II
King Zechariah is said having ruled only for 6 months and then had been murdered by an envier. The alleged prophecy of God that only four generations of Jehu's gender will rule is allegedly fulfilled by this (p.218).
In that manner the Bible is "arranged"...
Northern Reich of Israel under king Shallum
The murderer Shallum is said having ruled only for a short time and is said having been murdered by an envier Menahem, the son of Gadis (p.218).
Northern Reich of Israel under king Menahem
-- God is said having prepared more punishments for northern Reich of Israel: the armament of Assyria and the extortion for tribute to Assyria
-- paying more tribute to Assyria Menahem is said having risen the taxed of the upper class: "50 silver shekel" (2d book of Kings 15,19-20)
-- northern kingdom of Israel has become absolutely instable, in it's inner and in it's policy of foreign affairs (p.218).
Documents and archeology speak: king Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria
[other writings are also Tiglat Pileser, Tiglath-pilesar, Tiglatpilesar, Tiglat Pilesar].
Assyria suffers a coup of power of Tiglath-Pileser III - and the vassals are controlled directly now
Tiglath-Pileser III is a brutal governor of the town of Kalach (Nimrud) in Tigris valley. Step by step he is converting Assyria into a brutal rogue state. The relations to the vassals are abrogated and the vassals are controlled directly (p.235).Until now the activities of king Pekah are a mystery. He ends the surrendering policy to Assyria, perhaps by defiance because the tributes were too high. Pekah begins a game of power against Assyria with different coalitions, among others with king Rezin of Damascus or with the Philistine towns. King of Pekah and Rezin hope that a common resistance can be formed against the Assyrian aggression (p.235).
Assyria: Military campaign of Tiglath-Pileser III against their ex vassals in the West
Now one ex vassal after the other is conquered by the Assyrian army and is extorted to tributes as never before. This is the beginning of a new Assyrian Empire. Step by step the ex vassals are occupied and the populations are deported (p.235).
Some time - only some pretext is needed - it's the turn of northern Reich of Israel. That is not any divine punishment, but this is military calculation...
"Northern Reich of Israel" under king Pekahiah, the son of Menahem
-- king Pekahiah is said having been murdered in 735 B.C. by the officer Pekah
-- and Assyria is said having planned the occupation of Israel (p.218)
"Northern Reich of Israel" under king Pekah, son of Remalya
Documents and archeology speaking about king Pekah: A coalition with Damascus (under king Rezin) cannot be formed - and then follows the Assyrian occupation down to Samaria
But the coalition fails, and Tiglat-Pileser who is informed about these coalition plans is reacting with anger:
-- Tiglath-Pileser has Damascus occupied and king Rezin executed (p.235)
-- before the arrival of the invasion the fortification of Hazor for example is more fortified yet, but in vain, and then it is destroyed massively like also Dan and Beth-Shean (p.237)
-- Tiglath-Pileser is performing his military campaign up to the Mediterranean and than along the coast and has all rebellion towns destructed (p.235) interrupting the connection between the Middle East and Egypt (p.235-236)
-- the next step will be the occupation of a big part of northern Reich of Israel, and the most important towns are destroyed and the population is deported (p.236).
Of Megiddo only the residential districts are destroyed, but the stones of the column houses are reutilized for the construction of a first administration center and a new capital which will be the see of the governor (p.237).
In this case it seems that the OT and the facts are the same:
According to OT Assyria under Tiglath-Pileser III is said having occupied the northern valleys and Galilee
The Assyrian occupations are: Jion, "Avel-Beth-Maacha, Janoah, Kedes, Hazor, Gilead and of Galilee the whole region of Naphthali" (2d book of Kings 15,29), and the population is allegedly deported (S.218).
Reich of Israel is said having lost a part of it's territories and is said having limited to the highlands of Samaria (p.219).
Old Testament is rating the occupation now as a moral "punishment of God": The faked prophecy of 1st Moses 15,18 with it's Israeli borderlines from Nile river to Euphrates river is said having been abolished by the "sins" committed before (p.219).
For this catastrophe king Pekah is said having been murdered by Hosea (p.219).
Documents and archeology speaking about the Assyrian occupation regime in ex northern Reich of Israel with the exception of Samaria region
Map with Dor, Megiddo, Gilead and Samaria
The ex Reich of Israel is parted in new provinces:
-- Dor (with the northern coast)
-- Megiddo (with the Jezreel plain and with Galilee)
-- Gilead (with the highlands of the East Bank) (p.236).
Here is a relief from the times of Tiglath-Pileser III showing the siege of Gaazru, probably Geser (p.236).
Tiglath-Pileser's army sieging Gazru with storm vehicles and bowmen
This gypsum relief is from the ancient Assyrian palace at Nimrud, the capital city, depicts the utter destruction of the city of Gazru by Tiglath-pilesar III’s mighty Assyrian army. It is now at the British Museum. Notice the powerful battering ram to bring down the walls, at the top left are three men who have been impaled on spiked poles [web01].
These population figures are estimations according to archaeological territorial research and demographic research:
From the northern Reich of Israel only remain the highlands of Samaria. Monumental inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser III are testimony of these events, with a specialmention of the safed Samaria (p.236).
The deportations are used for the continuing development of the own Reich. Any destruction of a site and any deportation is one more an intimidation. Prisoners of war are drawn to military service, deported craftsmen are used for works in the center of the Assyrian Empire promoting wealth there (p.236). Settlements in empty regions are amplifying agriculture (p.237).
[Also Stalin did it like this...]
The chronological descriptions of Tiglath Pileser III mention 13.500 deported Jews. Archaeological investigations confirm the fact that whole sections of lower Galilee have been without any population for decades in this time (p.237).
Megiddo is reconstructed in an absolutely new lattice-like layout. At the left and the right side of the city gate palaces are built in a typical Assyrian style. The residential quarters are built in lattice-like blocks. This layout was unknown in Fertile Crescent until this time (p.237). Finkelstein / Silberman admit that in these block like residential quarters Mesopotamians were settled (p.240).
The Israelite "island" of Samaria
Samaria is spared of the Assyrian occupation for some time, but not for a long time any more (p.240).
Northern mini kingdom of Israel under king Hosea: rebellion conspiracy
-- in Assyria king Shalmaneser V is said having taken the power and is said having installed an imperial policy
-- king Hosea is said having surrendered as a loyal vassal having offered tribute, but clandestinely had aimed for an alliance with Egypt for a successful rebellion
-- the Assyrian king Shalmaneser V is said having been informed of this maneuver of Hosea and then Hosea is said having been seized ant the rest of the northern Reich of Israel is said having been occupied whereas the occupation of Samaria is said having required three years of siege (p.219)
-- OT claims about king Hosea: Hosea "did what displeased to the Lord", but it was not so much than the other kings did before (2d book of Kings 17,2) (p.243).
Documents and archeology are speaking about king Hosea
End of 8th century appr. / 730 B.C. appr.
There are numbers of population according to Finkelstein / Silberman
-- mini northern kingdom of Israel has appr. 350,000 inhabitants
-- kingdom of Judah has almost 100,000 inhabitants
-- the kingdoms of Ammon and Moab together have appr. 100,000 inhabitants (p.229).
Death of king Tiglath-Pileser III and interregnum with a weak period of Assyria - the trial of conspiracy of king Hosea with Egypt
King Hosea of Samaria means that he could start a rebellion in the weak time of Assyria after the death of Tiglath-Pileser when king Shalmaneser V is not enthroned yet. So, king Hosea has contacts made with the army of Egypt in the Nile Delta with the aim to arrange a coalition against Assyria hoping that Egypt will attack Assyria now. At the end king Hosea even stops it's tribute to Assyria (p.240).
The destructive campaign of Assyria under Shalmaneser V against mini northern kingdom of Israel - securing trade roads
The new king in Assyria, Shalmaneser V, is reacting against the rebellious conspiracy with a campaign of destruction against Samaria and with it's siege. It's not sure if Shalmaneser can see the storming yet (p.240).
At the same time the northern mini Reich of Israel is not only an "attractive goal" (p.245), but also the trade roads in the Middle East between Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean coast and Arabia have to be secured because otherwise they would be in Egypt hands affecting and destructing badly a big part of the Assyrian trade connections (p.288-290).
Successor in Assyria is king Sargon II, and the kingdom of Judah is not interesting with it's geographical isolated position is not interesting for him (p.250).
Samaria with collapse, deportation and resettlement under king Shalmaneser V
-- the Assyrian king Shalmaneser V is said having sieged Samaria for 3 years
-- Shalmaneser V is said having deported the population to Halah and to Habor river in Gosan [Tell Halaf] and to the towns of the Medes (2d book of Kings 17,6)
-- the alleged 10 tribes of the North are said having eliminated by the deportations
-- Shalmaneser is said having settled people from Mesopotamia in the conquered northern Reich of Israel, people from Babel, Kutha, Awa, Hamath, and from Sepharwaim, above all in Samaria (2d book of Kings 17,24)
-- and now - in this way is claiming the OT - the "kingdom of Judah" is said to be obliged to redeem Israel from the occupation (p.219)
-- OT claims that the occupation of the whole northern Reich of Israel with it's invaders from outside had been a punishment for the "sin" of idolatry in the northern Reich (p.21).
The collapse of Samaria according to documents and archeology
In 722 B.C. Sargon II is enthroned in Assyria. It can be that Sargon II and not Shalmaneser V is witness of the storming of Samaria and executing the deportations. Sargon's chronicle is reporting in details about the prey with 27,280 persons, war chariots and with the gods of the population (p.240).
Assyria: Sargon II.
Sargon II, profile
This limestone relief of Sargon II comes from the town of Khorshabad (under Sargon called Dur Sharrukin) and has a height of tree feet. Here he has got a neo Assyrian crown. See the colored bands, the braided hears and beard, and the earrings. Today this relief is in the Egizio Museum in Turin [web02].
Sargon II: palace figures: winged horse with a human head
This winged being (Lamassu) was found in the palace of Sargon II in Dur-Sharrukin (today: Kohrsabad) on the right side of the entrance to the throne hall. The statue is 14 feet high. There were four such statues on each side and there were two head opposit to the other ones as if they would look to each other. There was the belief that Lamassu could safe the palace from demons. Today this statue is in the Oriental institute of Chicago [web03].
Sargon II, the inscripcion about the victory against Samaria and the deportations
This V-block of clay contains an Assyrian inscription in cuneiform inscription corresponding to the biblical context in reference to the military campaigns and deportations in northern mini kingdom of Israel in 722 B.C. The inscription prescribes the 8th campaign under Sargon II in Syria and the revolts in Samaria, the former capital of northern Reich of israel before and after Sargon's military campaigns. The Assyrian inscription depicts also Sargon's bluff: "I sieaged and conquered Samaria, and I deported 27,290 of the inhabitants as my prey." (see the Bible, 2d book of Kings, 17,5-6). This cuneiform inscription is dedicated to god Ashur. Today this block is in the Louvre in Paris [web04].
The destroyed history of the northern Reich of Israel
With an Assyrian efficiency all facilities and documents are destroyed in Samaria so there is no historiography left with the point of view of northern kingdom of Israel (p.244).
Deportations from northern Reich of Israel: The OT speaks of "punishment"
The northern Reich of Israel is said having been destroyed as a punishment for isolatry, and the 10 faked tribes are said having banned to Mesopotamia (p.167).
Documents about the deportations
The Israelites are permitted the formation of a military unit of 200 war chariots integrated in the Assyrian army. The rest is deported to central Assyria, and Samaria itself is populated with new population from other occupated regions. All are rated as "Assyrians" now (p.240).
[In this way also Stalin acted...]
The faith of the deported Jews is kept in the dark. According Finkelstein / Silberman an assimilation can be admitted (p.241).
[Also Stalin did this with the Jews: "russification"].
According to the documents the deportations under Tiglath-Pileser III and under Sargon II include about 40,000 persons. So, a major part of the estimated 350,000 inhabitants can stay, and is seems that - according to Finkelstein / Silberman - there were "only" deported rebels and "precious craftsmen" (p.242).
Samaria is renamed as Samerina
Proud northern Reich of Israel has collapsed (p.241). Samaria province is renamed Samerina. Production of olive oil is going on, according to archeological investigation and research of demography the landscape is kept intact, and the villages keep all their population (p.242).
[Agriculture has to go on. Because of this it's not possible to deport the whole population. Assyria does not want to resign to olive oil and good wine...]
The new settlements according to the documetns and archeology
According to the findings there is not only newly settled people in Samaria (now called Samerina), but also in the strategically important region of Bethel, the old Israelitcenter of cult (p.241), and generally at the border to Judah (p.242), for example peolpe from Awa (Awim) (p.241).
[In this manner also tsarist Russia did it: Foreign peoples were settled in the border reagions, e.g. Jews at the border to East European states or in Birobidshan at the Chinese border].28 Split of ex northern Reich of Israel under the Assyrian government
Assyria splitting the Omrid Reich
The Omrid Reich is split as follows:
-- Dor (with the northern coast)
-- Megiddo 8with Jezreel plain and Galilee)
-- Gilead (with the highlands of the East Bank) (p.236)
-- Samaria province is converted into Samerina province (p.242).
The Assyrians limit the kingdom of Israel and give hilly countryside which was the traditional "bread basket of Judah to the Philistine towns (p.109).
The Assyrian occupation of a big part of the so called "holy land" is during almost 100 years. The kingdom of Judah becomes Assyrian Vassal (p.110). Assyria itself - according to Finkelstein / Silberman - is living an "Assyrian century" (p.304).
Hazor becomes an important regional center in the Assyrian Reich with a palace and a fortification (p.109). The regional center of Bethel of the ex northern Reich of Israel keeps it's activity (p.185).
Map: The little states of Judah, Edom, Moab and Ammon are confronted with the big Empire of Assyria.
The prophecy that these little states will be "lost" against the big Empire of Assyria, does not seem inappropriate...
29 Southern Reich of Judah according to OT and findings 884-842 B.C. up to the invasion of northern Reich of Israel
The events in southern kingdom of Judah according to censorship of the Old Testament and according to the documents and findings
Map of Judah with Lachish, Shefela, Hebron, Beit Shemsh, Ekron, Gibeon, Gat, and Geba
Finkelstein / Silberman give the following indications about the OT concerning the development of the southern Reich of Judah:
-- the data indications of the kings are right with light corrections (p.250-251)
-- OT conceals the characters of the kings in the southern Reich
-- "sin" in Judah is said having punished by God, and "bad" kings are having said only for a short time (p.251).
The documents according to the El-Amarna letters: There are always border conflicts of Urusalim with Shechem and the region of Shfela
In the letters found in Tell el-Amarna from Egypt the territory of Judah is described with 6 clay tablets (p.258). Abdi-Hepa [a king of Phoenicia] writes about Jerusalem (named Urusalim in that time):
-- the king's citadel Urusalim (Jerusalem) is ruling highlands with only few population
-- the territory consists of the regions of Bethel in the North down to the region of Hebron in the South, that are appr. 2330 km2 [for example almost the surface of little German federal state of Saarland]
-- southern kingdom of Judah is always affected by border clashes with the northern Reich Shechem (northern kingdom of Israel) and with the Shfela region (p.259).
[Conclusion: Perhaps Jerusalem was in the beginning only a tree or a stone].
Archeology about the city state of Jerusalem (southern kingdom of Judah): there is no statehood
OT claims that there had been a holy ideal, but all is a fake and historically unreal. According to archeology there exists no national religion until king Hezekiah is ruling (p.254).
Archeology is looking for and arranging their findings for a long time according to the biblical story and their mind is blocked and they don't look for a new story (p.254-255). Archeology has believed the OT for a long time, but all was only a wishfulness (p.255).
According to Finkelstein / Silberman there has only grown the number of the villages a little bit since the tribe leaders David and Solomon (p.260).
Missing indications for any statehood
-- until the late 8th century B.C. there are missing any monumental inscriptions and seals of the kings - the essential characteristics for a developed state (p.255)
-- ostrakas are missing (that are written clay tablets for managing any trade)
-- and there are missing marked weight stones (p.258).
Production of potteries and the production of olive oil is managed in local private enterprises (p.258).
The hill of ruins (tell) of Lachish (Lakhish), Tell ed-Duweir
Regional center of Lachish911-870 B.C.
At the beginning the town of Lachish on the foothills of the Shfela region is the only regional center in the kingdom of Judah (p.255).
Country style architecture
According to the archaeological research until today the layout of town planning and architecture is generally in a country style up to 7th century B.C. without any monumental kind of constructive form (p.255).
The customs in the region of Judah according to archeology - no trace of any temple
Archeology is investigating in whole Judah and can find all possible forms of religions with figurines, altars, vessels for libation sacrifices and altars for sacrifices. The customs were very different and distributed in the different centers of clans. The temple of Jerusalem - if there had been one - was not the only center. But there is not one single little finding of a temple in that time (p.261).
Settlement building was done with the scheme of the "amplified family settlement" (p.261).
Religions and alleged reforms in Judah
In the alleged first temple of Jerusalem [until today without any findings] is said having preserved also cult objects for Baal, Astarte, or for the heavenly hosts, and the cult actions were performed also in the temple, also the adoration of Mesopotamic god of Tammuz. OT qualifies all this as "atrocities" (p.263).
The prophets of Judah are said having protested against the "foreign gods". When we admit the description of the conditions in Jerusalem as true, so hardly "good" and "bad" kings can be distinguished - so Finkelstein / Silberman (p.263).
All religious "reforms" indicated in the OT under the kings of Judah have to be put into question - this say Finkelstein / Silberman, because southern Reich of Judah is rated always as "good", and northern Reich of Israel is rated always as "bad" (p.270).
Southern Reich of Judah under king Rehoboam: religious tolerance and punishment by Egypt invasion?
-- king Rehoboam is says having been the alleged son of the faked king Solomon, and it is said that under Rehoboam many fortresses were constructed (2d book of Chronicles 11,5-12) (p.255)
-- king Rehoboam is said having been a "sinner", and the inhabitants are said having constructed "heights" [altars for sacrifices on hill tops], and the inhabitants are said having copied the atrocities of the pagans (1st book of Kings 14,22-24) (p.251)
-- king Rehoboam is said having permitted sacrifices on all heights, and stony monuments and pictures of Ashera on all high hills and under all green trees (p.251)
-- king Rehoboam is said having permitted temple whore men and all other atrocities of the pagans (1st book of Kings 14,22-24) (p.251).
