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Jewry: Fake and truth in the Old Testament (OT) according to documents and excavations

New identity by new Jewish history by help of chronology and archaeological research

30. Growth of city state of Jerusalem / of southern Reich of Judah after the ruin of northern Reich of Israel since 720 B.C.

Model of Jerusalem in
              the 7th century B.C. with northern city gate, Damascus
              gate, and in the background the temple
Model of Jerusalem in the 7th century B.C. with northern city gate, Damascus gate, and in the background the temple

by Michael Palomino (2006 / 2010)



from: Israel Finkelstein / Neil A. Silberman: The Bible unearthed. Archeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts; The Free Press, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2001; German edition has got the title "No trombones before Jericho" (orig. German: "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho"): edition C.H.Beck oHG, Munich 2002;

Here in this analysis is used the German version "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho" of DTV, Munich 2004, second edition of 2005. All page indications refer to the German version. I hope the page numbers are not very different.

Southern kingdom of Judah "is taking over" northern kingdom of Israel

According to the faked OT the southern Reich of Judah is taking over quasi the full birthright after the ruin of North Reich of Israel, as if it would be a younger brother (p.246).

Now is a strong growth in the Reich of Judah under king Hezekiah:

There is an influx of refugees - and the prophets of the collapsed northern Reich have their plans for a 1 god religion

Since 720 B.C. city state of Jerusalem (biblical "kingdom of Judah") is growing now rapidly by a wave of refugees from the occupied northern kingdom of Israel (p.56). There is a big influx of palace employees, refugees and expelled farmers of the ex northern kingdom (p.14). Probably under these refugees  are also the northern Israelite prophets and priests. By this the memory of the destruction of the North Reich Israel is kept alive (p.244).

Now the warning prophets from the northern Reich of Israel are claiming more and more a "1 god religion" and want to realize this plan in the kingdom of Judah now (p.268). These warner prophets are taking reference to Elia, Elisa, Amos, and Hosea. They all want to accept only one single god any more. When there is an occasion they want to perform their religious cleansing (p.268).

At the same time since 720 B.C. there is coming a movement of national revanchism. This national movement consists of Jewish court employees, clerks, priests, farmers, and prophets (p.12).

The religion of Jewry is not at all fixed yet.

Archeology: Statehood in southern kingdom of Judah is coming very fast now

According to the findings of archeology the little kingdom of Judah

-- never had any diplomacy
-- and never has conducted any war (p.250).

In this kingdom of Judah is evoked a great development from one to the other day (p.56) because Judah has to intercept the big change after the collapse of the northern Reich of Israel (p.250), and as another new fact Judah is totally surrounded by provinces with Assyrian governments or Assyrian vassals (p.263). Judah is the new Jewish center now (p.250), becomes the new political and religious center of the Israelite community (p.263).

Judah is growing and is becoming a local power now (p.57). The northern city state of Shechem (biblical "northern kingdom of Israel") is only a memory. Southern city state of Jerusalem is flourishing now and also developing territorial ambitions (p.185).

The installation of Judah's political system has got the following element:

-- statal facilities are installed (p.56)

-- Judah only now introduces annals and a historical awareness

-- Judah becomes only now a fully developed state with professional priests and clerks (p.249).

[And always the saying is true: "The last will be the first", for Egypt, for northern Reich of Israel, for Assyria, and for all Reichs which will come].

-- there is a rapid population growth (p.250), a population explosion (p.264)

-- according to archeology Jerusalem only now becomes a religious center, an Israel Jewish metropolis and trade center (p.250)

-- Judah is installing it's industry for mass production of ceramics and olive oil for the export (p.258)

-- Judah is installing an import and export trade (p.250)

-- the trade is managed with ostraka (written clay tablets) and with weight stones, these are found by archeology (p.258)

-- illiteracy is overcome, reading and writing is spreading and written texts suddenly get authority (p.269).

Archeology: Only now there is a development for building up the city state of Jerusalem in 7th century B.C.

City state of Jerusalem (biblical "kingdom of Judah") is developing it's buildings only now (p.255), sporadically (p.266) of blocks of stone with stony capitals (p.177) in Aeolian similar style ("proto Aeolian") (p.255), whereas the buildings in Judah are not as big as in the city state of Shechem, and the quality of the construction is less (p.177).

Model of Jerusalem in 7th
                      century B.C. with northern city gate, Damascus
                      gate, and in the background the temple
Model of Jerusalem in 7th century B.C. with northern city gate, Damascus gate, and in the background the temple

Archeology can exactly state the rapid growth of Jerusalem (p.263-264). The layout of Jerusalem is amplified from 4 to 5 hectares to 60 hectares (p.264), this is about the half of the historic city of today (p.13). The residential areas are growing on the hills aside the slim ridge, with a huge town wall saving the new suburbs. The houses are side by side in a dense way, with workshops and public buildings. Finkelstein / Silberman estimate that the number of inhabitants was rising from 1,000 to 15,000 (p.264).

[Speculation: Royalty is taken over from the northern kingdom

There is missing the report how the kingdom of Judah was found when David and Solomon had not been kings. It's possible that the royalty of the northern Reich was simply taken over in the South. Then king Hezekiah had risen from a tribal chief to a king, and the refugees of the North had constructed him the new capital of Jerusalem. Now many towns get their town walls. Speculations may go on].

Growth in agriculture interior according to archeology

-- many new farms are founded near Jerusalem

-- in the South of the town and in the Shfela region are founded new farms on relatively empty soil (p.264)

Lachish: model of the town, at the end
                          with a double town wall
vergrössernLachish: model of the town, at the end with a double town wall

-- villages are growing to towns (p.264), in the plains are developing medium-sized towns as regional centers (p.266)

Lachish gets a town wall and is another new administration center

-- in the bay of Beersheba new towns are founded (p.264).

The map of kingdom of Judah is changing radically now: Judah in 710 B.C. appr. (in the late 8th century B.C.) has appr. 300 populated locations with all kinds of size, with about 120,000 inhabitants and with a statal structure (p.264). The characteristics of statehood can all be found:

-- monumental inscriptions
-- seals and seal impressions
-- ostraka (written clay tablets) for the royal administration (p.266).

Industrialization in the kingdom of Judah under king Hezekiah according to archeology

Only now a statal olive oil industry is developed in the city state of Jerusalem (p.177), and with this a mass production is connected and a sale of ceramic vessels and other things. Add to this there is an industry installed working with oils and wine products under statal leadership (p.266).

The new wealth in Jerusalem under king Hezekiah and his successors

The origin of wealth can be found easily:

-- kingdom of Judah has integrated into the economic system of Assyria
-- kingdom of Judah has probably taken part also in the Arab trade (p.266)
-- and by this Judah gets new markets (p.267).

All in all since 720 B.C. there is an absolute social and economical revolution in Judah coming from the economy of clans to the modern state. Jerusalem is getting a very rich spot (p.267).

Visits from the ex northern Reich
Israelits from the ex northern kingdom of Israel are regularly visiting the cult celebrations in the temple of Jerusalem (p.242-243).

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Photo sources
-- Lachish: model: http://joseph_berrigan.tripod.com/id21.html
-- Lachish, great model: http://fontes.lstc.edu/~rklein/Documents/judah.htm

-- Jerusalem, model: http://www.holylandnetwork.com/temple/model_30.htm