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King Manasseh - a "bad king" bringing wealth

Wealth by loyalty, reliabiity and tolerance - revenge of One-God-activists after his death

from: de.wikipedia.com - Michel Palomino (2011)



The Wikipedia text:

<King Manasseh of who there are also reports in the Bible and in the Old Testament (OT) was governing between 696/95 and 642/41 BC in the southern kingdom of Judah.

In the Old Testament Manasseh is rated a "bad king"

Manasseh was a king governing an extraordinary long time of 55 years. But in both Biblical reports in the Second Book of Kings (chapter 21, phrases 1-18) and in the Second Chronicle (chapter 33, phrases 1-20) there is nothing reported about this. The report in the Old Testament in the Second Book of Kings (2, 1-18) which is part of the Deuteronomistic History Manasseh is blamed of apostasy (loosing the "right" belief) and is blamed for the latter doom of Judah. In the OT Manasseh seems to be reported a bad king by ideological reasons in a negative way and he is kept a little there, also by ideological reasons as it seems, because before Manasseh is his father Hezekiah (Second Book of Kings, chapter 18, phrases 1-21) and his grandchild Joshuah (Second Book of Kings, chapter 22, phrase 1-23,30).

The mother of Manasseh was Hefzi-Bah (in other sources called Abija Bat-Sacharja). When she was of Manassite origin then Manasseh's uncommon name could be explained.

Reconstruction of reduced Judah under the government of Manasseh after 701 BC

The child king and his government

In 701 BC Judah was destroyed by a military campaign of Assyrian king Sennacherib and only Jerusalem was not destroyed. Big parts of Shephelah region were cut and given to the Philistine neighboring states. In 696 BC so King Manasseh was leading the government with 12 years and his state was practically not capable to live because almost all agricultural territories had been cut. The government of this child king was lead by his staff who had to accept the political dictation of Assyria.

Jerusalem had suffered heavy immigrant movements from refugees in 720 BC (Samaria) and in 701 BC (Sennacherib) and thus was overcrowded with refugees and it's population had tripled (about 60,000) and it's surface had also risen (about 65 ha).

Fertilizing desert territories

As the fertile territories in the West of Judah (Shephalah, Shefela) were given to the Philistines by Assyrian authorities the Manasseh government had to install settlements in the not highly classified areas of Judah. Manasseh government let install new fortresses and agrarian villages and was forced to convert desert into farmer's soil. This happened in the southern hilly countryside (bay of Beersheba and others), in the northern Negev and on the steep slopes of the Jordan Rift Valley. If there was forced labor is a speculation until today. In the meantimes archaeologists have excavated two fortresses of Manasseh times in the Negev desert (Kadesh Barnea and Hazeva).

Arabian trade - with the support by marriage? - economy with olive oil

The Manasseh government turned out to be loyal and by the time they got a leading position within the trade of incense (among others with the South Judah trade routes from the Edomite town of Arava passing the Valley of Beersheba to the coast in Gaza). Among other possibilities the population of refugees was settling along those trade routes where also a certain Arab influence is proved for these times (there are foundings of Arab clay tablets and other objects). Growing caravan trade can also be seen with the numerous foundings of camel bones of adult camels for this time.

Because of Hebrew seals with southern Arab names some scholars mean that the wife of Manasseh had been an Arab woman. Such a connection had provoked a growing trade connection for sure, and there could have really be derived a "visit of the queen of Saba". Such a visit is described in the OT but for the king of Salomo.

Another economical base of Judah under the government of king Manasseh was the development of olive oil economy among others with the centers of Ekron (today's hill Tel Mique) with exportations to Egypt and Arabia.

Participating in Assyrian military campaigns

Little Judah under Manasseh was rated a loyal ally and vassal of the Assyrian kings Sennacherib, Assurhaddon and Ashurbanipal. King Manasseh was supporting actively military campaigns of Assyria against Egypt. And Assyria for itself was constructing new fortresses in the south of Judah against Egypt (excavations prove everything). At the end of his government epoch king Manasseh had his kingdom of Judah well recovered and with the old western borders again and could hand it over to his son Amon.

Reverse side of loyalty to Assyria and it's society of wealth

The reverse side of loyalty to Assyria were the tolerance of foreign cults, religious pluralism with cults of Baal, Astarte and angelic hosts. Additionally there was a gap of wealth between the poor and the rich, there was a growing uprooting and there was the fact that the agricultural work of olive oil plantations was bringing more profit than the normal field work.

The prophets of the one god cult with their propaganda for a "salvation" of the northern kingdom of Israel by such a One-God-Belief had no chance during these 55 years under the Manasseh government. Therefore in the Old Testament which was written later this king Manasseh is described as a "renegade from the right belief" and is only mentioned in a negative way without mentioning one word about the real balance of power between Assyria and Egypt in those times.>

The One-God-propagandists waiting for the death of Manasseh

by Michael Palomino (2011)

The prophets of a One-God-cult making propaganda for a "salvation" of the northern kingdom of Israel by installing a One-God-belief had no chance during 55 years with Manasseh's government. According to the Jewish archaeologists Israel Finkelstein and Neil A. Silberman the followers of the One-God-movement were probably waiting a long time for the death of Manasseh, and during this waiting times they were preparing new propaganda books (First, Second, Third, and Fourth book of Moses, and chronologies with a first Jewish historiography, according to the Bible searchers Albrecht Alt and Martin Noth there are legends and stories compiled without any stylistic criteria, and there is Israeli history compiled).

Archaeological findings and the documents of the neighboring states of Egypt and Mesopotamia are contradicting partly clearly to this composed book of Mose (Thora respectively Pentateuch).

After the death of king Manasseh there should be a revenge against this false tolerance and king Manasseh should be demonized. Thus king Manasseh is only mentioned negatively in the Old Testament being a "renegade from the right belief" without mentioning the real balance of power between Assyria and Egypt in those times with just one word.