Punishment is said having come in 926 B.C. by an Egypt invasion against Jerusalem under Pharaoh Shishak, and it's said that the temple treasuries and the palace treasuries from the faked palace of David were taken for tribute (1st book of Kings 14,25-26) (p.251).
Documents and archeology about king Rehoboam
Archeology cannot find any fortress which is from the time of Rehoboam. But there are found many monumental buildings of the time of 200 year later (p.255).
Southern kingdom of Judah under king Abia
-- the king Abia is said having been a "sinner" as his father, king Rehoboam (1st book of Kings 15,3) (p.251)
-- and as punishment some border clashes are said having been with northern Reich of Israel (p.251-252).
Southern kingdom of Judah under king Asa
-- king Asa is said having been a "good" king and is said having ruled for 41 years (1st book of Kings 15,11) (p.252)
-- king Asa is said having constructed defensive works in the biblical town of Mizpa (today in Jordan) (1st book of Kings 15,22) (p.255)
-- under king Asa Jerusalem is said having saved by God of the attack of the northern Reich Israel under king Baesa, because Judah had plead for help with the king of Aram Damascus, so Damascus had attacked Israel in the North and Israel was forced giving up the siege of Jerusalem (p.252).
What documents and archeology say about king Asa
Archeology is investigating the hill of ruins of Mizpa (Tell en-Nasbe) and cannot find any fortress work which could be allocated to king Asa, but there are many ruins that can be allocated to a time of 200 years after (p.255).
Southern Reich of Judah under king Josaphat
(analyzed: Jeho-shafat, in English: God has judged)
-- king Josaphat is said having ruled for 25 years copying the model of his father Asa in a loyal way to God
-- king Josaphat is said having made a peace agreement with the northern kingdom of Israel (p.252)
-- king Josaphat is said having organized a successful military offensive with the northern Reich of Israel against Aram and Moab (p.252).
According to the composed OT are following "good" and "bad" kings now, some times also both at the same time (p.252, 253).
Southern Reich of Judah under king Jehoram
-- king Jehoram is said having removed the stony monument Mazzebe of Baal and is praised for this in the OT
-- but king Jehoram is said having followed also the "sins of Jeroboam [with golden calves] (p.243)
-- king Jehoram is said having taken a wife from a "sinful" family of the royal family of northern Israel. He is said having married the princess daughter of Ahab and Jezebel Atalya
-- king Jehoram is said having introduced the cult of Baal in Jerusalem again
-- and as punishment for his "sins" the dependent state of Edom is said having performed a rebellion
-- and further punishment for the "sins" of Judah are said having the loss of rich agricultural territories in the western hilly countryside to the Philistines (p.252).
Southern kingdom of Judah under king Ahaziah
Ahaziah is said having died during the quarrels about the succession in northern Reich of Israel during the coup of Jehu. Then his mother Atalya is said having been got the message of his death and is said having ordered the liquidation of all royal descendants of the house of David and is said having been enthroned herself (p.252).
Southern Reich of Judah under queen Atalya (mother of Ahaziah)
Temple priest Joyada is said having waited for 6 years for a possibility for a takeover of the throne. Then he is said having claimed that a David descendant had been safed of the persecution of Atalya and presents Jehoash as a son of Ahaziah with another wife. When Jehoash was anointed, Atalya is said having been struck dead (p.252).
Southern kingdom of Judah under king Jehoash (alleged son of Ahaziah)
-- it is said that king Jehoash ruled for 40 years in loyalty to God (2d book of Kings 12,3)
-- king Jehoash is said having renovated the temple (p.252) [but there is missing any finding of this first temple]
-- king Jehoash is said having paid a high tribute to king Hazael of Aram Damascus preventing an occupation of Aram Damascus (2d book of Kings 12,18-19) (p.252-253).
Map with Assyria and Aram Damascus in 820 B.C. appr.
Southern kingdom of Judah under king Amaziah
-- king Amaziah is said having been a "good" king in loyalty of God, but "not that good like his father David" (1st book of Kings 14,3)
-- king Amaziah is said having organized a successful war against Edom (p.253)
-- then is said that northern kingdom of Israel had exploited the overspending of forces of southern Reich of Judah and had torn down the wall of Jerusalem [but there is no finding of the wall], and king Amaziah is said having been defeated and seized (p.253).
According to archeology the southern Reich of Judah has never fought any war until the northern Reich of Israel was destroyed (p.250).
Southern Reich of Judah under king Uzziah
-- king Uzziah is said having been a "good" king
-- king Uzziah is said having "moved" the southern borderline to Edom to the south (p.253).
Map with Israel, Judah, Ammon, Moab and Edom 722 appr.
Southern Reich of Judah under king Jotham (son of Uzziah)
[there is no indication].
Southern kingdom of Judah under king Ahaz
-- king Ahas is said having been a "bad" king, he is said "having migrated on the path of the kings of Israel", he is said having his son passed through the fire "according to the dreadful customs of the pagans", he is said having sacrificed sacrifices, he is said having fumigated on the heights and on the hills under all green trees (2d book of Kings 16,2-4)
-- as punishment for the "sins" of king Ahaz the Edomites are said having occupied Eilat on the Red Sea and king Rezin of Aram Damascus is said having performed a siege of Jerusalem together with king Pekahiah from the northern kingdom of Israel (p.253)
Tiglath-Pileser III., profile, location of finding Nimrud.
-- king Ahaz is said having plead for help with Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727 B.C.) and is said having given him presents from the temple in advance
-- and by this Tiglath-Pileser III is said having conquered Damascus and killed king Rezin (2d book of Kings 16,9) (p.253).
Documents and archeology speaking about king Ahaz
As a vassal with Assyria the kingdom of Judah is not isolated any more and begins the political game (p.263). King Ahaz prevents the confrontation so Judah can survive. In this way he can develop first beginnings of a public administration (p.292).
Southern Reich Judah under king Hezekiah
The anointing of king Hezekiah is said having been a great event (p.270). In the beginning of reign of Hezekiah the southern kingdom of Judah has about 35,000 inhabitants (p.258).
And now this king is said having been a "good" one with no faults and only with merits (p.291).
Collapse of the northern Reich of Israel, Assyrian occupation - and the southern Reich of Judah starts a new development
30 Growth of city state of Jerusalem / of southern Reich of Judah after the ruin of northern Reich of Israel since 720 B.C.
Southern kingdom of Judah "is taking over" northern kingdom of Israel
According to the faked OT the southern Reich of Judah is taking over quasi the full birthright after the ruin of North Reich of Israel, as if it would be a younger brother (p.246).
Now is a strong growth in the Reich of Judah under king Hezekiah:
There is an influx of refugees - and the prophets of the collapsed northern Reich have their plans for a 1 god religion
Since 720 B.C. city state of Jerusalem (biblical "kingdom of Judah") is growing now rapidly by a wave of refugees from the occupied northern kingdom of Israel (p.56). There is a big influx of palace employees, refugees and expelled farmers of the ex northern kingdom (p.14). Probably under these refugees are also the northern Israelite prophets and priests. By this the memory of the destruction of the North Reich Israel is kept alive (p.244).
Now the warning prophets from the northern Reich of Israel are claiming more and more a "1 god religion" and want to realize this plan in the kingdom of Judah now (p.268). These warner prophets are taking reference to Elia, Elisa, Amos, and Hosea. They all want to accept only one single god any more. When there is an occasion they want to perform their religious cleansing (p.268).
At the same time since 720 B.C. there is coming a movement of national revanchism. This national movement consists of Jewish court employees, clerks, priests, farmers, and prophets (p.12).
The religion of Jewry is not at all fixed yet.
Archeology: Statehood in southern kingdom of Judah is coming very fast now
According to the findings of archeology the little kingdom of Judah
-- never had any diplomacy
-- and never has conducted any war (p.250).
In this kingdom of Judah is evoked a great development from one to the other day (p.56) because Judah has to intercept the big change after the collapse of the northern Reich of Israel (p.250), and as another new fact Judah is totally surrounded by provinces with Assyrian governments or Assyrian vassals (p.263). Judah is the new Jewish center now (p.250), becomes the new political and religious center of the Israelite community (p.263).
Judah is growing and is becoming a local power now (p.57). The northern city state of Shechem (biblical "northern kingdom of Israel") is only a memory. Southern city state of Jerusalem is flourishing now and also developing territorial ambitions (p.185).
The installation of Judah's political system has got the following element:
-- statal facilities are installed (p.56)
-- Judah only now introduces annals and a historical awareness
-- Judah becomes only now a fully developed state with professional priests and clerks (p.249).
[And always the saying is true: "The last will be the first", for Egypt, for northern Reich of Israel, for Assyria, and for all Reichs which will come].
-- there is a rapid population growth (p.250), a population explosion (p.264)
-- according to archeology Jerusalem only now becomes a religious center, an Israel Jewish metropolis and trade center (p.250)
-- Judah is installing it's industry for mass production of ceramics and olive oil for the export (p.258)
-- Judah is installing an import and export trade (p.250)
-- the trade is managed with ostraka (written clay tablets) and with weight stones, these are found by archeology (p.258)
-- illiteracy is overcome, reading and writing is spreading and written texts suddenly get authority (p.269).
Archeology: Only now there is a development for building up the city state of Jerusalem in 7th century B.C.
City state of Jerusalem (biblical "kingdom of Judah") is developing it's buildings only now (p.255), sporadically (p.266) of blocks of stone with stony capitals (p.177) in Aeolian similar style ("proto Aeolian") (p.255), whereas the buildings in Judah are not as big as in the city state of Shechem, and the quality of the construction is less (p.177).
Model of Jerusalem in 7th century B.C. with northern city gate, Damascus gate, and in the background the temple
Archeology can exactly state the rapid growth of Jerusalem (p.263-264). The layout of Jerusalem is amplified from 4 to 5 hectares to 60 hectares (p.264), this is about the half of the historic city of today (p.13). The residential areas are growing on the hills aside the slim ridge, with a huge town wall saving the new suburbs. The houses are side by side in a dense way, with workshops and public buildings. Finkelstein / Silberman estimate that the number of inhabitants was rising from 1,000 to 15,000 (p.264).
[Speculation: Royalty is taken over from the northern kingdom
There is missing the report how the kingdom of Judah was found when David and Solomon had not been kings. It's possible that the royalty of the northern Reich was simply taken over in the South. Then king Hezekiah had risen from a tribal chief to a king, and the refugees of the North had constructed him the new capital of Jerusalem. Now many towns get their town walls. Speculations may go on].
Growth in agriculture interior according to archeology
-- many new farms are founded near Jerusalem
-- in the South of the town and in the Shfela region are founded new farms on relatively empty soil (p.264)
-- villages are growing to towns (p.264), in the plains are developing medium-sized towns as regional centers (p.266)
Lachish: model of the town, at the end with a double town wall
Lachish gets a town wall and is another new administration center
-- in the bay of Beersheba new towns are founded (p.264).
The map of kingdom of Judah is changing radically now: Judah in 710 B.C. appr. (in the late 8th century B.C.) has appr. 300 populated locations with all kinds of size, with about 120,000 inhabitants and with a statal structure (p.264). The characteristics of statehood can all be found:
-- monumental inscriptions
-- seals and seal impressions
-- ostraka (written clay tablets) for the royal administration (p.266).
Industrialization in the kingdom of Judah under king Hezekiah according to archeology
Only now a statal olive oil industry is developed in the city state of Jerusalem (p.177), and with this a mass production is connected and a sale of ceramic vessels and other things. Add to this there is an industry installed working with oils and wine products under statal leadership (p.266).
The new wealth in Jerusalem under king Hezekiah and his successors
The origin of wealth can be found easily:
-- kingdom of Judah has integrated into the economic system of Assyria
-- kingdom of Judah has probably taken part also in the Arab trade (p.266)
-- and by this Judah gets new markets (p.267).
All in all since 720 B.C. there is an absolute social and economical revolution in Judah coming from the economy of clans to the modern state. Jerusalem is getting a very rich spot (p.267).
Visits from the ex northern Reich
Israelits from the ex northern kingdom of Israel are regularly visiting the cult celebrations in the temple of Jerusalem (p.242-243).31 Conditions in ex kingdom of Israel
Colonization of Assyrian deportees in ex northern Reich of Israel
The places of the fled and deported in the northern kingdom of Israel are colonized by Assyria with own foreign deportees (p.59).
By the new settlements there is a mix of population in the ex northern Reich of Israel that is regularly denounced in propaganda speeches in Judah (p.243).
[Today one would say: racists].
32 Southern Kingdom of Judah: religion is hot spot of conflicts - propaganda for a 1 god religion
Propaganda against all gods but "God"
In southern Reich of "Judah" the propagandists are beginning a religious reform movement now with the aim to ban all gods but God (JHWH). The temple in Jerusalem shall be cleaned of all "foreign" gods (p.250).
There is a big quarrel and dispute provoked by this: The warner prophets claim that they want to prevent another ruin as it had been with northern kingdom of Israel, and they get many followers, more than the other gods. By this religious law and religious policy are "present". But now the propagandists also claim that all Israelites have to have the same belief, and Jerusalem is getting stronger and stronger. Priests and prophets are propagating the "right" form of adherence for all inhabitants of Judah and all Israelites from the ex northern Reich of Israel (p.267).
This "God alone movement"
-- means that an orthodox form of belief would be good
-- also wants to manipulate the history of the Jews presenting one single history for all Jews with Jerusalem as the central place
-- and it can be admitted, that the "God alone movement" had connections to economy, policy and culture, and that the final goal was the reconquest of the northern Reich with a new "dynasty of David" with the center in Jerusalem, and all other centers of religious cults of the North should be destroyed (p.269).
[That's religious dictatorship].
The religious censorship in kingdom of Judah under king Hezekiah according to faked OT
-- king Hezekiah is said having ruled in Jerusalem as "good" king for 25 years and had executed general religious reforms guaranteeing"purity" and "loyalty" to God since the alleged king David (p.253)
-- king Hezekiah is said having converted Jerusalem in a center of adherence of God and is said having installed the dynasty of David as the only mediator between the population and God (p.270)
-- king Hezekiah is said having induced the elimination of the sacrifice tables on the "heights" (on the hill tops)
-- king Hezekiah is said having induced the destruction of the picture of goddess of fertility Ashera
-- king Hezekiah is said having destroyed the serpent of faked Moses
-- king Hezekiah is said having been the most loyal king to God (2d book of Kings 18,3-7) and only with king Hezekiah is said having been reinstalled all divinity as it had allegedly been under David (p.254)
[but there never was any king David before...]
OT claims that Hezekiah had been that brave like the faked king David, and whole Judah is said having been freed of the sins of the past by king Hezekiah (p.271).
According to faked OT King Hezekiah is said having sent messengers to the faked tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh - that means to the highlands in the ex northern Reich of Israel - for an invitation of Passover in Jerusalem (2d book of Chronicle 30,1; 30,10; 30,18). Biblical books of Chronicle of OT are presenting this king Hezekiah as a second Solomon, and Hezekiah is said having unified whole Israel around the temple of Jerusalem. Hezekiah is said having sought the leadership in Judah and also in the ex northern Reich of Israel (p.280).
The other cults of other gods are described in the OT of the Bible as a chaotic social diversity (p.269), and the old tribal structures in the countryside have also to be destroyed (p.269-270). The original Jewish tradition is called a Canaanite heresy and suddenly is qualified as foreign (p.270).
OT stating the prohibition of all other cults - OT never mentioning the representatives of the old cults
Historiography only has the literature of the priests of the "God alone movement". The methods of the enemies of king Hezekiah who want to tolerate the cults of Astarte (goddess of fertility), of the stars (celestial body) or of other gods are not delivered to posterity (p.285).
All cults without "God" - these are cults of fertility, or cults of the ancestors - are prohibited. All religious pluralism is prohibited (p.267). The "One God" propagandists are winning whereas the origin of this movement are the sermons of the northern kingdom of Israel (p.268). Finkelstein / Silberman estimate that the warner prophets have manipulated the Jewish priests and the royal officials (p.268) supporting the "One god movement" only (p.269).
[And by this the little kingdom of Judah shall be saved from the huge Assyrian Empire? That's an absolute nonsense...]
But the representatives of the traditional customs don't give up (p.268). But Bible conceals this.But according to Finkelstein / SilbermanBible would be another book when the traditionalists had "won".
Finkelstein / Silberman:
"If the adherents of the traditional forms of the syncretic [mixed religious] adherence [for many different gods] had won at the end, so there had possibly been a totally other Bible - or perhaps none at all." (p.269)
Archeology speaks about king Hezekiah: there were no religious reforms and no censorship
Archeology cannot find any archaeological finding of the alleged reforms under king Hezekiah installing a One God Belief. The both religious sites of Arad and Beersheba which are stated in connection with Hezekiah's reforms are controversial (p.270).
There are new traditions in Jerusalem: graves in the rocks for the rich
Above all for Jerusalem there are proved new rites of burial, eventually in connection with a new formed elite. At the slopes of the mountain ranges around Jerusalem there are installed graves in the rocks, often with rich installations, the roofs with gables, with comices, with pyramids with crowns, probably of the upper class, for the nobility or for high officials (p.266).
Findings of inscriptions of these graves indicate that the graves were from the nobility. The same kind of graves can be found in other towns ofthe hilly countryside (p.266).
OT is blaming these graves of luxury in the rocks, for example prophet Isaiah. He is blaming Sebna, the supreme royal palace guard, for having a grave in the rocked installed (Isaiah 22,15-16) (p.266).
33 Trial of upheaval for reconquest of ex North Reich Israel under king Hezekiah - destruction of Judah - reconstruction under king Manasseh
Failed "reconquest" - the Assyrian revenge - and king Manasseh - and the One God Movement is spreading a story of a Moses
Sennacherib, ruler of Assyria 704-681 B.C. provoking a new destiny in the Middle East
The Assyrian successor of king Sargon II, Sennacherib, is busy with rebellions in the East of the Assyrian Empire. It seems that Assyria is destabilized for a crash. The responsibles in Judah mean that this would be the moment for a reconquest of northern Reich of Israel (p.271).
