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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Racist Zionism 17: Non-Zionist and Anti-Zionist trends

East European tribe fantasy - Yiddish against Hebrew revival - Dubnow theory of eastern Europe as world Jewish center - Yiddish center Czernowitz - socialist Bund - anti-Zionist rabbis against Zionist separation - American Council for Judaism - Orthodox anti-Zionism against Jewish nationhood - Jewish Colonization Association - agriculture settlements - SU and Birobidzhan - new anti-Zionism

from: Zionism; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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<Zionism, though initially a minority movement, became so central in Jewish thought that eventually the other Jewish ideological trends had to define themselves largely in terms of their attitude to the [[racist]] Zionist idea or to certain essential elements of it, as, e.g., the revival of Hebrew language and culture, the "fixation" on Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] as the only territory for ingathering the Jewish mass migration, the national unity of Orthodox and secular Jews, etc.

AUTONOMISTS AND YIDDISHISTS.

[Anti-Zionism: The fantasy to be an East European tribe - Yiddish language development against Hebrew revival]

Before World War I the bulk of the Jews of the world were living in two multi-national empires, Russia and Austria-Hungary. In both of these regimes minority peoples were conducting struggles for their respective national autonomies. The situation of the Jews was different fro that of all other minorities, for they were nowhere a majority in any particular piece of territory that was historically associated with their national identity. Nonetheless, Jews in these regions continued to speak a language of their own, Yiddish, and they were bound together by ties of history and culture and by a network of communal institutions.

[[Racist]] Zionism was not the only possible national movement among Jews. A variety of other ideologies and movements arose, which refused to accept the idea that Jews were in any sense alien to the places of their dwelling in Europe, or to believe that anti-Semitism could be ended only by mass emigration. These movements argued that Jews were one of the historic tribes of eastern Europe, with as much right in the region as the Poles or the Ukrainians. The discrimination against Jews could, and should, be ended by a more vigorous battle for a just social order and by the achievement of national equality for all the national communities in the region. "To do battle at one's positions" was the slogan directed against the [[racist]] Zionists by such schools of thought. Most such non-Zionist nationalists regarded the Hebrew revival as a piece of romanticism and as disguised clericalism. In their view the spoken language of the people, Yiddish, was its natural contemporary speech. A healthy national life could be built only by strengthening that language and its literature and raising it in public esteem from the level of a dialect to that of a respected language.

[Anti-Zionism: Dubnow theory with eastern Europe as leading community and tributary branches in Palestine and "USA" - Jewish parliaments in every state]

The most important theoretician of Diaspora nationalism was the historian S. *Dubnow. He himself did not deny the importance of Hebrew, or of Russian, for he wrote all his life in both these languages as well as, of course, in Yiddish; nor did Dubnow deny that there was significance in the developing Jewish community in Palestine. In his historiography Jewish life had always found its leadership in some new emerging center of energies as an older community was declining. In his own day he saw eastern Europe as the lead community, then erecting tributary centers in Palestine and the [[criminal racist]] United States. He envisaged that Jews everywhere would labor to achieve nationally cultural autonomous institutions, including especially an educational system of their own in their own language. His spiritual disciples organized a party which labored for a system of "Sejms", Jewish "parliaments" or "diets", which should direct the affairs of the various Jewish communities and of the Jewish people as a whole.

This principle of "autonomism" was adopted also by the Russian [[racist]] Zionists at their conference in Helsingfors (1906), when czarist Russia seemed to be on the threshold of genuine parliamentary democracy. They, however, regarded it not as an end in itself, but as an element of Zionist Gegenwartsarbeit [["present work"]]: an instrument for (col. 1066)

Jewish social and educational activity with the clearly defined aim of an ultimate migration and settlement in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. Dubnow faced squarely the question that the national situation of the Jews in the Diaspora, in the minority everywhere, was an anomaly, but he did not arrive at the conclusion that this situation should be rectified by the creation of a Jewish commonwealth in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. At the core of his outlook was the vision of a future for all humanity in which all of the historic nations would rise to a higher stage of existence in which they would be freed of their dependence on any particular land and would exist as communities on the basis of historic and cultural ties.

The paradigm for such communities was what the Jews had become in the Diaspora after the beginning of the Exile; they had persisted in this new and higher form; and so Dubnow saw his vision of Diaspora Jewish national autonomism, or a formulation of the modalities of human association, to be the newest and most profound teaching by Jews for mankind.

