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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Racist Zionism 03: Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion ("Love of Zion" movement)

Land purchase - periodical Ha-Shahar - propaganda of Eliezer Ben-Yehuda - split of the enlightenment Jews - Zionist invention of a "historical right" - structure - Pinsker's autoemancipation 1882 - first racist Jewish settlements - Arab attacks - Rothschild money - Pinsker's plan for western Jews for Palestine - Turkish government blocking - Hovevei Zion 1887 - Jaffa committee for purchase of land - Moscow 1891 - idea of "spiritual center"

from: Zionism; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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[[Generally it's very dangerous and naive to connect national aims with a "love movement" because love makes blind. Zionism is not the only political "love movement" in the world...]]

*Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion (Heb. "Love of Zion") was the ideology and movement whose aim was the national renascence of the Jews and their return to Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. The movement in the 19th century flourished mainly in the large Jewish communities of Eastern Europe (Russia-Poland, Rumania). The Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion societies merged with the Zionist Organization upon its establishment by Theodor Herzl, although some of them continued their formal existence until World War I.

ROOTS OF HIBBAT (ḤIBBAT) ZION

The Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion movement derived most of its ideas from the basic values of Jewish tradition: the sense of exile, the longing for redemption, and the religious and spiritual attachment to Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]].

[[But this "attachment" was without asking the Arabs and without partnership with the Arabs...]]

Most of the Jews of Eastern Europe, however, were distant from organized political and social activity, and their religious leaders - with a few exceptions - were even opposed to it on the grounds that the coming of the Messiah should not be urged by human endeavor (dehikat ha-kez (deḥikat ha-keẓ) and that it constituted human interference in the ways of providence. The problems of the Jewish national renascence and the settlement of Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] were mainly discussed by individuals who were motivated to action by messianic visions or by the influence of the national awakening of European peoples. Zevi (Ẓevi) Kalischer and Judah Alkalai (see above) had propagated the idea of settling Erez Israel as early as the 1840s and 1850s, and the former had initiated a consultation of several rabbis and representatives of the communities of Germany in 1860 in order to found a company for this purpose.

[The first Jewish land purchase companies for "Settlement of the Holy Land" - periodical Ha-Shahar - articles of Eliezer Ben-Yehuda]

Shortly after this conference Chaim Lorje of Frankfort on the Oder founded the Jewish Company for the Settlement of the Holy Land. Neither propaganda nor these activities had any substantial effect on the public, however, just as scant attention was paid to Moses Hess's Rome and Jerusalem and David *Gordon's articles in Ha-Maggid, which supported the settlement of Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. When the Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion movement was founded, however, its religious sector was influenced by the ideas and the example of these first rabbis.

[[In the Arab world there was certainly a reaction - but it's not mentioned in Encyclopaedia Judaica]].

The public debate on the question of Jewish nationalism began at the end of the 1860s with the renewed strength of the movement for religious reform in Germany and Hungary. This movement called for the national and cultural assimilation of the Jews and for a break with the national tradition by removing references to Zion and Jerusalem from the prayer book and basing the Jewish religion on its "eternal truths" alone. Peretz *Smolenskin was among those bitterly opposed to these trends, denouncing them in the monthly Ha-Shahar (Ha-Shaḥar) which he began publishing in 1868. He placed the Jews firmly among the (col. 1037)

peoples aspiring to national liberation.

[[The national madness is spreading around - but to be Jewish is a religion, and the main enemy, racist "Christian" church, is never mentioned...]]

Eliezer *Ben-Yehuda's important articles "She'elah Nikhbadah" ("An Important Question") and "Od Musar lo Lakahnu" (Lakaḥnu) ("We Have Not Learned Our Lesson") in Ha-Shahar (Ha-Shaḥar) (1879), relating the national renascence in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) to the revival of the Hebrew language as a spoken tongue, were an essential contribution to the crystallization of Hibbat Zion (Ḥibbat Zion) [["Love of Zion"]] as an ideological trend.

[[The revival of Hebrew language would mean that other languages would be eradicated, above all Yiddish. This language racism is not presented in this article]].

BACKGROUND TO THE EMERGENCE OF THE MOVEMENT.