Well, Assyria wants a stable Middle East (p.288) because there are trade routes going from the bay of Beersheba passing the highlands of Edom, and there are caravan routes from the southern coastal plain to Arabia (p.289). With stability the Arab trade is managed. Rebellions will not be tolerated, not either in Judah, because the Arab trade would be in danger (p.288).
Sennacherib defines Ninive as the new capital of Assyria and has new palaces built [web01].
King Hezekiah means for his side that a religious reform with the One God Movement could support the reconquest of the ex northern Reich of Israel. But all in all the trial of a reconquest is an absolute imprudence (p.292).
King Hezekiah - supported by Egypt - is said having made an anti Assyrian coalition with others (2d book of Kings 18,21; 19,9).
King Hezekiah is said having solved from the vassal contract with Assyria (2d book of Kings 18,7).
But there is no rebellion described in the OT (p.275).
Propaganda for a "One God Belief" by war
According to Finkelstein / Silberman this war also is a pretext pushing through the "one god religion" in his country (p.271).
OT claims: There are preparations for defense against the Assyrian punitive expedition
Before the Assyrian punitive expedition against the conspiracy of Hezekiah is said having been prepared the defense (p.275), with the construction of storehouses for corn, oil and wine, with the construction of cattle sheds for sheep and cattle (2d book of Chronicle 32,27-29).
Add to this
-- water supply for Jerusalem is saved covering springs and the river by a roof (p.276) resp. the spring is completed with an access by a new tunnel (2d book of Kings 20,20) (p.277-278)
-- the town walls are said having been reinforced
-- there is said having been a general armament with weapons and shields
-- Hezekiah is said having assured that with God will be a victory against Assyria (2d book of Chronicle 32,2-8) (p.276).
[Well, considering the Assyrian Empire this project of a rebellion against Assyria is an absolute madness, and the claim of a "punitive expedition" saving the trade routs of the Arab trade seem to be reasonable].
Archeology confirms the preparations for defense
-- for example a protective barrier of 16 meters of thickness around the Jewish quarter of Jerusalem can be stated
-- for the construction of this wall private houses are destroyed which is mentioned also in OT by Isaiah blaming the king for the destruction of the houses for the construction of the wall (p.276)
-- archeology confirms an underground creek from the spring of Gihon near Jerusalem at the ground of Kidron valley outside of the town walls: There was dug a tunnel from the spring to a pond which was 30 cm lower. Sioa inscription at the southern end of the tunnel was detected in 19th century telling about this project (p.277).
"Hezekiah tunnel" for fresh water supply in Jerusalem
This tunnel was constructed for fresh water supply in Jerusalem, dug under king Hezekiah
-- the town of Lachish receives tremendous defense installations with a 6 chamber city gate, respectively historians mean that the fortress which was assigned to king Rehabeam first should be assigned to king Hezekiah (p.278)
-- all stocks are organized in a centralized manner, jars are produced in masses, with seals of the ceramics workshops (p.278).
The Assyrian "punitive expedition" in the kingdom of Judah - OT claims a "mystery of Jerusalem"
-- according to OT the leading hand of God is in all actions of king Hezekiah, and to his taste he will give a reward or a punishment (p.273).
The siege of Jerusalem (king Sennacherib against king Hezekiah) is described like this in the OT:
-- the Assyrian commanders are said having provoked the defenders on the town wall of Jerusalem having mocked the citizens and they are said having tried breaking their courage taking into doubt Hezekiah's wisdom and mocking his belief (p.273)
-- the Assyrian are said having reproached to the citizens and representatives of Jerusalem that they had lost the war already (2d book of Kings 28,28-35) (p.274)
-- supporting the moral texts about Hezekiah about the "sins" of the northern Reich of Israel are presented and repeated (p.273)
-- during the siege of Jerusalem prophet Isaiah is said having calmed king Hezekiah with an oracle stating that king Sennacherib will be confronted with a rumor and will leave Jerusalem and will die in his own country by the sword (2d book of Kings 19,6-7; 19,32-34) (p.274)
-- then in the following night an angel is said having killed 185,000 men of the Assyrian army sieging Jerusalem, and further is said that now king Sennacherib had returned going home to Ninive and had been killed by sword by his two sons Adrammelecht and Sarezer during a religious service for god Nisroch (2d book of Kings 19,35-37) (p.274)
-- the saving of Jerusalem under king Hezekiah and the destruction of the army of Sennacherib are said having been actions of the hand of God (p.273) which were performed thanks of piety of king Hezekiah (p.271)
-- also when all towns around Jerusalem were destroyed by the Assyrian troops god JHWH is said having been the key figure of the saving of the population - according to AT (p.273)
-- Judah's belief to God is said having been reinforced by the "miracle of Jerusalem" and king Hezekiah is said having destroyed the places of sacrifices on the "heights" (on the hill tops) (p.275).
Sennacherib, report of the military campaign against Judah written in a clay prism. Today this is in the British Museum.
The documents speak: Sennacherib's report indicates the total destruction of Judah except Jerusalem
-- Sennacherib's troops are sieging 46 Judean towns and always win tanks to their "well constructed ramps of earth" and "battering rams", add to this they are using mines, gaps and pioneers (p.280)
-- the military campaign for the construction of the rebellious Judah is precisely planned and is executed from the fertile branches of the hilly country down to Jerusalem (p.281)
-- for example the fortress of Azekah is taken by assault and devastated (p.281).
And the mass killing of Assyrian soldiers does not happen, God's hand is not at all helping but there comes the Assyrian occupation of Jerusalem:
Sennacherib's troops defeating Judah
The prey of Sennacherib in Judah according to his report
-- Sennacherib is making 200.150 prisoners of war, and there is much cattle: "horses, mules, donkeys, camels, cattle and small domestic animals (p.280)
-- the towns are plundered (p.281)
-- king Hezekiah in Jerusalem is reaching his end: He is locked in his palace and the palace is walled at the end (p.281).
King Sennacherib lets king Hezekiah live perhaps because he wants to have a loyal vassal at the end].
Archeology: layers of ruins confirming the Assyrian punitive expedition
The destruction of the towns by the military campaign under Sennacherib form new hills of ruins (tells). These are "horrible archaeological findings". Add to this Finkelstein / Silberman mean that the number of prisoners of war in Sennacherib's report was indicated too high (p.281).
A wall relief in the palace of Sennacherib in Ninive showing the battle of Lachish
Relief about the siege and storming Lachish under king Sennacherib - deportations
Relief of the siege of Lachish, finding in Ninive
Lachish: Sennacherib receiving the surrendered Jewish ruler, relief
Lachish: After the siege Jews are prisoners, finding in Ninive
This wall of reliefs which was excavated in old Ninive is describing the fall of Lachish by the army of king Sennacherib in pictures. The population is seized at the end. Before the siege of Jerusalem Sennacherib took 36 towns. Today the relief is in the British Museum [web02].
A mural relief in Sennacherib's palace of Ninive on the wall of an interior room is showing the siege and the destruction of Lachish. The importance of this victory can be estimated by the installation in an inner room (p.281).
The relief shows precisely the events in the battle of Lachish:
-- there are big fights before the wall, and on a ramp battering rams are pushed against the town wall
-- the defense tries putting fire with torches, and at the same time the Assyrians are protecting the battering rams with water (p.282)
-- there are captives, dead bodies are spitted, prey is taken out of the town, also holy vessels for religious rituals
-- topography and even the local flora are depicted precisely, and even the viewpoint of the painter can be well identified
-- the archaeological excavations of the 1930s and 1970s confirm the depiction of the walls in the relief, and even the siege ramp is excavated (p.283).
The excavations in Lachish show even more of the battle of Lachish
-- the population constructed a counter ramp
-- the town was completely put on fire (p.283)
-- the threatening battering rams were fought with burning stones with holes filled with burning ropes
-- on the western slopes of the tell archeology finds a mass grave with about 1,500 dead bodies (p.284).
After the punitive expedition the prophets are inventing a new moral: Further "sin"
OT mentions the victims of the occupied towns in the prophetic books, for example in book of Isaiah 10,28-32) and in book Micha. with moral ratings: Lachish is said having been "the beginning of the sin" etc. (Micha 1,10-13) (p.284).
Judah is completely dependent on Assyria now - and Judah is reduced
The Bible conceals that after the defeat Judah has to surrender completely under Assyrian policy, which again would be a "sinful" behavior (p.291).
Sennacherib is parting Judah according to his own report. Only a little Judah is left. The other territories are given to the neighbors [that's a Hitler method!]:
-- to Mitinti, the king of Ashdod
-- to Padi, the king of Ekron
-- to Silbel, the king of Gaza (p.281)
-- and king Hezekiah has to pay high tribute now (p.281)
-- Sennacherib is giving high quality land of agriculture of Judah to the Philistine states reducing Judah dramatically
-- and there are deportations of Judah population to Assyria [without indications of numbers] (p.285).
The new organization of the mini kingdom of Judah
-- Lachish becomes the second town after Jerusalem as an administrative center with high quality soil for agriculture which has stayed yet in Judah (p.281)
-- the region of the kingdom of Judah never recovers really again (p.284-285) and the hilly country stays only with little population
-- according to archaeological research the towns and the cultivated soil are reducing by about 2/3 (p.285)
-- some of the big town are reconstructed, but many of the little towns, villages and farms will stay in ruins [and convert into hills of ruins ("tell")] (p.285).
[Such destructions also Stalin, Hitler, Roosevelt and Churchill did, and with deportations Hitler and Stalin are standing in the same row like Sennacherib...]
Streams of refugees
By the streams of refugees are destroyed many traditional clan connections for ever, land is lost, successions are destroyed etc. (p.294).
Mini-Judah under king Manasseh, 12 years old, son of king Hezekiah
OT prescribes Manasseh as a "bad" king.
-- king Manasseh is said having ruled for 55 years abusing introducing all dreadful bad things of the past committing disloyalty to God in the worst manner (p.271)
-- king Manasseh is said having performed a religious turn around, is said having reconstructed the "heights" again, is said having reconstructed the altars for Baal, is said having the picture of Ashera painted, and is said having adored the heavenly host and served them (p.275)
king Manasseh is said having erected altars for the heavenly host in the temple of God of Jerusalem in both court yards, is said having provoked his son [later king Amon?] walking through the fire (p.275)
-- king Manasseh is said having interpreted crying birds, is said having exorcists and sign interpreters in his offices (p.275)
and all this is said having provoked a fury of God (2d book of Kings 21,2-6). All in all - this claims the composed OT - the population of Judah under king Manasseh had more false belief than the population of the northern Reich of Israel had (2d book of Kings 21,9) (p.275).
OT resp. "the Lord" (God) is said having threated with the destruction of Jerusalem because of Manasseh (2d book of Kings 21,11-15) (p.286).
Documents and archeology about the time of king Manasseh
At his enthronement Manasseh is 12 years old. Under his child government religious pluralism is restored (p.285) with cult of Baal, Astarte, and heavenly host (p.286).
After the big destruction of Judah there could not have been one single ideology because for the reconstruction Judah was dependent from all neighbors. That is not a "sin", but that is the logic of the situation].
Integration of Judah in the Arab trade: incense and olive oil - center is Ekron
Assyria arranges the integration of Judah into the Assyrian world economy now (p.288). Integration of Judah into the Assyrian world economy provokes a complete reconstruction of Judah after Sennacherib's destructive military campaign (p.292). Under Manasseh the whole reconstruction is managed (p.287). By the time Assyria is even reducing the tribute, perhaps as a prime of loyalty for king Manasseh (p.286). Under Manasseh result 55 years of peace which are not at all given by the "hand of God", but from the Assyrian Empire (p.287).
Map with the position of Jericho, Jerusalem, Ekron, and Beersheba.
The two most important articles of commerce in the Arab trade are incense from Arabia and the exportation of olive oil (p.288). Assyria amplifies the olive oil production, for example with the amplification of the town of Ekron in Philistine (today the hill of ruins of Tel Mique) in a plain between the olive slopes and the coast, with over 100 olive mills which are about 20% of the territory of the town. Ekron is the biggest known olive oil production center in the old Middle East with an annual capacity of about 1,000 tons of olive oil, with exportation to Assyria and Egypt (p.290), resp. Assyria is giving a part of the commerce also to Egypt (p.288).
The rising number of camel bones of adult camels since the 7th century - without the finding of bones of young camels - seems to be an evidence for the growing Arab trade (p.288-289).
When the oil mills are excavated Israeli altars with horns can be found. So it seems as if the Israelites had worked in Ekron, as deported workers [or as well payed foreign workers] (p.290).
Fortress construction by Assyria
Now Assyria also is constructing new fortresses at the border to Egypt, and they are partly excavated (p.288).
Densification of population in reduced Judah - the compulsion for the use of poor soil
By the influx of refugees from the destructed and annexed territories the population in the highlands is rising (p.287).
Jerusalem is forced to use also poor soil now founding a dense net of farms because the "breadbasket" in the West was given to the Philistines. The villages are shifted up to the dry territories in the East and in the South, with settlements and cultivation of parts of the steep slopes down to the Jordan Rift Valley and with the settlement of the bay of Beersheba (p.287). Eventually this new settlements are performed by forced measures (p.288).
The settlement in the dry territories and the conversion of dry soil into fertile soil is the big statal challenge for the central government. Add to this as a prevention against the dry season there is installed also a stock economy (p.291).
King Manasseh: Development of population along the caravan trade routes
Since king Manasseh the population is growing with a jump in the bay of Beersheba along the caravan route. The same happens in Edom which is developing it's statehood only now. According to the findings - and they are many - there can be admitted according to Finkelstein / Silberman that the whole region got their profit by the Arab trade. More in the South two more Judean fortresses are excavated:
-- Kadesh Barnea, about 80 km in the South West from Beersheba, at the biggest oasis between southern Judah and the Red Sea
-- Hazeva, about 32 km in the South of the Dead Sea (p.289).
During this period the Arabs in Judah have good conditions which is confirmed by southern Arab inscriptions in Judah. According the findings of ostraka southern Arab writing is used in Jerusalem. Eventually Arab groups were living in Judah itself. Some scholars mean on the base of Hebrew seals with southern Arab names that the wife of Manasseh Meshullemet had been an Arab woman (p.289). By such a relation a "visit of the queen of Saba" could be derived which is assigned to king Solomon in the OT (p.290).
And now there is the shadow of the economic growth under king Manasseh
-- only few get rich
-- social uprooting and insecurity are rising
-- olive oil gets more profit than normal agriculture (p.294).
According to Finkelstein / Silberman this wealth also provokes the dream of an eternal peace (p.294-295).
[And now the religious fanatics with their invended Moses stories and sins have the problem, that this peace is made by Assyria].
Manasseh's policy of religious tolerance
Manasseh's government is supporting the religious moderate sector. Finkelstein / Silberman presume that this change was planned since years because Manasseh only is 12 years old (p.292).
[But the change to a religious tolerance was probably a necessity to Assyria, and a tool evading more inner upheavals].
The government of Manasseh is giving back the autonomy to the countryside which existed before king Hezekiah making possible a fast reconstruction, and this reconstruction also is in the sense of Assyria [because Egypt could invade]. Manasseh has to behave like an obedient vassal. An intact Judah is a better buffer state against Egypt than a weak and impoverished Judah (p.286).
The prophets of the "one god movement" for the "salvation" of the northern state of Israel may be very frustrated. King Hezekiah was not at all a savior of Israel, and they rate king Manasseh as a devil collaborating with the Assyrian enemy. It seems under the government of Manasseh had been rebellions and they were fought brutally (2d book of Kings 21,16), but there is nothing more known yet. But upheavals of the "one god propagandists" have probably been (p.294).
The "one god movement" is preparing new "holy books" - and "Moses" epos is prepared
The followers of the "one god movement" have waited for a long time for the death of Manasseh as it seems, and during this waiting time they prepared new books [books of Moses 1 to 4 and chronologies of a first Jewish historiography]. After the death of king Manasseh there will be a revenge against the wrong tolerance and king Manasseh shall be demonized (p.294).
There are simply compiled different sources (p.84). The "one god movement" - according to the Bible researchers Albrecht Alt and Martin Noth - is compiling many myths and stories around the Israelite history (p.106).
Archaeological findings and biblical reports contradict the invented book of Moses (Torah resp. Pentateuch) (p.35) and the book of Moses is in big parts taking reference directly to the geographic situation of the towns how they were constructed in the 8th and 7th century B.C. Because of this all evidence indicate that the patriarchal texts were written in 8th and 7th century B.C. (p.51).
The invention of a Genesis
According to the German Bible researcher Martin Noth Genesis (1st book of Moses) is a composition of different stories of the nomads (p.55). The books of Moses and the chronologies describe almost only religious conditions. Events of the neighbor states are excluded (p.297).
[By this method positive events which have their cause in the neighbor states are regularly presented as "wonders of God"].
The aim of the "one god movement" is the creation of a world epos as a collection with historical scriptures, memories, myths, folk stories, anecdotes, royal propaganda, prophecies and old poetry, partly original, partly from copies resp. from elder "versions".
-- this book becomes a folk's book as a mental anchor for the descendants of the inhabitants of Judah (p.12)
-- with southern Judean and northern Israeli tradition with the focus of Judah
-- Abraham's alleged altars in Bethel and Shechem (Genesis 12,7-8) are fixed as the spots of important centers of cults in the northern Reich of Israel
-- Abraham's alleged altar in Hebron is fixed as the second important location in the southern Reich of Judah after Jerusalem (p.57)
-- the books of Joshua, judges and Samuel are rated as preserved by prophet Samuel in Silo (p.22)
-- the books of the Kings are said to be from the prophet Jeremiah
-- the psalms are said to be from the faked king David
-- the book of Proverbs and the Song of Songs is said to be from the faked king Solomon (p.22).