[Anti-Zionism: Yiddish research line under Chaim Zhitlowsky with center Czernowitz - YIVO-Institute]

There were other, more mundane versions of Diaspora nationalism. Several schools of thought, chiefly under the influence of Chaim *Zhitlowsky, were in favor of the centrality of Yiddish in the national Jewish experience and labored toward the recognition of that language, and of those who lived out their lives in it, as one of the several cultural linguistic communities of eastern Europe, and of the Western world as a whole. This ideology was crystallized formally at a conference of Yiddishists in 1908 in *Czernowitz. Right after World War I this ideology was expressed by the foundation in Vilna, with branches in other parts of the Jewish world, of the Yidisher Visenshaftlekher Institut (*YIVO-Institute for Jewish Research), which survived World War II and now continues its scholarly and educational endeavors in New York.

[Non-Zionism: Bund of Jewish workers since the 1890s]

The most important single movement to arise in eastern Europe in the 1890s, in the very months when [[racist]] Herzl was appearing on the Jewish scene, was the Jewish Socialist Bund. This organization was created not primarily in reaction to [[racist]] Zionist stirrings but through tensions withing the Russian revolutionary movement. Most of the young Jewish revolutionaries of the day were joining and taking prominent part in the various underground factions, but some began to feel that the Jewish workers could not be approached and made active in the Jewish revolutionary cause except through Yiddish. The announced purpose of the founders of the Bund was thus not a Jewish national one, for initially they proposed only the temporary use of Yiddish as a means to the end of bringing the Jewish workers into the mainstream of the Russian revolution. Yet the give by no less a figure than Plekhanov, the father of Russian Marxism, that Bundists are "Zionists who are afraid of seasickness", soon acquired a measure of truth. A Yiddish-speaking party representing the revolutionary will of Jewish workers could not help but become aware that these workers had problems not only with their employers but also with gentile workers. Under the pressure of [[racist]] Zionists, and especially of [[racist]] socialist Zionists, the Bund moved in the direction of accepting the separate culture of Jews as a lasting value worth preserving through "personal cultural autonomy", i.e., the right of every individual to enjoy national, educational, and linguistic life in the framework of a legal minority organization. It clashed on this issue with its fellow social democrats, Jewish and non-Jewish, Menshevik and Bolshevik.

RELIGIOUS AND SECULAR ANTI-NATIONALISM

[Anti-Zionist rabbis against racist Zionist separation - Montagu against racist Zionist separation- anti-Zionist American Council for Judaism - evasion of "dual loyalty"]

There were also anti-nationalist reactions to [[racist]] Zionism, and these were much more clearly occasioned by the fact that an organized [[racist]] Zionist movement had arisen. The First Zionist Congress had been intended for Munich and it did not take place (col. 1067)

there because most of the rabbinate of Germany made a public declaration against the movement, for it would, in their view, call into question the absolute loyalty and integration of Jews as a purely religious community in the European nations. Some 20 years later, in the debates within the British war cabinet which preceded the announcements of the Balfour Declaration, the only Jewish member of the cabinet, Edwin Montagu, argued along the same line, that the recognition of the Jews as a nationality with its homeland in Palestine would call into question his political identity as a British subject who was a Jews only by religion.

In 1929 when a group of distinguished non-Zionists joined a reorganized and "enlarged" Jewish Agency for Palestine, on a plane of parity with the representatives of the [[racist]] World Zionist Organization, the non-Zionists maintained that their interests in the Jewish settlement in Palestine was philanthropic and not political and they indeed remained opposed to any talks of an eventual Jewish state.

In the 1940s in the [[criminal racist]] United States anti-Zionist sentiment was represented at its most extreme by the *American Council for Judaism, which maintained not only that its members were Jews by religion alone but that their religion made it incumbent upon them to take only a universalist position, which meant in practice a pro-Arab and anti-Jewish nationalist view of their responsibilities.

"Dual loyalty" worried wide circles of Jews, especially in the Western countries, in varying degrees into the 1950. By then it had become generally accepted, as Nahum Goldmann maintained, that all men have many "loyalties" which lived in some tension with each other. The purpose of at least the most extreme of these anti-Zionists was the rapid assimilation of Jews into the total population, and they opposed [[racist]] Zionism because they saw it as a stumbling block to this end.

[Orthodox anti-Zionism: Jewish nationhood is against the coming Messiah - and identity questions]

[[Racist]] Zionism was attacked from another side by schools of thought which found it too secular, too modern,and thus too destructive, in their view, of the traditional Jewish values. The religious forces which joined Hibbat Zion (Ḥibbat Zion) in the 1880s and which later formed the religious [[racist]] Zionist organization, the Mizrachi, during the first few years of the modern [[racist]] Zionist movement, were a small minority among the Orthodox. The overwhelming majority, especially in hasidic (ḥasidic) circles, saw in such human efforts for the restoration of Jewish nationhood an affront to the command to wait patiently for the Messiah. More seriously, they understood that the definition of Jewry as a modern nation, which meant in immediate [[racist]] Zionist practice that religious believers were to accept equality within Jewry with nonbelievers, portended the eventual and of the supremacy of the Orthodox faith within Jewry.

