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Jewry: Fake and truth in the Old Testament (OT) according to documents and excavations

New identity by new Jewish history by help of chronology and archaeological research

17. The search for proofs for an alleged David Reich and for alleged destruction of Philistine towns

Reich of David and Reich of Solomon never existed.
                For these kingdoms any findings for structures of such
                Reichs are missing.
vergrössern There was never any Reich of David or Solomon. Any findings for structures of such Reichs are missing.

by Michael Palomino (2006 / 2010)



from: Israel Finkelstein / Neil A. Silberman: The Bible unearthed. Archeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts; The Free Press, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2001; German edition has got the title "No trombones before Jericho" (orig. German: "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho"): edition C.H.Beck oHG, Munich 2002;

Here in this analysis is used the German version "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho" of DTV, Munich 2004, second edition of 2005. All page indications refer to the German version. I hope the page numbers are not very different.

Archaeological findings for the structures of a Reich of David are missing

Some of the Philistine towns are excavated in big parts (p.151).

-- where can be stated a fire around 1000 B.C. destroying a town of the Philistines (p.151-152) - and this can be detected with layers of ashed in combination with overturned stones (p.152) - the scholars of before state that the fire was from an expansion under David, e.g. in the case of Tel Qasile where archaeologist and historian Benjamin Mazar states this (p.151-152)

Map with Jerusalem,
                        Megiddo, Geser, and Hazor, satellite photo.
                        Jerusalem does not exist at this time.
Map with Jerusalem, Megiddo, Geser, and Hazor, satellite photo. Jerusalem does not exist at this time.

The case of Jerusalem: where was the temple?

-- archaeologists never can find any little peace of the alleged temple of alleged king Solomon (p.152)

-- the scholars simply are searching in other places than in Jerusalem finding alleged traces of the Reichs of David and Solomon, e.g. in Megiddo with findings from Iron Age (excavations in the 1920s and 1930) (p.152).

The case of Megiddo

-- Megiddo is a cross point between the roads to Egypt, to Mesopotamia, to Anatolia (p.152), and to the Jezreel plain (p.154)

-- the buildings are - according to the constructional engineering described in the Bible (in 1st book of Kings, 7,12) - interpreted as the "cattle sheds of Solomon" (this says the leader of the expedition P.L.O. Guy) (p.154)

-- from Iron Age also a city gate is excavated, a six chamber gate, and scholars are stating that it would be from king Solomon (p.154).

The case of Hazor
-- in the 1950s there are excavations under the leadership of archaeologist Yigael Yadin (p.154)
-- there can be found a big city gate from Iron Age, a six chamber gate as it was found in Megiddo
-- and again the scholars state that the gate would be from Solomon (p.155).

The case of Geser
-- the first book of Kings states in chapter 9 phrase 15 that Solomon had made reconstruct the town again
-- and by an excavation under the leadership of R.A.S. Macalister at the beginning of 20th century Yigael Yadin [in the 1970s?] can find another six chamber gate (p.155).

The claim of Yigael Yadin about an architect of Jerusalem

Now, archaeologist Yigael Yadin claims that a royal architect from Jerusalem had made reconstruct the towns again because there would be the evidence of the three six chamber gates which are similar one to each other (p.155).

Archaeologist Yigael Yadin states that 1st book of Kings chapter 9 phrase 15 describing the construction of towns under Solomon would be true (p.156).

Megiddo: search for a palace and a claim for a palace

-- in Megiddo was found a city gate, and now the archaeologists mean that there also could be found a palace
-- the excavations under the alleged "cattle sheds of Solomon" show several palaces, but this are palaces in a north Syrian stile "bit hilani" of Iron Age
-- and now the archaeologists state that these rests of palaces would stand in connection with the six chamber gate (p.156).

Pupil of Yadin, David Ussishkin, states
-- the palaces of Megiddo had been constructed under king Solomon because the biblical description of the alleged palace of Solomon in Jerusalem would also fit to the palaces of Megiddo
-- the "cattle sheds of Solomon" are said having built under king Ahab in 9th century B.C. (p.157).

But archeology states clearly: kingdom of David and kingdom of Solomon never have existed
Reich of David and Reich of Solomon
                            never existed. For these kingdoms any
                            findings for structures of such Reichs are
vergrössern Reich of David and Reich of Solomon never existed. For these kingdoms any findings for structures of such Reichs are missing.


According to Finkelstein / Silberman archeology can find on the territory of alleged South Reich Judah for the time of David and Solomon only 8 little villages with appr. 1,500 resident inhabitants. According to the archaeological research it can be admitted that there were more shepherd nomads than resident inhabitants (p.259).

There is no trace of any kingdom of David. When king David had occupied Jerusalem, so this has not changed anything with policy of isolation and of illiteracy with shepherds. When there was a Reich of David and a Reich of Solomon, so these Reichs practically had no power (p.260). Ruins or findings of a temple of Solomon cannot be found (p.152).

According to archaeological research social structures correspond with these of isolated regions: Possible are discriminated "Apiru", or people like Bedouins "Shasu", or independent clans acting for their own (p.259).

[Just a main temple with it's dimensions and massive, high walls should provoke ruins which stay for ever, just when it should be a temple for a Reich from Egypt to the Euphrates. So, it can be that this temple only was a simple room, or it that this temple only was a tent, or Jerusalem was at another place for this time and the temple would be not detected until today.

The rise of the highlands to a kingdom after all the destructions by the sea folks would be logic. But for the whole time findings are missing. So there can only be nomad Reichs, without army, without administration, without written documents, without poesy. David psalms and Solomon sayings would be from another person, so. Speculations may go on...]