Only in a very late time research is detecting that the 5th book of Moses is written a separate style not matching with the first four books of Moses, but the 5th book of Moses was created afterwards. By this the research is defining the 5th book of Moses and the latter books as a "Deuteronomistic History" (5th book of Moses + books of Joshuah, Judges, Samuel and Kings). Also these texts are referring to the geographic situation of the 7th century B.C., and also according to archaeological findings they are written mainly in the 7th century B.C. (p.25) in the southern Reich of Judah (p.26), in Jerusalem (p.59-60).
The myths about the kings of David and Solomon seem to be present yet and are integrated into the books of the Kings of the OT (p.160-161).
[With this the authors fake a big kingdom under David and Solomon, probably admitting that this could never be controlled. Or there are presented myths of other kings as events under David and Solomon].
More documents about Manasseh as a vassal
Under the successor of the Assyrian king Sennacherib, Esarhaddon [ruled 681-669 B.C.] Manasseh's Judah is rated in the Assyrian sources ad a supplier of building material, as 21 other vassal kings (p.286).
And there is not only building activity, but also the expansion to Egypt:
Esarhaddon, profile. Esarhaddon is leading the defeated with a nose ring
The military campaign under Esarhaddon to Egypt down to Memphis
Assyria's biggest extension
Assyria's emperor Ashurbanipal who had Egypt up to Thebes occupied, profile. This relief is in the British Museum in London.
Assyria under Ashurbanipal
Under the successor of Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal (Greek: Sardanapal), Manasseh is acting with gifts and as loyal friend helping the occupation of Egypt - according to Assyrian sources (p.286).
Egypt: Assyrian invasion up to Thebes - plundering Susa
There is a description in the OT that Manasseh is seized by Assyria in Babel (2d Chronicle 33,11), but in other sources that is never mentioned (p.286).
Map: Assyria conquering the lower part of Egypt. Only Upper Egypt (Nubia) keeps to be Egypt
Assyria under Ashurbanipal: Egypt is occupied up to Thebes. This is the maximum of extension of the "Fertile Crescent"...
[But also Egypt will overextend it's borderlines...]
The downfall of Assyria
According to Finkelstein / Silberman the downfall of Assyria is provoked by the continuing attacks on horseback by the tribes of the Scythes at the northern border. Add to this there are continuing upheavals in Babylonia and in the East in Elam (p.303).
The overextention of the borderlines in Egypt provokes the collapse of the Assyrian Reich. The northern border is neglected and vulnerable. The biblical saying is: "The last will be the first". This overextention of borderlines by big empires and their following ruin is a general political reality].
Egypt under Pharaoh Psamtik I reorganizing Egypt
and unifying the nobles under his leadership (p.303)
Psamtik I receives the order from Ashurbanipal to unify the Nile Delta which is split in several Assyrian princedoms. He is executing this order with a strong army of Egypt and Greek soldiers [web04].
since 660 B.C.
Assyria is weakened by a rebellion in Babylonia and Elam
Egypt can kick out Assyria - and there is a new nationalism in Egypt
Psamtik I is succeeding unifying Lower and Upper Egypt.
Now Egypt get a great political revival, with adherence of "great" Pharaohs of the past (p.302). Psamtik I can solve Egypt from the Assyrian domination step by step (p.302-303) extending his territory to parts of the Fertile Crescent because Assyria cannot keep it's power there (p.303). Step by step the "Assyrian century" is coming to it's end now, and the Bible is concealing all this completely (p.304).
New territorial expansion of Egypt
Herodotus, portrait of another great liar: According to archeology his descriptions of an Egypt siege of Ashdod is an absolute invention. Not one single finding of a fight could be found...
Egypt is pursuing Assyria. So, Assyria is retreating from big parts of the Fertile Crescent (p.303).
According to Greek historian Herodotus Psamtik I is said having sieged the town of Ashdod for 29 years. According to archeology there is not one single trace of any destruction there, and it seems that the takeover of power there had been performed without any fight. The description of war of Herodotus seems to be an sensational invention for making more money with it (p.303).
Judah is not important for Egypt - and the "one god movement" can prepare it's epos of Moses
The little kingdom of Judah has no significance for Egypt and hardly is controlled in the beginning. This state without control is a paradise for the prophets of the "one god movement" prising their God. They mean that the "salvation" of the ex northern Reich of Israel would be possible now. Without control a dictatorship of the "one god movement" also a religious cleansing is possible (p.304).
Patriarch Moses with written tablets, a painting with much fantasy without any confirmation by archaeological findings
The "holy books" with it's epos of a "Moses" should revive new Jewish dreams again and a big national fight should begin against Egypt and the Pharaoh (p.304).
These propaganda texts of the "one god movement" against their neighbors (4 books of Moses and the books of Kings with absolute faked claims against Egypt and the Mesopotamian Empires) are prepared. The "one god movement" only is awaiting the death of king Manasseh...
Kingdom of Judah: Death of king Manasseh - successor is king Amon
-- king Amon is said having tolerated the wrong belief
-- after 2 years Amon is said having murdered by a conspiracy
-- and now there was a revenge of the population murdering the murderers, and by these events all social and economic elite of the country was murdered - according to Finkelstein / Silberman
-- Amon's 8 years old sun Josiah is said having proclaimed as the new king now (p.295).
Egypt conquering Middle East
Assyria has to give up Egypt, Philistine, Phoenicia, and the territory of the ex kingdom of Israel. Egypt troops are continuing their campaign (p.83).
[Egypt wants to create an Egypt Fertile Crescent...]
Archeology can prove a growing Egypt influence in the Fertile Crescent for the time of the end of the 7th century B.C. Pharaoh Psamtik I can reinstall the traditional buffer state of Canaan against the military Empires in the Mid East and in his inscriptions he indicates his power up to Phoenicia (p.303).
At the same time Egypt profits of Canaan with important agricultural territories and important trade routes (p.304).
34 639-609 B.C.: Mini Reich of Judah under child king Josiah - publication of the first 4 books of Moses - war propaganda books for a reunification
New Jewish leadership under 8 years old Josia is propagating a new "holy book" with propaganda for reunification
Josiah - the allegedly most fair-minded king of Judah
-- Josiah is said having ruled for 31 years as the most fair-minded king of Judah
-- Josiah is said having been the climax in the manner of a metaphysic moment as were the faked figures of Abraham, Mose or David (p.295)
-- during his government he is a great hope for a national "salvation" (p.296)
-- Josiah is said having been a turn around from a "bad" king to a "good" king
-- Josiah is said having been a loyal successor of faked king David (2d book of Kings 22,2)
-- tanks to his justice Josiah is said having done decisive good deeds (p.298).
Josiah according to the documents and archeology
Mini kingdom of Judah: enthronement of Josiah with 8 years
Josiah is an 8 years old child king (p.302). In the Judean leading clique there is a dream of holiness and unity of the land of Israel (p.109).
Structures of the mini kingdom of Judah under child king Josiah
Mini kingdom of Judah consists only of a tiny core with the alleged tribes of Judah, Simeon, and a little part of the territory of the alleged tribe of Benjamin (p.109).
According to Finkelstein / Silberman this mini kingdom of Judah under child king Josiah has got a population of about 75,000 inhabitants [this corresponds to canton of Schaffhausen in 2001 or of the town of Bayreuth in 2004]. About 20% of the population are living in Jerusalem. In the Judean highlands the population is living in very dense conditions (p.310).
In the East and in the South there exist complete nets of villages. In the region of Shfela this density is much less (p.310).
About the 8 years old boy Josiah and his early life there is hardly any news. As an adult king he is said having been followed the laws of Moses and having missioned (p.296).
[Addition: It can be admitted that the child king hardly wrote anything by himself, but from the beginning to the end was in the hands of his "advisors". The same procedures can be stated with child kings in the European, Arab, or also in the Chinese culture].
King Josiah with seals without pictures - and the writing gets authority
Josiah's governance is confirmed by seals. These new seals under Josiah mostly have pictures and names, but sometimes only have got a flower decoration with a name without any picture (p.309).
The seals in the neighbor states of Ammon and in Moab have the same development and resign to pictures. According to Finkelstein / Silberman that is an evidence that the capacity for reading and writing has been spread in the whole state.Writing gets authority, and seals can be made without pictures now (p.309).
Historians mean that the seals without pictures would be a breakthrough of the picture-less religion of God (p.309).
Assyria is retreating on - and there are expansion plans of mini Reich of Judah
Assyria is retreating it's frontiers in the ex kingdom of Israel [Assyrian province of Samaria] giving up Bethel (p.108). The responsibles in Judah mean that now would be the moment for a "unification of all Israelites" (p.110).
Mini Reich of Judah is beginning with planning for a new expansion for a reconquest of ex kingdom of Israel. The troops of the mini Reich of Judah mean that they could use the opportunity of a vacuum of power for the reconquest of ex kingdom of Israel (p.108).
Publications with a new "Holy Scripture" in mini Reich of Judah in JerusalemThe episodes of the patriarchs express dreams of Judah in the 7th century B.C. with a postulation of superiority against the neighbors. The promise claims that Judah would never collapse. At the same time the Israelites of the collapsed northern Reich is rated as an outsider in respect of Judah. The northern and southern tradition are absorbed in the same way underlining an invented superiority of Judah (p.58).
In fact the "one god movement" under child king of Josiah is taking over the power in the state now. The writers of the OT are distributing their books with their view of history, and with all the invented stories provoking new hopes (p.295). They achieve provoking a messianic atmosphere (p.305).
The new "holy books" with their statal epos of Mose and with the laws are literally a completely new dimension of manipulation for the region of Judah. It's the first time that a historical statal identity is claimed (p.310). Monopoly having survived as a mini state of Judah until this time is used fully for an own historiography (p.244).
The responsibles around child king Josiah especially want to eliminate the religious center in the ex northern Reich of Israel, Bethel, so Jerusalem would have the monopoly of cults, and that's why the texts of the OT are written always against the "North Reich" [with all possible calumniations] (p.185).
According to Finkelstein / Silberman the books of Moses are the "creative expression of a mighty religions reform movement flouring during the Late Iron Age in kingdom of Judah. Well, there might be a certain historical core that is true in these stories, but they are mainly an ideology and world view of the writers." (p.34-35).
[In fact the "one god movement" is a religious racist terrorist movement with the aim of the elimination of all other cults with whose the population has lived well until that moment].
The new religious "one god identity" in the mini kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah is - whereas there is only a tiny kingdom - with or without consciousness the patron of the mental intellectual [religious racist] "1 god movement" (p.297).
The invented books of Moses are the mean supporting religious reforms and claims for territories of the kingdom of Judah (p.35) creating a new pan Israeli identity (p.107). Add to this the books of Moses are corrected many times in the following centuries, or redacted or censored. The books themselves have an effect in the current policy and in the political development of the Middle East (p.35).
[Worst is the claim for a big Empire between Nile river and Euphrates river for a big Jewish Empire, claimed in first book of Moses 15,18, not corrected until today].
The books of Moses 1 to 4 are said giving a "past" to Judah
-- the myth of Israel in the books of Moses 1 to 4 is said supporting the identity (p.306)
-- the past of shepherds of the "patriarchs" of Israel is a dreamy romantic vision (p.58)
-- the tradition of the patriarchs is presented as a kind of pious prehistory as if there had been a "one god dominance" already in Moses' times (p.59)
-- the sequence of the episodes of the patriarchs is arbitrary (p.58)
-- the power of the legend invents a rise from the folks of shepherds to the temple of Jerusalem (p.60)
-- the books of Moses claim that the populations of the kingdoms of Judah (in the South) and Israel (in the North) would be one single family (p.60)
-- the books of Moses are a propagandistic trial giving the population of Judah and Israel an older past as it is in fact, because thenational consciousness had been created only a short time before (p.59).
By a special story there are the claims of Judah expressed for Assyrian occupied land of Israel: In Genesis 14 the faked Abraham is expelling the Mesopotamian kings to Dan and Damascus, with the liberation of his nephew Lot from a stay as hostage of the Mesopotamian kings included (Genesis 14,14-15) (p.59).
Judah considers the northern Reich of Israel quasi as a heritage (p.59).
And also the racist instruction of the prevention of marriages with the newly settled deported peoples from Mesopotamia in ex kingdom of Israel is not missing in the books of Moses (p.59).
The new classification of the Jews and the Canaanites
This new "holy book" claims the first time in the world that Jews are not Canaanites:
-- Canaanites and Israeli are classified as different, and the Canaanites are systematically degraded
-- mixed marriages are prohibited (p.304).
As the population can the first time read and write, the "holy books" have a great effect. But one has to consider that these "holy books" are the preparation for a new great war (p.304), and under a child king...
The new justification for the collapse of the northern Reich of Israel: "sinful" kings
OT is using certain stories, texts, and archives. The aim is among others to find a new theological justification for the collapse of the northern kingdom of Israel in 720 B.C. By this all kings of the North Reich of Israel are presented in a negative way, mostly with the reproach of deeds "which displeased to the Lord", "sins" etc. (p.243).
The long time of life of the northern kingdom of Israel is justified by the fact that the "sinful" kings also had their merits (p.244). The climax of the stories about the North Reich in the chronicle of the books of Kings is not king Ahab, not king Jeroboam II or the collapse, but is the necrology with the list of all the alleged "sins" of northern Reich of Israel (p.244-245).
The prophets of the northern Reich of Israel are not cited in the OT, respectively according to OT they are said having been "false prophets" (p.244).
According to the invented OT the collapse of the northern kingdom of Israel is said having been a warning that Judah not will loose it's heritage, too. By this argumentation of the "collapse" the clique of power around the child king Josiah, later Josiah himself and also his successors, always install a harder legislation in religious questions (p.245-246).
Above all OT is inventing that there was always a "1 god belief" (p.270).
[resp. in the OT counts: Only the "1 god belief" is a "good" belief].
The invention of a new past with the holy tribe of Judah
The "1 god movement" tries to prevail with geographic manipulations now:
-- kingdom of Judah is presented as if there had been always a special position for Judah
-- the patriarchs are said having been buried in the cave of Machapelah
-- the tribe of Judah is said having received the order governing the other tribes (Genesis 49,8)
-- Judeans are said having kept a special loyalty to the commandments of God
-- and faked king David is said having been born in the village of Bethlehem and is said having occupied the town of Jerusalem which is said having been the holy hot spot for the population of Israel in these times already (p.249).
The "Holy Scriptures" as a propaganda for the reunification with the northern ex kingdom of IsraelThe oldest books of the Bible, the first 4 books of Moses [later called "Pentateuch" with the 5th book of Moses] were written all in the 7th century B.C. in Jerusalem (p.16).
Well, these books of Moses should manipulate the Jews in Israel for a reunification movement. Kingdom of Judah has to tell the lie to the population of the ex kingdom of Israel in the North
-- that in former times there had been a common occupation of all the land
-- and that these inhabitants would belong to the kingdom of Judah now (p.111).
The theology of the 7th century B.C. develops a connection between the heirs of an alleged "David" and the fate of the whole population of Israel (p.161). The invented stories about a David and a Solomon with their foundations of kingdoms and conquests serve as a vision for another Empire unifying all Israelites to one single goal of an expansion (p.161), quasi as a prophecy (p.162).
To reach these goals there are new laws published claiming that there will be a revenge of God when they are not obeyed (Deuteronomy and Deuteronomistic History) (p.268, 269).
[It seems strange that the writers of the OT are not conscious of the fact of the overextention of the borderlines as it seems].
Josiah as a new "David" - the installation of a desire of the dimensions of Abraham
Josiah is said to be a new "David" for a re-installation of the glory of the alleged ancestors, but with harsh loyalty to God without "idolatry" and without "sin" as committed under the alleged Solomon (p.162).
The clique of power under the child king Josiah is proclaiming Josiah as a successor of an invented kingdom of the kings David and Solomon which is much too big. The clique of power is painting a picture of the past of Israel with a Reich of David in Abraham's dimensions provoking a political desire with the OT that Israel should be big again, according to 1st book of Kings 5,5 at least a uniform Reich from Dan down to Beersheba (p.162).
Well, the past was another one with a developed state in the North (Omrids) and with a shepherd region in the South. But truth is not important in the OT (S.167-168).
Judah and Jerusalem want to push through the claim to leadership with this "Holy Scripture"
Judah as the "survivor" of the two kingdoms Israel and Judah has got the important conserved temple of God of Israel.
The leading clique wants to present this and the surviving of the Assyrian attacks with this statal epos spreading a new statal idea and enforcing the unity in Judah as also of the scattered Israeli communities in Assyria (p.57). Judah considers itself as a natural heir of all Israeli territories. And with this idea these stories of the patriarchs (books of Moses) are created (p.57).
The invented common past with 4 books of Moses - religious cleansing under child king Josiah
And now comes the religious cleansing. AT claims:
The clique of power around child king of Josiah wants to put through the monopoly of cult in Jerusalem claiming for example that the Israeli inhabitants in Assyrian occupied "northern Reich" had to come to perform their cult in Jerusalem. By this the clique of power is disqualifying the cult in the northern territory resp. the cult in the "northern Reich" is qualified as "bad" (p.186).
According to the moral in the OT child king Josiah has to neutralize the sins of Salomon and Jeroboam, so "Judah" will flourish: There is a religious cleansing needed, above all the destruction of the center of cults in the North, Bethel (p.186).
The Jewish temple of Jerusalem is said to be unique because
-- there are no international relations maintained
-- there are no other gods or religious symbols adhered
as it is the case in other temples of other religions (p.13).
The flood of other influences from outside shall be eliminated declaring all traces of other beliefs as atrocities by king Josiah (descendant of David in it's 16th generation). OT indicates that the foreign beliefs are even the cause for the collapse of the Reich of Israel (p.13).
[Now all other religions are declared as scapegoats in a religious racist way. Christianity will repeat this criminal tactics later].
The relegious cleansing: Private households are going on adhering Astarte
In the ruins of bigger Judean locations in the private houses archeology finds many figurines of women which can be allocated to the end of the 7th century, with women holding their breasts in their hands. According to Finkelstein / Silberman these figurines are generally identified as goddess Astarte. It seems that the reforms of the government of Josiah did not have an effect in all private houses (p.309).
[For example it's possible that these figurines were banned from public buildings and sold to private people where the figurines were not prohibited].
Jerusalem's plans for another expansion - and there is needed a fictive conquest under "Joshua" which had been once already...