[Split of the enlightenment Jews at the Zionist Palestine question]

The Hibbat Zion (Ḥibbat Zion) movement arose at a time when developments in Eastern European states were pressing large numbers of Jews to emigrate or engage in intensified social and political activity. At the same time leading advocates of the Enlightenment (*Haskalah) became disillusioned with their faith in the possibility of Jewish assimilation among the nations and were disappointed in their hopes to attain equal rights for Jews. A decisive force in this direction was the series of pogroms in *Russia after the assassination of Czar Alexander II (1881). The fact that the sincere aspiration of the maskilim [[followers of the Haskalah, enlightenment Jews, secularists]] and the Jewish youth to grow closer to the Russian people had been met with a wave of hatred and that the government had been quick to declare the pogroms as the "reaction of the people" to "Jewish exploitation" and had begun to impose severe restrictions on the sources of income, government posts, and admission to institutes of learning available to the Jews caused a severe ideological crisis among the maskilim. Many of those who had grown distant from their people began to return to it (visiting the synagogue, participating in fasts, etc.). Others who had previously pinned their hopes on the struggle to change the social system began to realize that this would not automatically answer the "Jewish question". Among those who advocated a national renascence the realization became apparent that a spiritual and linguistic revival was not sufficient, and that they must set their sights on a real homeland, in which the Jews would not be regarded as aliens. The example of Germany, where a widespread anti-Semitic movement arose at the end of the 1870s, served as a warning and proof that neither Enlightenment nor emancipation was sufficient to guarantee the status of Jews in their countries of residence. Jewish writers and maskilim [[followers of the Haskalah, enlightenment Jews, secularists]] embarked on a penetrating discussion of anti-Semitism and its causes. The times, however, were unsuited to ideological discussions alone. The panic-stricken flight of thousands across the borders and the suffering of the refugees in the places where they were concentrated emphasized the need for a speedy and urgent "national solution".

[[The main enemy and the main promoter of anti-Semitism, the racist "Christian" church - in Russia the racist Orthodox church, seems never have been mentioned, and by a big part of Jewry ran into a national fantasy that a "Jewish State" would be a solution of the problem of anti-Semitism, but it only was another war trap...]]


THE BEGINNINGS OF THE MOVEMENT [Pogroms of 1881-1882 and racist Jewish Zionist drive]

[The Jewish invention of a "historical right" to emigrate to Palestine - Zionist emigration periodicals - Zionist organizations since 1881 - plans for a state's structure]

The majority of the active Jewish public felt that the only solution was to leave Russia;

[[The racist Orthodox church which was the main promoter of Russian anti-Semitism is not mentioned. The flight was not necessary when the Orthodox church would have been corrected it's prayers and sermons and the racist Bible...]]

only a small minority, mainly the wealthy and their relatives, opposed emigration. Many societies, especially among the youth, were formed for this purpose, and there were many arguments between those who supported Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] as a "place of refuge" and those who favored the [[criminal racist]] United States. foremost among the Hovevei (Ḥovevei) Zion - those in favor of going to "the land of our fathers", "to which we have historical rights" - was Moses Leib *Lilienblum, who was soon joined by Smolenskin, Leo *Levanda, and others. The journals Ha-Shahar (Ha-Shaḥar), Ha-Maggid, Ha-Meliz (Ha-Meliẓ), and Razsvet (in Russian) became the disseminators of the ideas of Hibbat Zion (Ḥibbat Zion) [["Love of Zion"]].

Most of the Hovevei Zion societies, especially those of the young maskilim [[followers of the Haskalah, enlightenment Jews, secularists]], advocated radical national programs. The students' society Ahavat Zion (Aḥavat Zion), founded in 1881 in St. Petersburg, declared that "every son of Israel who admits that there is no salvation for Israel unless they establish a government of their own in the Land of Israel can be considered a member of the society." The charter of the *Bilu society stated:

"The goal of the society (col. 1038)

is the politico-economic and national-spiritual revival of the Jewish people in Syria and Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]."

Some of the societies regarded their aim as imminent aliyah [[emigration to Palestine]] to Erez Israel, while others emphasized preparation and the propagation of the concept of the settlement of Erez Israel among the people. All of them, however, agreed upon the means toward settlement as the acquisition of land (either granted by the Turkish government or purchased) and the creation of a class of Jewish farmers and artisans in the country.

