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Jewry: Fake and truth in the Old Testament (OT) according to documents and excavations

New identity by new Jewish history by help of chronology and archaeological research

21. 8th century B.C.: foundation of Judah and Israel - first climax of Israeli foundation of villages

by Michael Palomino (2006 / 2010)



from: Israel Finkelstein / Neil A. Silberman: The Bible unearthed. Archeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts; The Free Press, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2001; German edition has got the title "No trombones before Jericho" (orig. German: "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho"): edition C.H.Beck oHG, Munich 2002;

Here in this analysis is used the German version "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho" of DTV, Munich 2004, second edition of 2005. All page indications refer to the German version. I hope the page numbers are not very different.

Since the 8th century B.C. the neighbors relatively often mention a kingdom of Israel

After the foundation of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel the climax of wave of settlement has reached in 8th century B.C., with over 500 locations with about 160,000 inhabitants. Economy is among others above all cultivation of olives and vineyard cultivation (p.131).

[How the foundations of the kingdoms have been executed is not prescribed. According the documents and archeology surely not were founded by a David or by a Salomo, or the temple was only a room or a tent or had been in another site, or Jerusalem had been at another site in David Salomo times as the only town of the region. It's fix that since 8th century Northern kingdom Israel relatively often is mentioned by their neighbors, but Southern Reich Judah only rarely. So, David and Solomon have no world wide relevance at all and are no factor of power in the region - when they had existed].

Begin with propaganda for a "liberation" with an "exodus from Egypt"
Already in 8th century B.C. there is mentioned an exodus from Egypt:
-- in the oracle sayings of prophet Amos (2,10; 3,1; 9,7)
-- in Hosea texts (11,1; 13,4) (p.82).

8th to 7th cent. B.C.
Important caravan commerce with Arabia
The caravan trails from Arabia end all in Gaza (p.288). By this the caravan trails passing the North Reich Israel are always more important for the big powers (p.289).

In 8th and 7th century come spices and rare incense from Southern Arabia. The caravans pass the desert reaching Mediterranean [one can admit that the deserts were more little than today because of climate fluctuations]. So, nomad populations in the South and in the East of the Israeli region are important now, and they are cited in Genesis book with some family trees (p.53).

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