Stating that there is another expansion needed, any government presents the vision that there had been one already, and also the government of child king Josiah is doing this with the forged Moses book:
There are parallels to the book of Joshua
The mini kingdom of Judah under Josiah is planning a pan Israelite kingdom with the temple in Judah as a center (p.13). The fictive expansion by a conquest of the hilly countries in the north in book of Joshua corresponds to the re-expansion of the kingdom of Judah to the traditional "bread basket" of the country, an indispensable fertile region (p.109).
There are parallels to the book of Judges: The syndrome of "David" of the child king of Josiah
The description of a boy of "David" winning against a "Goliath" in the book of Judges corresponds with the fantasy that the new child king, the boy Josiah, is considered as a second "David" (p.139).
There are parallels to the book of Judges: Mortal racism against members of other religions
Tn the books of Judges the population with other religions in the country is considered as a danger as it is also considered a danger by the clique of power under child king Josiah (p.138).
And there is the justification of the Assyrian occupation of the ex kingdom of Israel in the book of Joshua
The book of Joshua has to find a plausible religious justification for the Assyrian occupation of northern ex kingdom of Israel. So, the writers of the book of Joshua state that the whole occupation had happened
-- because the Jews had not behaved enough holy
-- because they had not destroyed all idolatry
-- because they had adhered to other gods
-- because they had not considered the purity requirements etc. (p.110).
King Josiah's real claims of power and the parallelizations in the book of Joshua with the fictive conquest
-- Jericho and Ai in the region of Bethel are the first imperialist goals of Joshua - and accidentally these are important posts left by the Assyrian army leaving the Assyrian province of Samaria [ex kingdom of Israel]
-- Jericho is the southeastern outpost of the northern Reich of Israel and also the southeastern outpost of the Assyrian province of Samaria
-- until the Assyrian occupation Bethel is the cultural center of the northern Reich of Israel and is hated by the "1 god movement", and Bethel is a focus of the Assyrian settlement of non Israelite population then (p.108).
The real request not to be destroyed: the integration of the Assyrian deportees
In the book of Joshua the Gibeonites are requesting not to be eliminated. This could be a paralleled action to the requests of the successors of the Assyrian population which was settled in the ex kingdom of Israel: This Assyrian population will request at the clique of power of mini kingdom of Judah not to be eliminated but to be integrated (p.108).
For example there is the question of the integration of the population of Avvim (Joshua 18,23). Certain bible researcher mean that in Avvim were settled Assyrian deportees from Awa (2d book of Kings 17,24) (p.108).
The fictive victory against a northern coalition in the book of Joshua is the best "vision"
The depiction of the conquest is the vision for the plans of the clique of power of child king Josiah, and every Jew who is reading the book of Joshua and agrees with it, is expressing with this the desire and conviction of the Jewish leadership of that time (p.110). The conquest under the faked Joshua is a vision for a future conquest of the whole ex kingdom of Israel under the clique of power of the child king Josiah (p.109).
The similarity of the names of king Josiah and the faked war leader Joshua also seems to be wanted. King Josiah shall present himself as the "savior of the whole people of Israel" (p.110).
[Addition: the 4 books of Moses are a war book - and there are other war books
So, the book of Joshua is a precise manipulation of the subconsciousness of the Jewish population for an imperial war. The 4 books of Moses are like an antique and racist war book with racism against other religions and with imperialist goals claiming an empire from the Nile river to the Euphrates river. Other dictatorships also have written their war books ending in self destruction...]
35 Alleged religious campaign under child king Josiah - 5th book of Moses is "found" - first social laws - religious cleansing
OT claims there had been another invasion
[Addition: It can be admitted that the clique of power of child king Josiah took the resolution for this invasion and not the child king Josiah himself].
In the situation between the retreat of the Assyrians and the replacement by Egypt the leadership of Judah under child king Josiah has the dream to re-unify the ex kingdom of Israel with Judah (p.83) installing a powerful state of all Israelites with the capital of Jerusalem. As an ideological help are working the new myths of Moses 1 to 4 and the chronologies (p.84).
Following this [with the help of the new "holy books" as a mental background for all soldiers] a new military campaign with religious cleansing is planned. the description of the events are completed in the "holy books" later.
-- the center of cults of all other beliefs are said having been declares as "bad" and destroyed (p.13)
-- in Bethel the site of cult resp. the temple is said having been destroyed and the local priests who had put into question the monopoly of Jerusalem since king Jeroboam are said having been slaughtered (1st book of Kings 13,2) (p.296-297).
-- the site of the temple in Jerusalem is said having been the lonely sanctuary for the people of Israel with one single God
-- the assistants or the other celestial beings are said having been qualified as invalid (p.13)
-- Judah is said having occupied Bethel and is said having integrated all descendants of the population which was settled there by the Assyrians, and is said having integrated also all who were well minded to the kingdom of Judah (p.108)
-- the kingdom of Judah is said having occupied Jericho (p.108-109).
Documents and archeology are telling: A religious campaign under the child king of Josiah never had been
Archeology can confirm only some reforms performed by king Josiah:
-- according to Finkelstein / Silberman a temple in Bethel or its remnants are never found, and by this the whole military campaign against Bethel under Josiah is put into question because the main cause for the campaign was - according to OT - the destruction of the temple in Bethel
-- but archeology can find the ruins of a Judean temple near the fortress of Arad with was out of function since the end of 7th / beginning of 6th century - according to archaeologist Yoahanan Aharoni, so probably was given up under king Josiah
-- other archaeologists and historians have another temporal dating for the temple near the fortress of Arad, and the temple would fall out of consideration (p.309)
-- there is also missing any definite archaeological proof for a territorial expansion near Samaria (p.310)
-- but for the town of Lachish a new fortified wall can be stated for a better control of the Shfela region (p.310)
-- later Jericho is living in a new flourishing under king Josiah (p.109).
The archaeological findings resp. non findings indicate clearly that there was an invasion under king Josiah was NEVER performed.
End of 7th century B.C.
Assyria: Death of king Ashurbanipal
since 626 B.C.
Rebellion in Babylonia (Babel) against Assyria
Assyria is falling into a civil war
Kingdom of Judah: A new code of law is "found" - the folk's oath on the "book of alliance"
-- king Josiah is said [24 years old] having ordered to the high priest Hilkia a renovation of the temple "house of the Lord" (p.298)
-- during the renovation the high priest is said having detected an old text book and the royal clerk Shafan is said having presented the text lecturing it to king Josiah (p.298)
-- the earlier cult of Lord is said having been wrong and has to be corrected according to the new text (p.298)
-- Josiah is said having made an oath before all inhabitants to observe completely all commandments of the new text, with an oath on the "alliance of the Lord" (p.298) with the "book of alliance" (2d book of Kings 13,2-3) (p.300)
-- "and the whole population was joining this alliance" (2d book of Kings 13,2-3) (p.298).
There are new social rights according to this 5th book of Moses (Deuteronomy)
Critics of Josiah's government are kept quiet with new social reforms and educational measures, and all these reforms can only be found in the Deuteronomy:
-- protection of the individual
-- defense of human rights and human dignity
-- appeal for giving credits to the poor (Dtn. 15,7-8)
-- foreigners, orphans and widows should have the same rights as natives (Dtn. 24,17-18; 24,14-15) (p.306)
-- rights for women (Dtn. 21,15-17) (p.206-207)
-- duty to pay the tithe by the farmers to the poor every third year (Dtn. 14,28-29)
-- liberation of the slaves after 6 years of service (Dtn. 15,12-15)
-- limitation of corruption by limitation of power (Dtn. 16,18-19) also with the limitation of the power of the king (Dtn. 17,15-20) (p.307).
Revolution: this 5th book of Moses is a breakthrough against the slave mentality of Asia
By this book it's the first time in the world that suppressed people have a right of action. By this the clan like Asiatic slave mentality is broken, with a right of appeal etc. (p.308). So, the Deuteronomy installs an new human consciousness and a new system of common values which are working partly until today [respectively are not implemented in many until today] (p.308).
But without the Greek culture it would never had been possible to put down these social rights. By this it's not possible that the 5th book of Moses (Deuteronomy)comes from the Moses figure (p.308).
[At the same time the religious racism against other beliefs is going on].
The documents are speaking about the "finding" of the code of law with the "alliance with the Lord"
The point of time of the "finding" of the code of law is well coordinated at the moment when Assyria is in danger to collapse in a civil war. This is concealed in the Bible deliberately (p.303).
The "alliance with the Lord" is similar to Assyrian contracts of the early 7th century with it's vassals (p.302).
[Addition: The Israelites under king Josiah are all made to vassals of God with a false hope of an alleged promised land which will be given by God...]
Research: The "book of alliance" is the 5th book of Moses, and the law is tightened
According to Finkelstein / Silberman this book "found" in the temple is a tightening of the laws of Moses in the books 1 to 4. It's written of the "1 god movement" again, but by another author than the books of Moses 1 to 4 (p.302).
The text of the "code of law" from the temple ("book of alliance") is written in the same style as the books of Joshua and David and Solomon (p.300).
A further law of Moses has been found, and now all should live in the "alliance with the Lord" according to the laws of Moses: The book claims that fulfilling the laws would ensure to survive to the people of Israel (p.301).
[But all political conditions in the neighboring countries are concealed again].
In the books of Moses 1 to 4 are mentioned sacrifices on altars without criticism (p.301) and Paschal Festival does not exist yet (p.301).
Now there are new laws in the 5th book of Moses with a strong regime:
-- there are strong laws against idolatry (p.65): A strong ideology of only one single good shall rule which should be celebrated only in one spot on the world, in Jerusalem (p.301)
-- all other cults in other locations shall be forbidden (5th book of Mose 12,5)
-- a new calendar with new festivals is introduced (p.65): there is a compulsion for a Paschal Festival as a memory festival for the faked flight from Egypt, and the festival has to be celebrated at one single spot which will be given by God yet (5th book of Mose 16,1-8) (p.301)
-- there are given prescriptions for a construction of a temple, whereas only one temple is allowed
-- and there is a completely new [and partly revolutionary] social legislation (p.65).
Thanks to the "book of alliance" the new religious cleansing can be performed
This newly "found" code of law requires new statal changes in it's structures:
-- God can be adhered only in one single spot
-- the Jewish festivals have to be centralized under a national patronage: Paschal Festival, Feast of Tabernacles (p.297).
The new "code of law" is developing it's full effect in the population which can read and write (for example proved by the seals with writings of this time) (p.301).
[Parallelism: Also the populations under Lenin and Mao were fascinated by "books"
The fascination to be able to read and to write and having a state's book is always great in the beginning of the capacity. There are parallelisms with Communist books under Lenin and Mao where Communism first teaches to all people the capacity to read and to write, and there after comes directly the manipulation and the population believed all what had been "written"...]
The description of the religious cleansing in the OT claims:
By this 5th book of Moses king Josiah is said having performed rigorous and puritanical cleansing in the whole population installing in the "1 god movement" in every corner exterminating all foreign traditions, also the center of cult of Bethel (p.296).
The religious reforms are also said having for atoning the "bad" deeds of kings (p.300).
[A religious dictatorship is said having atoned plurality and tolerance. God is said to be a dictator. There is no bigger contradiction than this...]
The government of Josiah is said having followed to this "found" code of law and is said having defined a new Israeli identity, and according to this is said having reformed the state (p.297)
-- all objects for all cults are said having banned from the temple of Jerusalem, also all objects in connection with Baal, Ashera, and with the host of heaven. The objects are said having been burned in Kidron valley and the ashes are said having been brought to Bethel (p.298)
-- the priest for the cults of Baal, Ashera and for the host of heaven are said having degraded, also the priest who had done sacrifices on the heights or have celebrated cults of stars (p.298-299)
-- king Josiah is said having ordered that the picture of Ashera on Kidron creek was milled to dust and the dust is said having distributed on the graves of the simple population
-- king Josiah is said having ordered the destruction of houses of whore men (2d book of Kings 23,4-7)
-- king Josiah is said having ordered the elimination of the cult of fire, and the site of fire in the Hinnom valley is said having been destroyed (p.299)
-- king Josiah is said having abrogated the cult of sun chariot, and is said having ordered the dismissal of the horses and the destruction of the sun chariot by fire (p.299)
-- king Josiah is said having ordered the destruction of the altars of the Judean kings and the altars of Manasseh in the temple complex, they are said having been milled, and the dust is said having been disposed by the Kidron creek (p.299)
-- king Josiah is said having ordered that the altars on the heights of the faked time of Solomon will be destroyed: the altar of goddess Astarte of Sidon, another altar of the god Kamos of Moab, and one more altar of the god Milkom of Ammon(2d book of Kings 23,10-14) (p.299)
-- all heights and sites of cults on the countryside are said having been destroyed, from Geba down to Beersheba (2d book of Kings 23,8) (p.299)
-- the altar in Bethel erected by Jeroboam is said having been destroyed, is said having been milled to dust and the local picture of Ashera is said having been burnt (p.299)
-- and also further far in the North are said having been performed the religious purges, for example on the heights in the towns of Samaria province
-- and all priests of the heights in the ex northern Reich of Israel are said having been killed and having been slaughtered on the altars (2d book of Kings 23,19-20) (p.300).
And now there is a new compulsion for festivals in mini Reich of Judah: Passover / Pesach festival glorifying the composed exodus from Egypt
Also 2d book of Kings 23,21-22 describes the introduction of the new Pesach festival: "Passover as it is written in this book of alliance" (2d book of Kings 23,21-22).
[There are other parallelisms
Such a constellation of a folk festival for a faked event is not a singular case. Similar festivals celebrating events which never have occurred are for example the Tell festivals in Switzerland with a Swiss national hero Wilhelm Tell who never existed either, or the Christmas festivals with a Jesus story of a mother who has kept to be a virgin which is just a normal baby dream etc.].
Josiah is the new Moses...
In the 2d book of Kings in the OT Josiah is indirectly compared with Moses. He is said representing a milestone in the history of the kingdom of Judah. Add to this the memory of the collapse of the northern Reich of Israel is refreshed mentioning the religious cleansing in Bethel and in Samaria (p.300).
What say the documents and archeology to the 5th book of Moses (Deuteronomy)?
According to Bible scholar Moshe Weinfeld the 5th book of Moses is similar to early Greek literature in reference to speeches, blessings and damnifications and ceremonies during foundations of towns. By this the 5th book of Moses had been written in the early Greek period (p.302).
since 622 B.C.
The first biblical tradition in mini Judah
With the new puritanical harsh law is installed a biblical tradition in mini Reich of Judah, the first time in the world (p.297)
[that means: the "tradition of the book" is executed the first time in the world, the power of papyri and ink over mankind].
The total collapse of Assyria - and Egypt's last great Empire
Assyria's power is reducing on and on. Babylon's rebellion is affecting the Assyrian core land and against Egyptian interests, when Babylonia would become too strong (p.311).
Egypt with it's 26th dynasty has the last heyday of imperial power (p.7) and is constructing new towns or amplifying them:
-- the town of Pithom is built at the end of 7th century B.C., Pithom is hardly populated before (p.80)
-- Migdol is getting an important spot in 7th century B.C. in the eastern delta and is mentioned with it's name by Jeremiah 44,1 and 46,14 (p.80)
First Egypt aid for Assyria with an army
Egypt is helping Assyria against Babylonia [and the Egypt army is passing Canaan]. But the collapse of Assyria is going on (p.311).
Assyria is collapsing: fall of the capital of Ninive
The Assyrian court is said having fled to Haran in the West (Zephaniah 2,13-15) (p.311).
Pharaoh Necho II. of Egypt.
610 B.C.OT claims:
Egypt: death of Pharaoh Psamtik I - successor is his son Necho II
Archeology says: Pharaoh Necho II (610-595 B.C.) tries the construction of the Suez Canal with many foreign workers. But the channel stays incomplete. Archaeological remnants are proved (p.79-80).
Assyria: Egypt defeat against Babylonia
So, Babylonia can occupy Haran. The Egypt army has to retreat from Assyria. From Assyria is nothing left (p.311).
Egypt under Pharaoh Necho II takes the resolution of another military campaign to Assyria
Necho II wants to help to Assyria in the civil war against Babylonia and sends another army (p.310-311)
The kingdom of Judah wanted to block the Egypt army
According to OT there is said that king Josiah with it's mini army wanted to block the huge army of Egypt and then king Josiah was killed.
Well, OT claims also some versions in the books of Kings:
-- OT claims that there was an Egypt military campaign against Assyria reaching the Euphrates
-- king Josiah is said having confronted the Egypt army and is said having been killed by Necho in Megiddo (2d book of Kings 23,29) (p.311)
OT claims also some versions in the book of Chronicle:
-- Pharaoh Necho II is said having started to Carchemish at the Euphrates river
-- king Josiah is said having confronted the Egypt army
-- Pharaoh Necho II is said having sent messengers indicating that Necho II did not want any confrontation with Josiah
-- Josiah is said having stayed stubborn and is said having provoked a battle in the plain of Megiddo
-- king Josiah is said having been severely wounded by Egypt shooters and is said having been brought to Jerusalem where he is said having died (2d book of Chronicle 35,20-24) (p.311).
But there is a logic: king Josiah never can have conducted war against Egypt
-- king Josiah cannot have started with Samaria and Megiddo because these territories were not in the mini kingdom of Judah any more, there should have had annexations of Samaria and Megiddo, eventual up to Galilee (2d book of Chronicle 34,6) or he could have made an alliance with Babylonia against Egypt provoking a battle in Megiddo (p.312)
with the little number of 75,000 inhabitants [which corresponds to the number of the canton of Schaffhausen in 2001] (p.310) king Josiah never had been able to arrange an army against Egypt, and the whole existence of Judah had been put into question (p.312).
So, the version of the book of Chronicle with a battle in Megiddo seems absolutely impossible, and the version of the books of Kings without indication of a location seems possible (p.312).
According to Nadav Naaman one possibility would be for example an oath of loyalty in Megiddo for the new Pharaoh Necho II. But by some reason the king of Josiah could have been ordered to be executed, perhaps because of territorial expansions of Judah in Samaria or in the region of the Shfela (p.312).
