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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Zionism 3: The second aliyah 1904-1914

Base work - political parties - creation of "moshav", "kevuzah", and "kibbutz" - the trap: self-defense and Middle East conflict since 1909 - decision for Hebrew as "national" language in 1913

from: History; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 8

presented by Michael Palomino (2007)

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[40,000 new Jews in Palestine are doing the base work - their hope for a "national revival" - different Zionist political parties for foundation of a Herzl Israel]

<In 1904 there began the Second Aliyah, which continued until 1914. Its pioneers brought with them high standards of Jewish and general culture, lofty ideals of socialist collectivism and productivization, and a deep conviction that ideals may be proved only through living according to them. (col. 751)

Among the approximately 40,000 who came in this way, many of whom left after a relatively short time, were several leading personalities. Some were destined to lay the foundations and lead the State of Israel (David *Ben-Gurion, Izhak *Ben-Zvi, Berl *Katznelson, Aharon David *Gordon, among many others). Gordon stressed the revolutionary and creative character of physical work, the supreme value of the return to nature.

These people considered that work by Jews in the fields and roads of the Jewish settlements was a precondition to national revival as well as the path to individual renewal. They aimed to form a Jewish peasantry and a Jewish agricultural proletariat, hence their struggle for work by Jewish labor and for Jewish land, a struggle that continued up to the establishment of the State of Israel.

The followers of Gordon organized the *Ha-Poel ha-Zair party in 1905. Some of them, more radical in outlook and adherents of Yiddish as the national language, organized in the *Po'alei Zion. By their joint effort the pioneers created the organization of agricultural laborers in 1911.

[[Supplement: Arab parties against a Herzl Israel
At that time the Arabs are also organizing parties, which are Arab parties with the aim not to admit a Jewish Herzl state, because they know that Herzl writes in his booklet that the Arabs will be driven away like the natives in the "USA" by the white racists. And Arabs know the First Mose book, chapter 15, phrase 18 which says that Israel should have its borderline at the Euphrates. So all Jordan and Syria should not exist any more. The Middle East conflict is beginning here, and also Encyclopaedia Judaica is not saying it]].

[Creation of the agriculture cooperatives "moshav", "kevuzah", and "kibbutz" - harsh conditions - high suicide rate - approx. 40 Jewish settlements]

The greatest achievement - and, as it would now seem, a lasting contribution to the social organization of mankind - was made by these pioneers with the help of funds of the Zionist Organization and instruction by some experts (see Yehoshua *Hankin; Arthur *Ruppin) in creating the types of communal living and agricultural settlement in the cooperative *moshav and in the collective communes of the kevuzah and *kibbutz.

The last two relate back as if instinctively to the old tradition of Jewish communes in the Second Temple period (see *Essenes; *Dead Sea Sect). They were influenced respectively by ideals of social justice and equality, and of national service. Both consciously and subconsciously, the kibbutz served, through its spirit of collective brotherhood, to maintain the high cultural level and intensive social life of the pioneers in conditions of hard physical effort and economic hardship.

[[But the Arabs are not asked...]]

Malaria, the hot climate, and despair of attaining their objectives were the enemies against which the Jewish idealist settlers had to battle from the first days of the Bilu'im. Despite many attempts and failures, and even a relatively high rate of suicide, and although the some 40 existing agricultural settlements contained only a minority of the approximately 80,000 Jews in Erez Israel by 1914, they formed a strong social and ideological core that remained ready to continue to expand as soon as the war passed in 1918.

[Jewish self-defense: No middle course - 1909: Jewish Hashomer warriors - "Jewish defenders"]

Following the tradition of Jewish self-defense [[from anti-Semitic czarist Russia and Poland]], and true to the conception that everything should be done by the Jews themselves, as well as through a romantic renaissance of the striving for physical valor, the pioneers of the Second Aliyah decided to take the defense of the Jewish settlements into their own hands.

In 1909 they created the *Hashomer organization. Those who formed it intended to be more than mere watchmen, and took for their model of behavior that of the warrior bedouin. This organization lost several of its first members in defending the Jewish settlements. Some of them also through their way of life and the courage they displayed developed an ideal prototype for the role of the Jewish defender.

[[Supplement: The beginning of the Middle East conflict is 1909
Arabs are never integrated, but opposed, and vice versa. A middle course of Human Rights which could link the religions does not exist. Herzl did not think about a middle course, so the Zionist leadership does not either. So, this is the beginning of the Middle East conflict: in 1909. The Jews in Palestine are in the trap, in the Herzl fight, and this is lasting until now]].

[1913: The decision for Hebrew in the Jewish settlements as official language]

Before World War I Eliezer Ben-Yehuda had succeeded in bringing back Hebrew to life through its use by personal example, and propaganda for it as a living language. The wealth of its literary, legal, and philosophical strata considerably contributed to its revival. This became firmly established through the "language conflict" between the supporters of Hebrew as the only language to be used for every field and activity, and those who considered that German should be used for various subjects and spheres for which Hebrew was not considered ripe, in particular for (col. 752)

teaching at the new *Technion in Haifa. After pressure by the *Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden [[Help association of the German Jews]] to carry through German, the determined stand of teachers and public opinion decided the day for Hebrew in 1913.> (col. 753)

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Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica: History, vol. 8,
                            col. 751-752, with indications about the
                            second aliyah and the beginning of the
                            Middle East conflict since 1909
Encyclopaedia Judaica: History, vol. 8, col. 751-752, with indications about the second aliyah and the beginning of the Middle East conflict since 1909
Encyclopaedia Judaica: History, vol. 8,
                          col. 753, with indications about the decision
                          that Hebrew should be the Jewish national
                          language in 1913
Encyclopaedia Judaica: History, vol. 8, col. 753, with indications about the decision that Hebrew should be the Jewish national language in 1913

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