[Romanian Jews and dispossession - drive for emigration to Palestine]

Rumanian [[Romanian]] Jewry was aroused by the idea of settling Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. the Rumanian government's devious disavowal of its explicit obligation - according to the decisions of the Congress of Berlin, 1878 - to grant equal rights to all its citizens and the dispossession of growing numbers of Jews from their sources of income had made the true value of those legal guarantees clear to many Rumanian [[Romanian]] Jews and brought them face to face with emigration as the sole solution. At the end of 1881 there were over 30 societies for the settlement of Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) in Rumania [[Romania]], and on Jan. 11-12, 1882, a conference of Hovevei Zion [[those in favor of going to "the land of our fathers", "to which we have historical rights"]] took place in Focsani and elected a central committee, with its headquarters in Galati. (See also below, Zionist Organization in Rumania [[Romania]]).

PINSKER'S "AUTOEMANCIPATION"

[Pinsker's book "Autoemancipation" of 1882 - memorandum of 1883 - Zerubavel society in Odessa]

The new movement was provided with a systematic ideological basis by Leon *Pinsker in his Autoemancipation, which appeared in September 1882. Although initially he did not contemplate Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] as the most suitable territory for the Jewish state, he eventually joined the Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion movement. He came into contact with societies in different localities, and after consultation with Lilienblum, Hermann *Schapira, Max *Mandelstamm, and others (in September 1883) a memorandum was sent out calling for the establishment of a central executive committee to be elected by a congress of delegates from all the Societies for the Settlement of Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. Shortly afterward the Zerubavel society (with Pinsker as chairman and Lilienblum as secretary) was founded in Odessa and immediately became the central society of the movement; it was followed by the Warsaw society, which was leaded by Saul Pinhas (Pinḥas) *Rabinowitz and Isidor *Jasinowsky.

SETTLEMENT ACTIVITIES

[The first Jewish migration to Palestine from Russia since 1881 - the first Jewish racist settlements in Palestine - Turkish government against Jewish immigration]

[[The Jews are installing "Jewish settlements" and are not accepting any Arab in the "Jewish settlement". Discussions with Arab population are not accepted. By this arrogance of the Jewish emigrants the Arab population gets angry and gives only desert land to the Jews. When the Jews learn to turn the desert into land the Arabs don't know what to do, and the racist Jewish migration does not stop. Turkish government and after 1918 the English government cannot stop the Jewish Zionist madness - as also the Jewish non-Zionists and the anti-Zionists cannot stop this Zionist madness. It seems they have no idea what was going on in Palestine]].

Many of the Hovevei (Ḥovevei) Zion pinned their hopes on the support of the *Alliance Israélite Universelle and on other Jewish organizations. However, when these organizations searched for a haven for the refugees from Russia who were concentrated in Brody, they did not direct their migration to Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] at all: some were sent to the [[criminal racist]] United States and some were returned to Russia. At the conference of delegates from various Jewish groups that met in Berlin in April 1882 to discuss the question of emigration, only Israel *Hildesheimer came out in favor of settling the refugees in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]], and his proposal was not met with sympathy. Representatives of the societies nonetheless went ahead, and in the spring of 1882 a considerable number of settlers began to reach Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]], prompting the Turkish authorities immediately to publish orders to forbid further entry. The Hovevei (Ḥovevei) Zion turned for aid to their British sympathizer Laurence *Oliphant, and asked him to intervene with the Turkish government, but he had no influence in Constantinople.

[Bilu Society - Jewish settlements Rishon le-Zion, Rosh Pinnah, Petah (Petaḥ) Tikvah, Zammārīn) (later Zikhron Ya'akov) - help against Arab attacks - Ekron - Baron Rothschild financing most of the racist Jewish settlements - Gederah 1884]

Among those who succeeded in reaching Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] in July 1882 were 14 members of the Bilu Society who had gone, without any property, to work as agricultural laborers. Despite the Turkish ban on immigration, the foundations of Jewish agricultural settlement in Erez Israel were laid in that year. In July 1882 Zalman *Levontin and his companions established Rishon le-Zion, and shortly afterward members of the Moinesti society from Rumania (col. 1039)

settled in Rosh Pinnah (which had previously been settled and then abandoned by Jews from Safed). At the same time, the settlement in Petah (Petaḥ) Tikvah, which had been founded by Jerusalem Jews in 1878 but had later been abandoned, was revived. At the end of 1882, a group of Rumanian Jews settled in Zammarin (Zammārīn) (later Zikhron Ya'akov). However, the meager resources of the new settlers, their lack of preparation, and the difficulty of local conditions worked against them, and soon after the establishment of the new settlements they were in need of help.