According to Bible scholar Baruch Halpern Pharaoh Necho II also could have ordered the murder of king Josiah because of his independent religious policy, because by a strong autonomy the trade routes to Arabia would have been be in danger (p.312).
[O.k. anybody can speculate here...]
36 Since 609 B.C.: Nebuchadnezzar devastating Judah - Zedekiah's upheaval ending in ruin of Jerusalem - Babylonian captivities - province Yehud
The mini kingdom of "Judah" is going down
Since the death of Josiah four more kings are following accompanying the decline of the mini kingdom of Judah (p.313).
Egypt's expansion in the Mid East
In the time after Josiah's death Egypt has it's last heyday with severe wars against the Mesopotamian Reichs and with territorial expansions up to far in the Mid East. The Pharaohs mean that their dreams would be fulfilled (p.313).
[The borderline of Euphrates river always plays an important role here as always in the Mid East].
Mini Reich of Judah under king Jehoahaz
King Jehoahaz seems to be against Egypt (p.313).
-- king Jehoahaz is said having permitted the "sinful" religious pluralism again
-- Pharaoh Neho II is said having degraded king Jehoahaz after 3 months already and having him banned (p.313).
Mini kingdom of Judah under king Jehoiakim
-- king Jehoiakim is said having gone on with the "sinful" religious pluralism
-- king Jehoiakim is said having used taxes of the own population for tribute payments for Pharaoh Necho II (p.313).
since 608 B.C. appr.
Prophet Jeremiah going on with propaganda against "foreign gods"
Jeremiah is said having deplored that the number of the gods adhered in Judah corresponds allegedly to the numbers of towns in Judah, and in Jerusalem would be allegedly that many altars of Baal as is the number of alleys (Jeremiah 11,13) (p.263).
Babylon's rise under Nebuchadnezzar - Egypt has to retread to the Nile river
The army of Babylon is winning a battle in the town of Carchemish in Syria under the prince royal which is known as Nebuchadnezzar later. The army of Egypt has to retreat back to the Nile river (p.313).
[Again a big Empire is going down by an overextension of it's borderlines, and also the Empire of Nebuchadnezzar will collapse by another overextension of borderlines...]
Now follow destructive military campaigns under Nebuchadnezzar in the Middle East
The victory in Carchemish is spelling the doom for Assyria which is without help of Egypt now. Nebuchadnezzar becomes the king of Babylonia and is heading for a breakthrough to the Mediterranean [as other Empires did before him]. Now destructive military campaigns are following one after the other with the destruction of the Philistine towns (p.314).
In Judah there is a great panic with the discussion on which side one should stay. The government under king Jehoiakim is calling Pharaoh Necho II for help, and this action is taken by Babylonia as a pretext to devastate Judah (p.314).
December 598 - March 597
Death of king Jehoiakim - king Jeconiah follows
The Babylonian armies are at the border. OT claims that Jerusalem had been sieged (p.314).
The mini kingdom of Judah is said having been devastated - and first "Babylonian captivity" follows
-- Jerusalem had been conquered and devastated by the Babylonian armies
-- the upper and middle class is said having been deported
-- the royal court with king Jeconiah is said having been deported to Babel, from the nobles 7,000, from the craftsmen 1,000 persons (2d book of Kings 24,10-16) (p.314)
-- all in all it is said that 10,000 people had been banned (2d book of Kings 24,14) or 8,000 (2d book of Kings 24,16) (p.327).
The documents speak
In this case Babylonian chronicle confirms the OT. Add to this Nebuchadnezzar installs in Judah an own king, the uncle of Jeconiah, Zedekiah (p.315).
The "1 god movement" with it's priests is deported [and their influence seems to be banned at the moment]. In Judah itself the population keeps split (p.315).
Kingdom of Judah: king Zedekiah is trying a conspiracy against Babylonia
with other local kings (p.315).
Nebuchadnezzar is not dependent on the mini Reich of Judah. That's why this conspiracy of king Zedekiah is a statal suicide from the first moment on. The reasons are in the dark for that. Perhaps Zedekiah's government meant that God will bring another "miracle". Speculations may go on...]
Map of Babylonia under Nebuchadnezzar II at about 590 B.C. reaching from Persian Golf to the Mediterranean Sea: The breakthrough has succeeded, Babylonia is governing over the whole "Fertile Crescent". But Nebuchadnezzar wants more...
And now punitive expeditions are following:
Punitive expedition: Edom is coming first - and also Edom gets a Babylonian captivity
-- in 6th century B.C. the kingdom of Edom is destroyed by the troops of Nebuchadnezzar and is depopulated (p.81)
-- only in the central Greek epoch this region is populated again settling people (p.82).
Punitive expeditions and destruction of Jerusalem under Nebuchadnezzar with the elimination of the town wall
According to Finkelstein / Silberman this military campaign is "the beginning of the end" (p.315). The mini kingdom of Judah - already minimized - has about 75,000 inhabitants according to the investigations and excavations, of these are 15,000 in Jerusalem and another 15,000 around Jerusalem (p.328).
Invasion under Nebuchadnezzar against Judah
Map of the Empire of Nebuchadnezzar
Archeology can prove for this time that almost all Judean towns in all regions of the kingdom have got a layer of destruction which can be allocated to this destructive military campaign. Osaka (clay tablets) in the fortification of Arad for example describes the military orders in an absolute danger and the transport of food stocks etc. In Lachish there are messages on osakas how one town after the other around Lachish is burnt down and how the signals are extinguished, for example of the town of Aseka (p.315).
According to Jeremiah 34,7 Lachish and Aseka are performing the longest resistance. At the end only stays Jerusalem that is sieged up to the destruction (p.315).
Nebuchadnezzar has also the surrounding kingdoms besieged. The siege of Tyre for example is said having lasted for 10 years [web01].
-- in Jerusalem is said that hunger has broken out, and the troops of Nebuchadnezzar are said having invaded (p.316)
-- king Zedekiah is said having fled, having seized and having blinded in Babel (2d book of Kings 25,3-7) (p.316)
-- one month later - under the leadership of Nebusaradan, the supreme commander of the body guards of Nebuchadnezzars, now as a military captain for whole Jerusalem - is said having burnt down whole Jerusalem, having torn down the whole town wall, and having deported the rest of the population (2d book of Kings 25,8-11) (p.316). There is no precise indication in the OT (p.327).
Second Babylonian captivity - numbers of the deported
Jeremiah is indicating 4,600 deportees for the deportations to Babylonia (p.327).
According to Finkelstein / Silberman the numbers of deportees are not precise because in the time of ancient Greece the number of deportees means the numbers of family leaders (p.327). By this - according to Finkelstein / Silberman - it's possible that the maximum is not only 4,600, but about 20,000 deportees are possible (p.328). When there are admitted 75,000 inhabitants in whole mini kingdom of Judah, from these 15,000 in Jerusalem and another 15,000 around Jerusalem so there remain 45,000 in the new province of Yehud (p.328).
Towns of the exile were Babylon, Tel Abib, Susa, Ecbatana, Persepolis, and Pasargadae [web02].
Map with the towns of the Babylonian captivites: Babylon, Tel Abib, Susa, Ecbatana, Persepolis, and Pasargadae
586 B.C. appr.
The town of Mizpah can survive by peaceful handover - the flight of the prophet Jeremiah to Mizpah
The territory of the northern region of Jerusalem with the town of Mizpah is said having been handed over without any violence (Jeremiah 37,12-13; 38,19) (p.328-329).
Archeology can confirm the handover of the territory of Mizpah without violence. Excavations of the ruins of Mizpah at the Tell en-Nasbe near Ramallah [?] under the archaeologist Oded Lipshits from Tel Aviv university give the result that Mizpah was not destroyed by the Babylonian military campaign because a correspondent layer of destruction is missing (p.329).
According to OT the town of Mizpah under governor Gedaliah - the son of Ahikam - has become a refuge for other Judeans, e.g. for the prophet Jeremiah, an enemy of the rebellion (p.318).
OT claims a theory of punishment by God against Judah
The Old Testament claims that God had organized the self destruction of the temple which was dedicated to him punishing the population of Israel for its disloyalty. God is said having served himself with the enemies of Judah and is said having been stronger than all other gods (p.21).
Nos Israel is organizing itself as a religious community and not as a state any more (p.21).
Archeology confirms the destruction of Jerusalem
Archeology can confirm the last moments of violence in Jerusalem, with arrowheads in the burnt-out ruins (p.316):
-- the mini kingdom of Judah is destroyed and ruined (p.316)
-- the total destruction of Jerusalem by a fire storm can be proved for this time (p.328).
Now Judah becomes "Yehud"
The new Babylonian province is called "Yehud" now and the inhabitants are called Yehudim, this is the first time the population is called "Jews" (p.318).
The sons of the last kings of Zedekiah are all killed (p.316).
[Addition: It seems that the far relatives are not killed, because the line of David is emerging later again].
37 Since 586 B.C.: first time of Yehud province - Edomites reducing Yehud
OT claims that Governor Gedalyah was murdered and there had been a mass flight to Egypt
-- in the ruins of Jerusalem is said having been performed further cult actions (Jeremiah 41,5) (p.328)
-- the governor of Mizpah, Gedalyah, is said having aimed for a collaboration with the new leadership of Babylonia
-- governor Gedalyah and other Judean officials and representatives of Babylonia are said having been killed by Ismael, the son of Netanyah (p.318)
according to Finkelstein / Silberman eventually because of the collaboration which had been felt as a threat for the "house of David", or by other reasons (p.318)
-- the staying population of Yehud province is said having taken a mass flight to Egypt by their fear from a new Babylonian invasion, and in this mass flight is said having been also Jeremiah (p.318), resp. "all people" is said having fled to Egypt (p.327)
-- by this the "holy land" is said having been without any population for some time (2d book of Kings 25,22-26; Jeremiah 40,7 - 43,7) (p.318-319).
But archeology is telling other things about Yehud province
-- according to Finkelstein / Silberman Yehud province consists of about 55,000 inhabitants yet (p.328) and is not at all completely destroyed as it is described in the OT (p.329).
[By this the population of Yehud corresponds to that one of Lugano or Cuxhaven in 2005].
The continuity of the rural population: The excavation of Bethel and of Gibeon and later also of southern Jerusalem confirm that the region was populated without interruption and that there had been no deportation of the rural population (p.329). The life of the population is living on in the few preserved towns as for example the town of Mizpah 12 km in the North of Jerusalem (p.328).
Policy of autonomy: Babylon introduces a policy of autonomy tolerating native cults supporting the loyalty of Babylon (p.330).
Settlement of Edomites and new "Idumea" in the South: After the destruction of Jerusalem southern Yehud province is populated by Edomites settling in the bay of Beersheba and in the highlands of Hebron. After some time the region is known as "Idumea", the "land of the Edomites". In fact Yehud province has become more little yet by this and southern borderline is moving to the North to Jerusalem (p.334).
What archeology is telling about Jerusalem
-- in Jerusalem the grave caves from deportees are cared on by their families (p.328)
-- the suburbs on the hills in western Jerusalem existing at least since king Hezekiah are stay without population (p.328)
-- the land in the North and in the South of Jerusalem always is populated without deportations (p.328)
-- in the preserved town of Mizpah a certain self administration is going on (p.328-329). Mizpah is the most important regional center of Yehud province in 6th century B.C. (p.329).
Egypt: Extension of the Arab population to the Nile Delta
Since the 6th century the Arab population is invading into the Nile Delta and is taking over the power there in the 5th century B.C. (p.80).
38 The events in the Babylonian exile (ban)
Jewish settlements in captivity in Babylonia - priests of the "1 god movement" - new trials of interpretation of the ruin of Judah
Old Testament almost completely conceals the life during the ban. Only allusions can be found in the books of the prophets:
-- the Jewish banned are said having lived in the capital of Babylon and in the countryside (report of Ezekiel and Deuterojesayah in Isaiah chapter 40 to 55)
-- the settlement is said having been in underdeveloped territories near the new built canals (Ezekiel)
-- Jeremiah is said having consulted the banned to prepare oneself for a long stay, with construction of houses, horticulture and founding of families (Jeremiah 29,5-6).
[But this Jeremiah is said having been fled to Egypt...]
The "1 god movement" preaching the false identity during the ban
In the exile the "1 god movement" is enforcing it's activity (p.317). According to Finkelstein / Silberman the priests and the remnant family members of the royal family are building up a new life, eventually under leadership of the banned Davidic king Jeconiah and not under the blinded Zedekiah (p.319).
The priests have the leading role (p.331). The "holy books" are not a support of the [false] identity [and the fake is proved] (p.333).
The "1 god movement" feels compulsory to adapt the books of Moses and of Chronicle to the events and is revising the texts. At the same time the Israelites in Babylonia and in Jerusalem are working out new social systems working out new forms of religious services (p.317).
The invented exodus from Egypt is more and more important for the banned because the faked exodus is copied to the situation of the banned in Babylonia (p.333).
According go Finkelstein / Silberman also the faked migration of the faked patriarch Abraham from the Euphrates river to Canaan could have won more importance for the banned. The banned have the same project (p.333).
[The invented migrations are models now for real migrations that have to be performed whereas the invented history is fixing itself in the subconsciousness].
Is there a new elite in Yehud province for Judah?
In the case of Yehud many searchers mean that Babylonia had educated a loyal elite with the deportees for keeping safe the borderline to Egypt later (p.330).
[There is a parallel also in this case: Stalin formed of the German prisoners of war a Communist elite of latter East Germany (GDR). The members were elected and indoctrinated in the Gulag concentration camps...]
The compulsion for a new interpretation handling the ruin of Judah - the second version of the Deuteronomistic History
The clerks of the "1 god movement" have to revise the books of Moses and the Deuteronomistic History describing why Judah did not get any salvation (p.323). After the destruction of Jerusalem another way for new hopes of salvation has to be found.
-- the aim of the code of law with the compulsion for Passover festival does not change (p.324)
-- the events with the second ban have to get a theological sense for a philosophy of salvation (p.324-325).
By this a second version of the Deuteronomistic History is prepared (p.324).
Babylonia: The deported king Jeconiah is released from prison
King Amel-Marduk from Babylonia is said having been released from it's jail and is said having given a life long pension (2d book of Kings 25,27-30) (p.325,326).
Persia conquering Babylonia
Persian Reich / Persian Empire under Cyrus
King Cyrus, emperor of Persia, profile
Map with the expansion of Persia under Cyrus. This is more than only a Fertile Crescent...
Persia: king Cyrus permits the return of the banned Jews
Cyrus decides that the deported Jews can return (p.329). The decision is a calculated, new policy and not at all a gesture of mercy (p.330).
-- king Cyrus is said having decided the liberation of all deported
-- king Cyrus is said having given the permission to reinstall Judah and to rebuild the temple (book of Ezra 1,2-3) (p.319).
39 Yehud province: new structure of settlements and the population after coming back of the banned
The return of the banned and an alleged new rise of the economy
-- according to the book of Ezra in chapter 2 and in the book of Nehemiah in chapter 7 almost 50,000 Jews are coming back from the ban to the Yehud province
-- with this also a new rise of the economy is said having connected
-- and it's also said that there was a jump of the population in the highlands with this (p.329).
The new southern borderline of Yehud because of "Idumea"
By the occupation of the Edomites and the newly founded territory of "Idumea" the southern border has moved to the North. The new frontier is between the towns of Bet-Zur and Hebron now, whereas Hebron is not a part of the Yehud province any more (p.334).
Yehud province: There is a governor and priesthood - no king any more
A kingdom is not installed any more (p.331). The province of Yehud is ruled by governors and priests which are proclaimed. The temple and the temple community is the new hot spot for the Jewish identity. There is no royal court any more. The social position of the priests is rising and are writing new books, the books of the priests (P) (p.332).
According to Finkelstein / Silberman it's possible that the invented migration of the faked patriarch of Abraham and the faked exodus of Egypt were loved topics in the sermons of the priests [and are loved topics in the Christian churches until today] (p.334).
What says archeology about the banned and their return?
According to Finkelstein / Silberman the number of 50,000 returning Jews from the Babylonian ban is a wild exaggeration. The total population in the tiny Yehud province is about 30,000 during the 5th and 4th century B.C. This population is building now the identity of later Jewry (p.329).
[So, Yehud province is as big as the town of Uster (2005) or a little less big as Gibraltar].
The returnees are settling around Jerusalem. They are adherents of the "1 god movement", and in sociology and in politics they are better formed and because of this they are higher rated than the native population. Tanks of the "holy books" they have survived the ban and have conserved their identity to be Jewish (p.331).
[But this identity is very wrong, but they don't want to change].
Now there is a takeover of power by the returnees:
-- the returning priests are taking over the leading role in Yehud province (p.331-332) because the relationships to Babylonia also give political power to the returnees (p.331)
-- and because Babylonia did not settle foreign deportees in Yehud, so the returnees have the whole power immediately (p.331).
The alleged new temple and the discrimination of the population from the ex northern Reich of Israel
OT claims:Some scientists claim that Sheshbazzar had been Shenazzar (1st book of chronicle 3,18), a heir of David [remote grade], perhaps he had even been the son of Jeconiah [then this son would have spread by a secret relation] (p.331).
-- two men, Sheshbazzar and Serubbabel are said having leaded the first group of returnees, and both are said having become governor of Yehud province (Ezra 5,14;Haggai 1,1) (p.331)
-- under the leadership of Sheshbazzar a first group of banned is returning to Jerusalem with temple treasuries which were robbed by Nebuchadnezzar (p.320)
[robbed from a "first temple" which had never existed]
-- Sheshbazzar is said having laid the new base for a new temple, he is said having been the first "ruler of Judah" (Ezra 1,8) (p.331)
-- some years later there is said having arrived a second wave of returnees to Jerusalem under it's leader Jehoshuah, the son of Jozadaus and of Serubbabel, a grandchild of Jeconiah (p.320)
-- they are said having built an altar and having celebrated the Passover Feast of Tabernacles (book of Ezra) (p.320)
-- the population of the ex northern kingdom of Israel is said having requested Serubbabel to help with the construction of the temple, but the priests Jehoshuah and Serubbabel are said having blocked any collaboration (Ezra 4,3) (p.320)
-- the ex banned mean that they would possess a divine privilege now by the ban that they had suffered, and they mean having the right to determine the character of the Jewish "1 god belief" (p.320)
-- then the "folks of the countryside" from the ex northern kingdom of Israel is said having written a letter to the king of Babylonia with the claim that the returnees would reconstruct "the rebellious and evil town again" in Israel, and the people of the northern kingdom are said having uttered the prophecy that the town of Jerusalem will refuse to pay their taxes again and will cause new damage bringing harm to Persia up to the Euphrates river (Ezra 4,12-16) (p.320)
-- and by this the king of Babylonia is said having prohibited all further temple complexes, but Serubbabel and Jehoshuah are said having continued their works with the temple (p.320)
-- then the Persian governor is said having inspected Jerusalem himself and having reported this to the new king Darius with the request for a royal decision (p.321)
-- king Darius of Persia is said having permitted the further construction of the temple complex and is said having assured even the financing and the punishment of the enemies of the temple when there would be any action against the temple again (book of Ezra) (p.321).
