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Jewry: Fake and truth in the Old Testament (OT) according to documents and excavations

New identity by new Jewish history by help of chronology and archaeological research

2. The case of faked Abraham from Mesopotamia - Ismael - Isaak

by Michael Palomino (2006 / 2010)



from: Israel Finkelstein / Neil A. Silberman: The Bible unearthed. Archeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts; The Free Press, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2001; German edition has got the title "No trombones before Jericho" (orig. German: "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho"): edition C.H.Beck oHG, Munich 2002;

Here in this analysis is used the German version "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho" of DTV, Munich 2004, second edition of 2005. All page indications refer to the German version. I hope the page numbers are not very different.

The legend of Abraham as progenitor of all Jews, with son Ismail as progenitor of all Arabs - and the legend of son Isaak

First book of Mose is describing a family saga with all possible dramatic art, about passion, discipline, justice, injustice, belief, godliness, immortality, claiming that God had "elected" it's nation and would "promise" some land, also wealth and growth. The patriarch are said to be Abraham, Isaak, and Jakob, and the first mothers are said to be Sara, Rebeka, Lea, and Rahel (p,.39).

Many of the scholars of the passed centuries had the meaning that these legends about the patriarchs in the Old Testament (OT) (p.45) with life of Bedouins, with sheep and herders (p.45-46), with their quarrels about springs of water (Gen. 21, 25-33) and with their quarrels about grasslands (Gen. 13,5-12) would be roughly right historically (p.45).

The legend of Abraham and the late birth of his children

Abraham's propaganda trip claiming a territory from
                Israel to Ur, and the map shows a moment where the big
                Empires are blocking each other the trade routes
Abraham's propaganda trip claiming a territory from Israel to Ur,
and the map shows a moment where the big Empires are blocking each other the trade routes

OT claims:

-- Abraham is said having been elected by God as the patriarch of the population of Israel (p.19), is said to be from Ur at the Euphrates (p.40), and is said having marched from Mesopotamia to Haran (p.40) and then to Canaan (p.19)

-- then Abraham is said having been a hiking outsider with his wife Sara (p.19)

-- Abraham is said to be the origin of all nations of the region of Israel Palestine, and it's said that he parted the territory with his competitors Lot and many shepherds (p.40)

-- after the collapse of Sodom and Gomorrah Lot is said having been the patriarch of the Moabits and Amonites in the Eastbank of Jordan river in the eastern highlands (p.40), and Lot had children with his two daughters founding the Moabit tribe (p.52)

-- the son of Abraham Ismael comes by a connection between Abraham and Hagar (the Egypt slave of his 90 years old wife Sara), and this son is said being the patriarch of all Arab populations in the southern desert (p.40-41), Ismael is said being misprized by Abraham and according to this the Arab tribes which are said to be originated by Ismael are devaluated in the invented 1st book of Mose, and at the same time the children of Ismael are said having had contacts to Judah kingdom (p.54)

-- Abraham's wife Sara is said having given birth to the son Isaak with 100 years yet, the only child of this connection (p.41)

-- and Abraham is said having almost sacrificed this son Isaak proving the loyalty to God, and when God allegedly saw Isaak on the altar God is said having promised to Abraham that Abraham's child will be the origin for a famous nation, and all peoples of Earth would be blessed by him, that says the prophecy of this invented OT (p.41)

The contradictions of 1st book of Mose about the patriarchs of Israel

The details are giving a real effect. Ur and Haran as the origin of Abraham seem to be right because there oldest centers of Middle East civilizations can be found. And the birthright would also be right, the spiritual orientated Bible archaeologists meant in 19th and 20th century, so e.g. Roland De Vaux or William f. Albright (p.46).

There is no agreement about Abraham's way and his dates of life

Archaeologist Albright means that names of persons, rites of weddings and land purchasing laws as they are prescribed in 1st book of Mose could come from Mesopotamic society of 2d millennium B.D. where is said Abraham comes from (p.47).

But then archeology initiated by Albright searching for remnants of hiking shepherd groups between Mesopotamia and Israel Palestine (p.47-48) is showing another scenario:
-- there cannot be found any mass movement from Euphrates to Canaan
-- and the old traditions are that common that they could be element of practically any culture in old Middle East (p.48).

Several archaeologists are posting the time of Abraham in different epochs with differences of up to 1,000 years, always without any definite result. But the patriarchs themselves are never put into question (p.48).

The defamed Moabites

For the defamation of the Moabites in the family trees of the patriarchs with the indication that the Moabites have their origin by an incest, this indication only plays a role in the border wars between the Israel Reichs and Moab. During the times of Abraham Moab does not exist yet at all (p.52).

The contradictions about the story of Abraham are indications that Abraham hardly has existed, and in the case of the Moabites the story is an absolute lie].

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Photo sources

-- Abraham's propaganda trip: http://mx.geocities.com/pastoralbiblica/ubicar.html;  http://mx.geocities.com/pastoralbiblica/map01.jpg