[[The Jewish settlements were in the desert because the racist Jewish settlers wanted "Jewish settlements", and because the Turks by this only gave desert land to them. It could be that the Arabs were boycotting the racist Jewish settlements. Arabs were attacking some the racist Jewish settlements and by this the Middle East conflict was born in 1882 already...]]

It soon became apparent that the various societies in Russia and Rumania [[Romania]] were in no position to provide the required assistance, and Baron Edmond de *Rothschild was persuaded by Samuel *Mohilever and Joseph *Feinberg (of Rishon le-Zion) to assist a group of Jewish farmers from Russia to settle in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] (they later founded Ekron) and to take the settlement of Rishon le-Zion under his protection. [[It seems it had been attacked]]. In the course of time most of the settlements became sponsored by the Baron de Rothschild; the exception was Gederah, which was founded by the Bilu'im in 1884. The regime of strict supervision of the settlers through the agency of Rothschild's officials was a constant source of friction and rebelliousness. Meanwhile, settlements continued to be founded until the end of the 1880s (see *Israel, State of; Settlement).

[[And by this the confrontation with the Arabs was coming more and more, and the war trap of Middle East conflict was born, and naive Jews who did not know anything about this and were believing the fake Zionist promises were driven into the war trap of Palestine]].


THE ORGANIZATION [Structures and factions of the Jewish racist Zionists]

[Racist Zionist conference of Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion of 1884 in Kattowitz - Turkish government blocking]

Although it was clear to all the active members of Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion that the movement had to be unified and organized, opinions differed on the form of organization. Younger and more radical elements demanded emphasis on the ultimate national aspirations and open opposition to the philanthropic organizations, while more bourgeois elements advocated moderation and supportive activities.

The 100th birthday of Moses Montefiore provided the movement with a suitable occasion for convening all its active members, and the first conference of Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion took place on Nov. 6, 1884, at Kattowitz (see *Kattowitz Conference). Thirty-five delegates participated in the conference; most of them were from Russian societies, and the rest were from Rumania [[Romania]], Germany, England, and France. An account of the movement's achievements proved rather unimpressive. The great tide of Jewish emigration had been stemmed, and even the large Jewish organizations had abandoned hope of guiding and directing it; the Turkish government had closed the gates of Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]], and those few who had succeeded in reaching the country were considered infiltrators. It is therefore not surprising that the main value of the conference was its demonstration of the unity of Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion and of the Jewish people as a whole.

[[There are two big lies in this text:
-- first: The Turkish government blocked the racist Jewish immigration to prevent the region from war between the racist Jews and their racist Jewish settlements and the Arab population
-- second: The Zionists of Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion now mean, they would represent the "Jewish people as a whole", and non-Zionists and anti-Zionists are not mentioned at all]].

[Pinsker's projects: Jews from western Europe for Palestine - establishment of a central committee - racist Zionist newspapers and societies - racist Zionist propaganda work in the 1880s and 1890s]

Pinsker hoped to attract Jewish personalities and organizations from the West into the movement. It was decided to call the organization Mazkeret Moshe be-Erez (be-Ereẓ) ha-Kodesh and to establish a central committee with headquarters in Berlin, since conditions in Russia made legal activities on behalf of the movement impossible there; until the establishment of this committee, it was decided to set up a temporary committee in Odessa and a subcommittee in Warsaw. The resolutions accepted at the conference concerned mainly practical matters - organizational methods and ways of supporting the settlements. There was no mention, either in the debates or in the resolutions, of the major questions of national revival or the great national goal.

[[And there was no mention of the Arabs and of talks with the Arab population, as it seems]].