Documents and archeology about the returnees
But suddenly Serubbabel is not mentioned any more in the OT. According to Finkelstein / Silberman it could be that Serubbabel was too powerful in the province of Yehud and by this was called back [or was eliminated] (p.331).
40 Adaption of "Holy Book" after the ruin of Judah
Now the theologists of the "1 god theology" have to justify themselves and are writing their books again
The theological mystic challenge for the "1 god movement" is tremendous:
-- the prophecy for a big Jewish Empire has not been fulfilled (p.335)
-- the priests have to justify the destruction of Jerusalem (p.332)
-- add to this there is the question why the allegedly pious king Josiah has not succeeded saving Jerusalem (p.325)
-- so, for the ruin of the kingdom of Judah there have to be invented new theological manipulations because the eternal hope for a "holy land" has finished now also for Judah (p.325)
-- the community in Yehud province has to be unified around the temple
-- the priests have to have a new hope for a better future
-- Yehud province has to arrange their new relationships with it's neighbors in the North and in the South
-- ant inner problems have to be solved
-- the priests have to find an explanation why a big part of the allegedly "promised land" is occupied by other populations (p.332)
-- so, the claims for neighboring land don't stop [and the enmity against the neighbors is only logic by this]
-- and the priests have to find a new justification why the books should have a value despite of the disaster with the destruction of Jerusalem (p.333)
[instead of abrogating them].
So, the priests are writing new completing texts, and these new completing texts are called the "Priestly Sources" (P).
The new version of the Pentateuch about the invented Moses and the destroyed Judah
The literary master work, the folks epos of the end of the 7th century B.C. is revised into a world's book as an anchor for the world's population (p.12). The 5 books of Moses find their final version "during the time after the exile" (p.24) with the definite text (p.332).
Bible scholar Richard Friedman means that Ezra himself had made the last revision of Pentateuch because he names himself as "priest and mandatee for the law of God and of Heaven" (Ezra 7,12) (p.332).
The priests are editing many invented stories adding them to the Pentateuch (p.335).
The creation of a second version of the Deuteronomistic History - the whole population shall be responsible
Writing the new Priestly Sources (P) there are written more parts of the "holy books":
-- the book of Jeremiah is edited describing the life after the destruction of Judah (p.317)
-- the book of Ezekiel is edited about the ban and the hopes in Babylonia
-- the books of Ezra, Nehemiah, Haggai and Zechariah are edited about the return from the ban (p.317)
-- there is a supplement of the book of Chronicles edited with the depiction of history since Josiah until the ruin of the kingdom of Judah by Nebuchadnezzar (p.324) with Josiah's death
-- there are texts about the last four kings of Jerusalem edited
-- there texts edited about the destruction of Jerusalem, about the ban, with the explanation why the destruction of Jerusalem had been inevitable (p.325) (2d book of Kings 23,26 to 25,21) (p.325).
There are more supplements of another writer:
-- the prophecy which is said having given to David is completed with a new condition (1st book of Kings 2,4; 8,25; 9,4-9) (p.325)
-- there are indications of a bad prophecy added indicating a destruction of Jerusalem (e.g. in 2d book of Kings 20,17-18), (p.325)
-- king Manasseh is made responsible for it because since the destruction of Judah there is a new "measure tape" for Jerusalem (2d book of Kings, 21,10-15) (p.325)
-- there is a new invention that justice of king of Josiah had provoked inevitably the destruction of Jerusalem only delaying the destruction, and there had never been the promise of a salvation, because the women prophet Hulda is said having claimed that Jerusalem should be a damn for all and misery will come over the site, but king Josiah would not see this any more (2d book of Kings 22,18-20) (p.326)
-- the responsibles for the behavior of God is suddenly not dependent on the king, but on every inhabitant if Jerusalem will be destroyed or not: The alliance between the dynasty of David and God is replaced now by an alliance between the population and God [see: "book of alliance"] (p.326)
-- the sequestrated king of Jeconiah in Babylonia is said having been dismissed and having had a good life with king Amel-Marduk of Babel (2d book of Kings 25,27-30) (p.325, 326)
-- since this moment a new prophecy is given: When the population is keeping their loyalty to God, so the prophecy which had been given to David [founding of a kingdom] could be revived (p.327).
And there is also a new "book of Chronicle"
The "book of Chronicle" reflects the ideology and the need of the temple in Jerusalem in the Yehud province, partly with a revised historical story with the contents of the books of Kings (p.25).
This new "book of Chronicle" is written in the 5th or 4th century B.C., some 100 years after the events that are described. It's a unilateral description in favor of the historical and political claims of the Davidic dynasty and of Jerusalem, and the North is hardly mentioned (p.25).
New prophet books of Haggai and Zechariah
According to Finkelstein / Silberman the new prophet books of Haggai and Zechariah are written in destroyed Judah (p.328).
And there are texts against "Idumea" with new geographical indications
The priests don't want to accept the new region of the Edomites ("Idumea") and don't want to accept the new borderline of Yehud province in the South which was shifted to the North. So they begin a new propaganda war against Edomites:
-- now the priests claim that the patriarchs of Jewry would be buried in the cave in Hebron provoking that with this claim there is a mental Jewish occupation of this region
-- and the Israelites are generally presented as more civilized than all neighboring peoples: So, the origin of invented patriarch Abraham is said to be in the town of Ur (Genesis 11,28; 11,31). Ur in these times is the host of scholarship and indicating the origin of birth in Ur is rising the reputation (p.334).
Documents speak: Just in the middle of the 6th century B.C. the town of Ur is revived as a religious center by the Babylonian or Chaldean king Nabonidus (p.334-335).
The new false identity with the new faked "holy books"
These "holy books" are simulating to give an identity to the Jewish population in the tiny Yehud province, and it's proved that this identity is a fake. The priests are "unifying" the population by their manipulations and invented books (p.335).
41 Yehud province with an alleged new temple - total racism of Orthodox Jews
OT claims an alleged finishing of a new temple in Jerusalem
Serubbabel is said having finished the new temple complex together with priest Jehoshuah 516 B.C., and Serubbabel is said having his origin from house of David and is said having awoken new hopes (Haggai 2,20-23) (p.331).
OT claims an alleged "black period" for Jerusalem until Ezra was coming
until 458 B.C.
Until the arrival of the scholar Ezra - until presumably 458 B.C. - there is said having been a "black period" in Jerusalem with a religious tolerance of other beliefs of the neighboring states and with the tolerance of mixed marriages (p.321).
presumably 458 B.C.
Arrival of the scholar Ezra in Jerusalem - prohibition of mixed marriages - expulsion of "foreign women" - absolute racism in Orthodox Jewry
-- Ezra, a member of the family of the high priest Aaron, is said having come from Persia to Jerusalem
-- Ezra is said having been a loyal man to Moses (Ezra 7,6; 7,10)
-- with Ezra another group of banned is said having been permitted to return
-- Ezra is said having received the order from king Artaxerxes to make investigations about Judah and Jerusalem (p.321)
-- Ezra is said having been financed by Persia and is said having had also judicial power
-- Ezra is said having stated the wrong kinds of believes and "atrocities", also mixed marriages and free mix of the population
-- Ezra is said having united all male returnees of the alleged tribal territories of Judah and Benjamin before the temple in Jerusalem, then Ezra is said having reproached disloyalty to God by mixed marriages with "foreign women"
-- Ezra is said having claimed that the mixed marriages are said having enhanced the "guilty of Israel"
-- Ezra is said having claimed that the men should expel all their foreign women, and the listening men are said having agreed all, and they are said having expelled their foreign women (p.321).
[This is an absolute Jewish religious racism which is free to have in the book shops until today and partially is practices until today yet - but also Muslims and Christians are partly racist in this kind, it's a horror].
It seems strange that the scholar Ezra never speaks any more since this speech. There are no documents mentioned with this by Finkelstein / Silberman (p.321).
Nehemiah's return to Jerusalem
-- he is said having been a high court official in Persia and is said having heard of the wrong tolerance in Jerusalem
-- the king of Persia is said having permitted the return proclaiming him a governor (p.322).
The alleged construction of a new town wall in Jerusalem under Nehemiah
-- after the arrival in Jerusalem in 445 B.C. Nehemiah is said having called for the construction of a new town wall
-- the elite in the ex northern kingdom of Israel in Samaria and Ammon and the Arabs in the South are said having denounced Nehemiah that he wanted provoke a rebellion by the construction of the wall, and by this the enemies of the wall are said having prepared an attack
-- but the wall is said having been finished despite of all threats (p.322).
The alleged warning for social justice by Nehemiah - prohibition of mixed marriages
-- Nehemiah is said having blamed the economy of interests
-- Nehemiah is said having claimed for the return of land to the poor
-- Nehemiah is said having prohibited marriages with foreign women (p.322)
[and also he is stating a religious racism again].
Orthodoxy in Jewry against mixed marriages
The prescription of the prohibition of mixed marriages is clearly headed against the neighbor states and is the clear [racist] base for Jewry (p.322).
[This Jewish marriage law in the Bible is violating any anti racism law. But selling the Bible is well possible until today. The same thing is in Islam prohibiting mixed marriages, until today absolutely legal...]
Ptolemy rule in Yehud province
Yehud province comes under the rule of the Greek Ptolemies kings governing in Egypt.
about 300 B.C.
Report of the Greek writer Hecataeus from Abdera about Jewish law
Hecataeus reports about the Jewish tradition which has a certain Moses at it's base, with customs of priesthood and with social law according to Deuteronomy (p.336).
The false prophecy is going on
The myth of Moses with the end of the destruction of Jerusalem is known now in the whole Mediterranean, with all the laws and the statehood without king (p.336). There follow first translations into the Greek language. This translation is necessary "unifying" the scattered Jews by the book. Since the dispersal the "holy books" are spreading the [wrong] Jewish identity world wide (p.336-337). With this is also spread the hope of a Jewish Empire without foreigners [without any real sense] (p.337).
Reign of the Seleucids in Judah
This is a Syrian government [web01].
70 after Christ
Rome: Destruction of the temple and deportation
A part of the Jews is sold on the Roman slave market. Another part survives in the diaspora. The books of Moses and the Deuteronomistic History are becoming a symbol for the solidarity of the Jews.
European Middle Ages
Wrong Jerusalem pictures in Europe in the Middle Ages
Jerusalem is painted in Europe with European town walls and with towers with merlons giving a more powerful impression of Jerusalem than it really was in fact (p.82).
[Merlons on town walls and fortress walls are an Arab invention and are present only by Arab occupation since 700 after Christ appr.].
42 New biblical research since the 17th century
Logic thinking with enlightenment is putting the Old Testament (Torah) into question
-- logic thinking and rationality are beginning contradicting to the biblical stories
-- literary and linguistic points of views give clear definitions which texts don't match together (p.22).
Biblical research in the 18th century
The archaeologists begin with the registration of a huge number of inscriptions in hieroglyphic scripts (p.28).
Since the 1820s: deciphering of hieroglyphic scripts
Since the 1920s the archaeologists are studying monuments. In the 1920s Jean-François Champollion is achieving in deciphering the hieroglyphs. Since this point of time the events described in the Bible can be compared with the Egypt reports (p.28).
Since the 1840s: Excavations of towns, palaces and cuneiform scripts
Historians from England, France, the "USA", and from Germany are excavating towns, huge palaces and archives of cuneiform scripts of the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires. The towns of Ninive and Babel mentioned in the Bible are recognized as aggressive Empires (p.28). IN the cuneiform scripts are mentioned Israelite kings like Omri, Ahab (p.28) and Jehu, and also Judean kings like Hezekiah and Manasseh (p.30).
Now the reports of the Bible can be compared from two sides. It's the first time that exact historical dating is possible (p.30).
Now are coming the doubts if Moses had existed
Analysts come to the conclusion that the OT has been written completely by a latter writer (p.22).
The 5 books of Moses are allocated to different writers:
-- texts of "J" come from the Yahwists from Jerusalem with the name of JHWH as God
-- texts of "E" are from the northern Reich of Israel with the name of Elohim as God
-- texts of "D" are the texts of the 5th book of Moses which is stylistically absolutely isolated (p.23)
-- texts of "P" are texts of the priests with reports of the rites, called "Priestly Sources" (p.23-24)
-- texts of "R" are sentences between the important texts or explanations of the revisers of the 5 books of Moses (p.24).
All analysts see the Pentateuch as "a mosaic of different sources" (p.24). ¡
The journeys of the clergyman Edward Robinson: He is the first identifying old hills of ruins (tell)
In 1838 and 1852 Edward Robinson is making long journeys in Palestine and states that there are dozens of old hills and ruins of forgotten biblical sites (p.26-27), "using the biblical geographic information and comparing it with the modern Arab location names in the land." (p.27)
Robinson identifies the ruins near ed-Dshib as Gibeon, near Betin as Bethel, and near Selun as Silo (p.27).
Further archaeologist research identifies further locations as Megiddo, Hazor, Lachish etc., in the late 19th century for example by the British Royal Engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund (p.27).
The analysts recognize the conformity of the description of the country in the Bible with the real landscape (p.27).
Detection of a victory inscription of the Moabite king Mesha
The detection of a victory inscription of the Moabite king Mesha in eastern Jordan in 19th century brings new cognitions mentioning a victory against the Israeli armies. By this a war between Israel and Moab is confirmed (2d book of Kings 3,4-27) (p.30).
Syria and Jordan having a new nomadism
The Turkish regime is taking high taxes and is threatening the population been drawn into the Ottoman Reich. This and other things provoke that many families in villages are returning to be Bedouins withstock breeding in the desert where they are kept in tranquility (p.133).
Systematic excavations in the Middle East and in Egypt
Since 1880 archaeological research is making great progresses with new historical dating techniques (p.30).
Herzl, portrait of a racist patriarch against the Arabs
And now Theodor Herzl's racist book "The Jewish State" is coming
Herzl claims that it would be possible to expel the Arabs in a simple way like the natives in "America". But since 1915 this plan is not possible any more because the Arab population is armed in the fight against the Turkish imperial power. Zionist don't see that change and by their strong propaganda and collaboration with the Nazi powers are driving many Jews into the war trap in Middle East].
since 1900 appr.
New technique of historical dating by the "US" scholar William Albright
-- now there can be systematically stated the ages of the stiles of architecture, of potsherds and of other artifacts according to the system of Albright
-- layers of settlements and graves can be historically dated quite accurately (p.30).
Beginning of the systematic excavations of villages
As a consequence one hill of ruins after another is excavated (Arabic "tell", Hebrew: "Tel"). In many layers can be detected the local religious cults of thousands of years (p.30).
Emigration wave of Jews from Germany by Nazi Zionist collaboration, and Holocaust of the Jewish with mass death in ghettos, by deportations, in camps and in tunnel constructioning, mass deportations by Stalin to the Gulag camp system, mass death in the Red Army etc.]
since the 1940s
New biblical research in the 20th century
Since the 1940s the analysts are naming the stylistic and theological uniform works of 5th book of Moses (Deuteronomy) and the books of Joshuah, Judges, Samuel and Kings as the "Deuteronomistic History" (p.25).
For example the book of Josiah is repeating parts of the 5th book of Moses (Deuteronomy)
-- with the claim that Israel had to be ruled by the ruler of the whole folk of the Jews elected by God
-- the laws of the Sinai should be followed strictly
-- there is a harsh warning from idolatry (p.108).
The style in the book of Joshua and the style of the 5th book of Moses is the same, and by this it can be admitted that it was the same author (p.108).
Wars in the Middle East: The Jewish State of Israel is in a lasting war against the Arab forces because the Arabs don't let expel oneself that simply as Herzl was announcing it. the Jewish organizations with JWC a.o. don't see the change of the situation].
since the 1970s
First critical biblical archaeologists
First archaeologists are renouncing the connections in the Bible and are interpreting their findings in an independent way without Bible, but with social sciences and with development schemes. The new methods are spreading and by this there is a new view on the biblical history (p.33).
But many archaeologists are interpreting their findings according to the biblical context until the 1990s considering the Bible as a reliant and chronologically relevant document (p.32-33).
since the 1990s
The new biblical thesis: The content of the Bible has big contradictions
The historical context of the Bible is obvious, but there are great contradictions in respect of archaeological findings and the biblical text (p.32).
Archeology succeeds in filling and explaining the gaps between the biblical texts and reality by archaeological findings. Bible itself is coming out as an artifact with many statements jumping around with indications about different societies (p.33).
Detection of an inscription with the description of an Aramean seal against Israel
Jewish Orthodox religious madness
Racist Jewish priests are preaching the racist laws of the "holy books" until today (p.336).
[According to the "holy laws" any contradiction against a priest is absolutely forbidden, and officially racism in religious sermons is rated as a "religious freedom". It's a horror].
[Zionist government brought to it's senses renouncing an Empire of Israel
Only in 2006 the Israeli government is renouncing officially to the wrong prophecy of an Empire of Israel from the Nile to the Euphrates. But many Jewish groups are going on with this mad idea in an unreal religious madness in the sense of the faked Joshua and want the expulsion of the staying Palestinians, and militant groups of Palestinians are defensing themselves].43 Appendix: partition of the 5 books of Moses in the versions of J, E, D, P, and R
The variations of the books of Moses and the writers
Terminology and the geographical hot spots are not the same in the different books. The versions are written in different epochs and in different locations. One can detect the authors by the geographic terminology and by the function that have the tribes in the text (p.23).