Finkelstein / Silberman mean that David and Solomon were nothing more than tribal leaders (p.209). OT describes the relationships between North Reich and South Reich before the ruin of the North Reich Israel, but in only one passage in a realistic way, in 2d book of Kings 14,9: Judah is described as a "thistle on Lebanon", and Israel is described as a "cedar on Lebanon". According to Finkelstein / Silberman these were the real dimensions (p.250).

A verification of the excavations gives new sociological facts

There is stated by a new verification of the excavations which were performed until now that the excavations cannot fit into the allocated ages:

The monuments which were allocated to Solomon times have to be allocated to other kings, and the expansion of Reich of David is absolutely controversial:

-- the type of palace in north Syrian style "bit hilani" is coming up in Syria in early 9th century B.C. for the first time (p.157-158), and so the palaces are not from Syria (p.158)

-- and in Jerusalem doesn't exist any palace like this (p.158)

-- the end of Philistine ceramics in appr. 1000 B.C. accidentally comes at the same moment as the alleged destruction and occupation under David (p.158)

-- new archaeological findings in the late 1990s can proof (p.147) that there was a kingdom of David, but it had been only little, and not at all as big as described in the Bible (p.148).

Verification of Jerusalem: there are no findings for David or Solomon - and no literature can be found

-- the excavations in Jerusalem don't show any new proof for buildings of the alleged times of kings of David or Solomon, because for there cannot be found any temple for David or Solomon, and add to this there cannot be found no finding at all for this time (p.141)

-- according to excavations in the 1970s and 1980s in Jerusalem there cannot be stated any significant population in this region for the time of 10th century B.C., the time of the alleged kings of David and Solomon, no monumental architecture either, and no potsherd from this time either (p.150)

-- but from other periods there are many findings, e.g. from Mid Bronze Age and late Iron Age (p.150)

[so, the claim that all ruins had been destroyed by later construction work and by this there would not be any finding of David and Solomon, cannot be right - but this state the Bible believers. Well, it can be that the temple only was a room, or only was a tent, or Jerusalem was at another place than today].

-- in 19th and 20th century there were excavations around the Temple Mount, but there is not found any trace of Salomon's great temple (p.145).

At most David and Solomon were ruling a very little Reich Judah with no political significance in the offside of the great political events. There did not exist any big richness or central administration as it is indicated in the Old Testament with a temple town of Jerusalem. Kingdom of Judah has a steady development for centuries. Jerusalem at most was a religious place among others without any findings, and Jerusalem was not at all a center (p.258).

The growth of literature, of religious thinking and of historiography as it is indicated for the time of the alleged kings of David and Solomon and their sons in OT, cannot be found in any place. To the contrary: The population is mainly illiterate and for sure have never read any literature or noted down history. Historical texts - as they are put into stone as in Egypt or Mesopotamia - are missing for North Reich Israel and South Reich Jerusalem for the time of David and Solomon (p.255).

Monumental inscriptions and seals of the kings - the main characteristics for a developed state - are totally missing for the territories of North Reich Israel and South Reich Jerusalem up to the late 8th century B.C. (p.255).

The documents: the neighbor states never mention any Reich of David or Reich of Solomon - the Syrian type of palace - Jerusalem without palace

-- investigating the documents of the neighbor states there cannot be found anything about a Reich of David, and no commercial relation is mentioned etc. (p.157)

-- in texts of Egypt or of Mesopotamia "King David" and "King Solomon" are never mentioned (p.145)

-- in 1993 there was found a peace of a stele in Tell Dan with an inscription mentioning the house of David, probably with the description of the attack of Damascus under Hasaël against the North Reich Israel in 835 B.C. (p.146).

More precise archaeological data: the city gates are from 9th century B.C. - Jews were in illiteracy and there was at most a village of Jerusalem without any trace

-- latest analysis in Megiddo, Geser and Hazor about the architecture styles and ceramic forms, and new precise radio carbon methods can state that the excavated city gates are from early 9th century B.C., when the invented Solomon is said having died since decades already (p.158)

-- by this the palaces in Canaan have the same age like the Syrian palaces, that is 9th century B.C. (p.159)

-- so, in the epoch from 1100 to 1000 B.C. no palaces were constructed in the alleged South Reich Judah, but this territory was absolutely natural yet and without any construction of any town (p.159)

-- David and Solomon are left as figures without Reich (p.159). Finkelstein / Silberman say:

"There is hardly any reason doubting the existence of a David and a Solomon. But there are many reasons to call into question the dimension and the richness of these Reichs." (p.159)

-- David and Solomon as great kings - this is nothing more than a myth (p.160)

-- written documents or inscriptions of the alleged South Reich Judah don't exist (p.160)

[but great kingdoms normally always are immortalizing themselves with monuments and memorial texts in stoned walls]

-- it seems that in South Reich Judah the population consisted mainly in illiterate farmers yet. But monarchy with illiterates is impossible. Finkelstein / Silberman say:

"The land [the highlands of the alleged South Reich Judah] was mainly populated with farmers - without any trace of written documents or inscriptions, and not at all with characteristics of a wide spread capacity for reading and writing which would be necessary for a well functioning monarchy." (p.160)

Jerusalem in these times is at most nothing more than a village of illiterate people. Finkelstein / Silberman:

"Jerusalem itself could have been at most nothing more than a typical village in the highlands." U(p.160)

[According to archaeological truth Jerusalem did not exist as a settlement during the alleged times of David and Solomon, respectively is was an empty hill of ruins].

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Photo sources

-- map: Reich of David and Reich of Solomon did never exist: http://www.creationism.org/images/SmithBibleAtlas/