These concessions, however, were in vain. In Germany, not a single Jewish personality of any stature was found to head the proposed committee, and the resolution to establish a Berlin center was canceled. Neither did other societies of Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion that were founded in German and English towns succeed in achieving importance. Even the society in Kattowitz, which in 1883 had published the (col. 1040)

German-language movement organ, Der Kolonist, lost its importance. Only the student organization *Kadimah in Vienna, which published Selbstemanzipation from 1885 on, survived. The movement in Rumania [[Romania]] stagnated until the beginning of the 1890s, and the Russian societies were involved with minor affairs. The organization consolidated itself, however; there were almost 100 societies with a membership of approximately 14,000, which collected about 30,000 rubles a year from donations and another 20,000 rubles from various enterprises. Propaganda among the masses was emphasized; preachers (e.g., Zevi (Ẓevi) Hirsch *Masliansky and Judah Leib *Yevzerow) and entertainers (e.g., Eliakum *Zunsser) did much to spread the ideas of Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion. Nonetheless, there was friction between the different societies, and opposition to the existing leadership emerged.

[[And there was no mention of the Arabs and of talks with the Arab population, as it seems. Zionist propaganda lead the naive Jews into the war trap with the Arabs...]]

[Foundation of Hovevei (Ḥovevei) Zion in 1887 (those in favor of going to "the land of our fathers", "to which we have historical rights")]

In June 1887 the Second Conference, this time of Hovevei (Ḥovevei) Zion in Russia, met in *Druskieniki and resolved to call the movement Hovevei (Ḥovevei) Zion. Mohilever attempted to impose an Orthodox authority over the movement, but was foiled by younger representatives, such as Menahem (Menaḥem) *Ussishkin from Moscow, Ze'ev Berman from St. Petersburg, and Meir *Dizengoff from Kishinev. Pinsker was finally reelected to lead the movement, with six advisers, three of whom were famous rabbis: Mohilever, Naphtali Zevi (Ẓevi) Yehudah *Berlin, and Mordecai *Eliasberg. It was also decided to renew efforts to gain permission from the Russian government to organize the movement.

[Odessa Committee since 1890 - racist Jewish Zionist settlements of Rehovot and Haderah - executive committee in Jaffa for purchase of land - expulsion of Jews of Moscow and exodus to Palestine in 1891 - Turkish block]

In 1890 Alexander *Zederbaum, editor of Ha-Meliz (Ha-Meliẓ), succeeded in obtaining government sanction for the Society for the Support of Jewish Farmers and Artisans in Syria and Palestine, which became known as the *Odessa Committee. The founding conference, which took place legally - for the first time - that year in Odessa, was attended by numerous delegates from all over Russia. Increased contributions enabled the establishment of the settlements of Rehovot (Reḥovot) and Haderah (Ḥaderah) (1890-91), the consolidation of Mishmar ha-Yarden, and provided support for the veteran settlements. An executive committee was set up in Jaffa under Vladimir *Tiomkin to supervise the distribution of support  and the acquisition of land. The Ezra Society in Berlin and other societies in Frankfort, Paris, and London intensified their activities.

The second "Russian Exodus", which took place after the expulsion of Jews from Moscow in 1891, led to increased aliyah [[emigration to Palestine]] and to speculation in land, and the Turkish authorities renewed their ban on immigration and settlement.

[[because this speculation in land was directly headed against all Arabs and the Turkish government did not want any civil war in the Middle East provoked by racist Zionist Jews]].

THE SPIRITUAL CENTER.

[Palestine as a Jewish spiritual center - Benei Moshe society - no chance for the spiritual center]

The "practical" activities of Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion gave rise to harsh criticism, especially on the part of *Ahad (Aḥad) Ha-Am. This criticism was partially inspired by Ahad (Aḥad) Ha-Am's view that Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] could not provide a solution for the masses of emigrants, but should rather serve as a "spiritual center" to unite all parts of the disintegrating nation. It  was in this spirit that the *Benei Moshe society was founded. The crisis in settlement activities after the short-lived increase in aliyah [[emigration to Palestine]] at the beginning of the 1890s sowed fresh disillusionment in the ranks of Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion and strengthened the influence of Ahad (Aḥad) Ha-Am's criticism, however, his approach could not serve as a basis for the activities of the movement. It is not surprising, therefore,that upon the appearance of [[racist]] Herzl and [[racist]] political Zionism, the vast majority of the Hovevei (Ḥovevei) Zion societies joined the new [[racist]] Zionist Organization.

[S.ETT.]> (col. 1041)

[[This racist political Zionism was the direct war declaration against all Arabs, you will see]].

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Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol.
                        16, col. 1037-1038
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1037-1038
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol.
                        16, col. 1039-1040
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1039-1040
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol.
                        16, col. 1041-1042
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1041-1042


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