Texts of "J" with JHWH from Jerusalem
This version (depiction of the tribe of Judah) is using God consequently as a Tetragrammaton of JHWH (according the scholars pronounced "Yahweh"). The analysts of the 19th century name these texts as texts of "J" (p.23).
The Yahwists in Jerusalem describe the perspective of the southern Reich of Judah, probably in the times of the faked king of Solomon (970-930 B.C.) or a short time after (p.23).
The version of "J" of the patriarchs above all is a literary trial of a definition of a unified people of Israel and is not an exact report (p.58).
The texts of "E" with Elohim
Another chain of stories is using God with the name of Elohim of El, above all the description of the tribes in the North, above all Ephraim, Manasseh and Benjamin. The analysts of the 19th century name these texts as texts of "E" (p.23).
The texts of the Elohists in the North are describing the events of the time of the independence from 930 to 720 B.C. (p.23).
The texts of "D" of the Deuteronomy, the 5th book of Moses
The 5th book of Moses ("Deuteronomy") seems to be in a significant style ans seems to be an independent document (p.23).
The texts of "P" of the priests
The rest of the texts are descriptions of rites by the priests (name "P") as "Priestly Sources", about cults, about prescriptions of purity and sacrifices (p.23-24). This source of the priests "P" is dated for the time after the exile - that mean the majority of the scholars - and also the definite edition of the Pentateuch is developed after the exile (p.58).
The "Deuteronomistic History"
Common features of Deuteronomy, books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings
The analysts state the the books of Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings are in the same linguistic and theological style. Some times they are redacted. Since the 1940s the analysts are naming these books as "Deuteronomistic History". The analysts have not the same meaning about the point of time when the books were written, during the deportation to Babylon or during the time of king Josiah finished in the exile locations (p.25).
According to Finkelstein / Silberman the Deuteronomistic History is composed under the king Josiah (p.26). According to Finkelstein / Silberman the Deuteronomistic History was written by one single historian (p.185) [whereas there are prophecies for centuries building a frame considering that God is "right"].
Josiah in the Deuteronomistic History: The degradation of the Omrid Reich
Degrading the Omrid Reich Josiah wants to support his political ambitions and religious reforms (p.26). Josiah as a king of Jerusalem means that he had to degrade the kingdom of the Omrids blaming "sinful behavior". Instead of a description of the kingdom of the Omrids Josiah is presenting a faked big Reich under David and Solomon which is said having been a pure Israeli affair.
There are more faked elements:
-- the siege of Samaria is stressed
-- king Ahab is degraded with the claim he had not murdered his enemy
-- the palaces in Amaria and Jezreel are said having been elements of idolatry and injustice
-- Josiah simply does not want a successful northern kingdom because Jerusalem was only a country side (p.214).
With faked stories about the kings Omri, Ahab and Jezebel the true history of Israel is systematically concealed and Jerusalem is put into the center (p.215).
The texts of "R": There are phrases between the texts and explanations
The Pentateuch is a composed thing, revised and composed by the editors in a wanted manner whereas alto the editors have given some "traces" in the books which are classified as texts of "R":
-- phrases between the texts
-- explanations of the editors (p.24).
-- map of Middle East with towns of biblical eopch: book of David Rohl: Pharaonen und Propheten 1995; edition Bechtermünz, p.50
-- Mr. Israel Finkelstein, portrait: http://laotraorilla.blog-city.com/; http://laotraorilla.blog-city.com/el_exodo_no_existi_afirma_el_arquelogo_israel_finkelstein.htm
-- Mr. Neil Asher Silberman, portrait: http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/9707/26/dead.sea.scrolls/; http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/9707/26/dead.sea.scrolls/link.neil.jpg; http://www.ename974.org/Eng/pagina/center_neil.html
1 General information about biblical research, documents and archeology
-- figurine of Astarte with breast in her hands 1: http://www.amsterdam-houseboats.com/more_my_houseboat.htm
-- 2: http://forum.rastaba.com/index.php?showtopic=1295
-- 3: Fund in Lachisch / Lachish: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/wae/hob_34.126.53.htm
-- Astarte with folded arms before her breasts: http://astro.temple.edu/~bstavis/rr/astarte-statue.htm
-- Astarte, relief from Babylonia made of clay of Ganges River: http://www.gemnaries.com/cards/cart/statues/astarte.htm
-- Astarte of 8th century B.C., Jewish figurine of ebony: http://www.uhmc.sunysb.edu/surgery/astarte.html
-- figurine of Baal: http://www.uned.es/geo-1-historia-antigua-universal/diccionario_de_mitologia_egipcia_B.htm
-- figurine of Baal of gold: http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/baal.htm
-- map of Fertile Crescent: http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/showcase/dlottmesopotamia1.html
2. The case of faked Abraham from Mesopotamia - Ismael - Isaak
-- map with Abraham's propaganda route: http://mx.geocities.com/pastoralbiblica/ubicar.html; http://mx.geocities.com/pastoralbiblica/map01.jpg
3. cyclus of sheperd nomads and the installation of oval villages
-- Bedouin tents in 1915: http://camelphotos.com/WorldCamels.html
-- Bedouins taking a rest in an oval order: http://camelphotos.com/WorldCamels.html
-- North Reich: hilly landscape with Jezreel valley: http://www.joerg-sieger.de/einleit/nt/01gesch/nt14.htm
-- South Reich: Dead Sea with steep coast: http://www.photo.net/photo/pcd1589/dead-sea-67.tcl
4. Archeological findings about Israeli tribes after the invented occupation: the transition was fluently
-- map of Israel and neighbor states around 1100 B.C.: http://symbolictruth.fateback.com/biblisrl.htm
-- map of Egypt kingdoms: http://uk.encarta.msn.com/medias_761557408/Egypt.html
6. Legend of Joseph's son of Jacob from who is said he was sold to Egypt and was a Minister of Economy with the Pharao at the end
-- camel caravan in Sinai: http://elephoto.com/exotic.asp
7. Legend of faked flight from Egypt under Jacob because of hunger
-- Nile Delta in about 1000 B.C. during Pharaoh times with Avaris: http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/manetho_hyksos.htm
-- Nile Delta of 1706, map of Cellarius: http://www.antiquemapsandprints.com/scans/scans60.htm
-- Nile Delta of 2001, satellite photo: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=4712
8. Legend of liberation under an invented Mose and the faked flight to the Red Sea
-- Pi-Ramesse, excavations: http://www.dematterudolf.com/DematteRudolf/aegykultst1.htm
9. Legend of holy law from Sinai - lie about 40 years march in the desert
-- Mount Sinai: http://www.solidrockfaith.com/ZehnGebote.html; http://www.solidrockfaith.com/sinai.jpg
-- map of Mount Sinai: http://www.welt-atlas.de/datenbank/karte.php?reg=2&kat=1&kartenid=2-281&back=reg%3D2%26kat%3D1
-- Mount Sinai, sunrise: http://home.arcor.de/o.knak/fotostory2/deutsch/foto-28.htm
-- map with Kadesh Barnea, satellite photo 2003: http://www.genesisfiles.com/Maps/Kadeshbarnea/Kadeshbarn_MapFrameSet.htm
-- map with Ezion Geber: http://www.nccg.org/ezion_geber/ezion_geber.html
11. Invented occupation under leadership of an invented Josuah apr. 1230-1220 B.C.: the real culprits were others
-- map of Decapolis with Beth Shean: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beth_Shean
-- Beth-Shean / Scythopolis: high hill of ruins (tell): http://www.rehov.org/project/tel_beth_shean.htm
-- Beth-Shean / Scythopolis: high and low hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bibleplaces.com/newsletter/june2005news.htm
-- Ashdod: hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bible.gen.nz/amos/places/ashdod.htm
-- Ekron: hill of ruins (tell): http://www.christusrex.org/www1/ofm/sbf/escurs/TS/01_TSes.html
-- Megiddo: hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bibleplaces.com/newsletter/june2005news.htm
-- Jericho: hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bibleplaces.com/jericho.htm
-- Ai / Chirbet et-Tell: hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bibleplaces.com/ettell.htm
-- Lachish: hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bibleplaces.com/lachish.htm
-- Hazor: hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bibleplaces.com/hazor.htm
-- map with Ugarit: http://www.proel.org/alfabetos/ugaritic.html
-- Pharaoh Ramesses III.: temple in Medinet Habu, air photo: http://webs.alleg.edu/employee/a/acarr/art211/medinethabu.html
-- Pharaoh Ramesses III.: temple in Medinet Habu, details: http://www.greatcommission.com/egypt/; http://www.bibleplaces.com/2003jan.htm
12 First documents with the name of "Israel" in Egypt
-- Pharao Merenptah victory stele: http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/merenphatvictorystele.htm
16 Claim in OT about a development of an Empire under Saul, David and Salomo
-- map: Babylonic Empires in about 1050 B.C.: http://historia.ziemann-online.net/FrueheHochkulturen/Kulturen/Frames/Babylonier.htm
17. Search for proofs for an alleged Empire of David and for thedestruction of Philistine towns by David's armies
-- map: Empire of David and Salomon never existed: http://www.creationism.org/images/SmithBibleAtlas/
18 Archeology: real structures in the mountains during the alleged epoch of king David and Salomo
-- Amun-Tempel in Karnak, Aussenfassade: http://www.urlaub.de/karnak-aegypten.0.html
-- Amun-Tempel in Karnak, beschriebene Säulen: http://www.aegypten-rundreise.de/tourism/karnakd.htm
-- Karte Karnak, Luxor, Fayum: http://www.phil.uni-erlangen.de/~p1altar/galerie_html/nil/galerie1.html
-- Gott Assur von Assyrien: http://www.livius.org/as-at/assyria/assyria.html
-- Karte Ninive, Assur, Babylon, Marni, die Flüsse Euphrat, Tigris, Orontes: http://www.unites.uqam.ca/egypte/module5/mod53s1.htm, http://www.unites.uqam.ca/egypte/cartes/qqvilpo.jpg
-- Tontafel mit Keilschrift aus Babylon 2000-1700 v.Chr.: http://www.1000and1.de/deutsch/kultur/archaeo/arch11.htm
-- Tontalfel mit Keilschrift aus Lagasch 3000 v.Chr. mit Kleiderabrechnung: http://www.uni-leipzig.de/journal/heft500/s9.htm
-- Sichem / Tell Balata, Luftaufnahme: http://www.christusrex.org/www1/ofm/mad/legends/legends040.html
20 Alleged split of the Jewish empire into an alleged Israel (north) and an alleged Juda (south)
-- figurine: book of David Rohl: Pharaonen und Propheten, 1999, p.409
22 Kingdoms in the northern city state of Sichem (biblical northern state of "Israel") according to invented OT 884-842 B.C.
-- map of Israel with holy sites: Kishon River: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/israel-maps.htm
23 Documents about northern state of Israel during Omrid dynasty
-- map of Israel and Judah, unreal borderlines: http://mx.geocities.com/pastoralbiblica/ubicar.html; http://mx.geocities.com/pastoralbiblica/map05.jpg
-- map of Dibon, location where the stele of king Mesha was found: http://www.genesisfiles.com/Bible_Map_J.htm#B
-- stele of king Mesha, copy: http://www.accd.edu/sac/english/cbritt/travel/slide46.htm
-- stele of king Mesha, text: http://www.uni-essen.de/Ev-Theologie/courses/course-stuff/im-mesha-stele.htm
-- stele of Tel Dan, peaces: http://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%9B%D7%AA%D7%95%D7%91%D7%AA_%D7%AA%D7%9C_%D7%93%D7%9F http://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%AA%D7%9E%D7%95%D7%A0%D7%94:Tel_Dan_Stele.jpg
-- stele of Tel Dan, text: http://www.nelc.ucla.edu/Faculty/Schniedewind.htm; http://www.nelc.ucla.edu/Faculty/Schniedewind_files/Tel_Dan_drawing.jpg
24 Archeology about northern state of Israel under Omrid dynasty 884-842 B.C.
-- Samaria: ruins of palaces of northern Reich of Israel: http://joseph_berrigan.tripod.com/id21.html
-- Samaria: ebony reliefs in the palace of northern Reich of Israel, Egypt style: http://joseph_berrigan.tripod.com/id21.html
25 Acropolis buildings of the Omrids
-- Samaria, ruins of an acropolis: http://www.bibleplaces.com/samaria.htm
27. Northern state of Israel between Omrid dynasty and Assyrian occupation 842-720 B.C. according to OT, documents and archeology
-- map ot the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, and Philistine, Aram Damascus, Ammon, Moab, and Edom:
-- Shalmaneser III.: black obelisc with victory story about Samaria and Jehu:
-- close up: http://truthchasers.com/assyria.htm; http://truthchasers.com/Photos/assyrian/DSCF0013.jpg
-- Jehu with Shalmaneser III., genuflection: http://www.geschichtsforum.de/showthread.php?t=4191;
-- map with Assyria which has ocupated Syria:
-- map with Assyria in 820 B.C.: http://history-world.org/maps%20ancientworld.htm
-- Tiglath-Pileser III., Profil, Fundort Nimrud: http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/Tiglath-Pileser-III.html
-- Tiglath-Pilesers army sieging Gazru with war chariot and bowmen:
-- Sargon II., profile: http://www.geschichtsforum.de/showthread.php?t=4191; http://www.bible-history.com/assyria_archaeology/sargon_ii_portrait.jpg
-- Sargon II.: palace statues with winged horse and human head:
-- Sargon II.: inscription about the victory against Samaria and the deportations:
28 Partition of ex northern state of Israel
-- map with southern state of Juda, Moab, Edom, Israel does not exist any more: http://www.joerg-sieger.de/einleit/spez/04proph/spez49.htm
29 Southern state of Juda according to OT 884-842 B.C. until to the occupation of northern state of Israel
-- map of Judah: David Rohl: Pharaohs and Prophets 1999, p.50
-- Lachish, hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bibleplaces.com/lachish.htm
-- king of Hazael of Aram Damascus: http://www.beth-aram.de/galerie.htm
-- map: Assyria with Aram Damascus in about 820 B.C.: http://history-world.org/maps%20ancientworld.htm
-- map with Israel, Judah, Ammon, Moab, and Edom: http://www-unix.oit.umass.edu/~juda102/images/landofisrael.jpg
-- Tiglath-Pileser III., profile, location of finding Nimrud: http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/Tiglath-Pileser-III.html
30 Fast growth of city state of Jerusalem / southern state of Juda after the elimination of the northern state of Israel since 720 B.C.
-- Lachish: model: http://joseph_berrigan.tripod.com/id21.html
-- Lachish, great model: http://fontes.lstc.edu/~rklein/Documents/judah.htm
-- Jerusalem, model: http://www.holylandnetwork.com/temple/model_30.htm
33 Trial of uprising for a reoccupation of former northern state of Israel under king Hiskia - destruction of state of Juda - reconstruction under king Manasses
-- Sennacherib, profile: http://www.zyworld.com/Assyrian/Who%20is%20Who.htm
-- Sennacherib: report of the campaign against Judah in a clay prism: http://www.askwhy.co.uk/judaism/0365Monarchies.html
-- tunnel for fresh water supply of Jerusalem under Hezekiah: http://www.jerusalem-archives.org/period1/1-9.html
-- map with tunnel for water supply: Finkelstein / Silberman: Keine Posaunen vor Jericho, dtv, p.265
-- Lachish: relief of the occupation of Lachish, location of finding Ninive: http://joseph_berrigan.tripod.com/id21.html
-- Lachish: after the siege Jews are seized; relief of Ninive: http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/jewish-captives-lachish.html
-- Lachish: Sennacherib receiving Jewish rulers: http://classics.unc.edu/courses/clar047/NinLachDt.jpg
-- Esarhaddon, profile: http://www.damals.de/sixcms/detail.php?id=169797&template_id=1052&query_id=544#
-- map of the military campaign of Esarhaddon to Egypt: http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/history21-31.htm
-- map of Assyria under Ashurbanipal with the occupation of Lower Egypt: http://www.livius.org/as-at/assyria/assyria.html
-- Ashurbanipal , profile: http://www.livius.org/as-at/assyria/assyria.html
-- map of Assyria with occupied lower part of Egypt, Nubia is Egypt: http://www.jesusneverexisted.com/assyria.htm
-- Herodotus, portrait: http://www.sib.net/n_russia/1_vol/pole02.html
-- Moses with written tablets, painting: http://www.heroparadiso.com/allascopertadiheroparadiso/opere_religiosi/mose.jpg
35 Alleged religious campaign under child king Josiah - the "recovery" of 5th book of Moses - first social laws - cleansings
-- Pharao Necho II. of Egypt: http://fontes.lstc.edu/~rklein/Documents/neobab.htm
36 Since 609 B.C.: movement for only one god is declining without king Josiah - Nebuchadnezzar destroying Juda - Zedakia's uprising ending with the destruction of Jerusalem - Jehud province
-- map with the Reich of Nebuchadnezzar at 590 B.C. appr.: http://historia.ziemann-online.net/FrueheHochkulturen/Kulturen/Frames/Babylonier.htm
-- Nebuchadnezzar, statue: http://www.bible-codes.org/Saddam-10-reasons-Nebachadnezzar-Uday-Qusay.htm
-- map with the invasion under Nebuchadnezzar against Judah:
-- map of the Babylonian Empire under Nebuchadnezzar: http://www.keyway.ca/htm2000/20000214.htm
-- map of the first Babylonian captivity: http://www.bible-history.com/map_babylonian_captivity/index.html
38 Events in Babylon exile during the ban
-- map of the Persian expansion under Cyrus: http://ccwf.cc.utexas.edu/~kallet/greece/pictures.html; http://ccwf.cc.utexas.edu/~kallet/greece/Map%20Cyrus.jpg
-- Cyrus, emperor of Persia: http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/History/hakhamaneshian/Cyrus-the-great/decree_jews.htm
42 New biblical research since 17th century
-- Herzl, portrait of a racist patriarch against all Arabs: http://www.jjwd.de/infopage/profiles/staatsmaenner/herzl.html