On this point oder believers in eastern Europe found allies in some circles of Westernized Jewry, especially in Germany. Together these groups formed in 1912 the *Agudat Israel, which maintained a consistent involvement in the Jewish community in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] but was opposed to [[racist]] Zionism as too secular. Its main emphasis was on the defense of the Orthodox Jewish faith everywhere in the world.

TERRITORIALISM AND AGRICULTURAL SETTLEMENT

[East Africa movement - Jewish Colonization Association (ICA) under Baron de Hirsch - agricultural colonies in the "USA" and Argentina etc.]

The movement that was closest to [[racist]] Zionism, *Territorialism, arose out of a split within the [[racist]] Zionist movement itself. In 1903 [[racist]] Herzl brought before the Zionist Congress the proposal of the British that the Jews be given land in East Africa for the development of their own autonomous community. The occasion for this proposal was the dire need of Russian Jewry, in the light of renewed pogroms, and the despair of quickly achieving from the Turks right for settling Palestine. Thus it seemed that [[racist]] Herzl himself had "moved away from Zion" toward immediate, practical mass settlement to alleviate Jewish need. The proposal to examine the feasibility of the British offer won a bare (col. 1068)

majority at the last Zionist Congress presided over by [[racist]] Herzl, but it was overwhelmingly defeated after his death. Israel Zangwill, the writer who had been one of Herzl's first followers in England, left the Zionist Organization and founded the Jewish Territorialist Organization (I.T.O.) in 1905. This and similar territorialist bodies continued into the 1930s and 1940s to search for a territory in some part of the world sufficiently empty and available to give the Jews room for the creation of their own national polity. These efforts never succeeded, but something very like what they intended was indeed realized by a non-ideological body, the *Jewish Colonization Association (ICA) which was founded in 1891 by Baron de Hirsch, one of the Jewish magnates to whom [[racist]] Herzl had turned and who had refused to join the [[racist]] Zionist endeavor. Agricultural colonies were created by the trust in several places in the [[criminal racist]] United States and, especially, in Argentina.

Though on the local level a kind of autonomous "all-Jewish" life did develop in some places on the American continent for one generation, they never coalesced into full-fledged "territorial" communities. Nowhere did these settlements survive the attraction for their young of higher education in the dominant language and the economic and professional opportunities of the cities.

SOVIET JEWISH CULTURE

[Jewish Yiddish "nation" in the "Soviet Union" under Lenin and Stalin - Birobidzhan - end after 1948]

In the first two decades after 1917, a kind of Jewish Communist nationalism arose and flourished in the Soviet Union [[with it's criminal mass murder Gulag system]] and it was attractive to many Jews outside the borders of the U.S.S.R. [[with it's Gulag system]]. But it was short-lived and took a tragic end. In reaction to the Jewish Socialist Bund and to the [[racist]] Zionists the young Stalin had declared in 1913 that there was no such thing as a united Jewish nation, for it lacked a land of its own.

Only separate ethnic Jewish groups did exist and were doomed to disappear by assimilation. Nonetheless, during his early years in power he continued the policy of Lenin, to permit the Jews to organize a system of cultural life in Yiddish, provided the Jewish nationality, like all the others in the Soviet Union [[with it's criminal mass murder Gulag system]], made Communism the central political purpose of its cultural activity. Schools on all levels and even college courses in Yiddish were created in the 1920s. Hundreds of books were published and a press and theaters were encouraged. Additionally, with the help of such Western Jews as the Chicago millionaire, Lessing Rosenwald, who was opposed to [[racist]] Zionism, there was some settlement of Jews on the land in southern Russia and the Crimea.

[[It seems even Stalin did not see that Jewry is a religion and never can be a "nation". A religious center is possible, but not a religious nationhood. The wrong fantasy went on. At the same time Stalin pursued the Jewish middle class. About the details of the Jews and their integration in the industrialization of the "Soviet Union" 1919-1939, see: Joint]].

An even more grandiose attempt was made to create an autonomous Jewish region on a stretch of land in Siberia, *Birobidzhan. In the later 1930s and particularly after 1948 [[after the foundation of racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel when Stalin felt again encircled by "USA" from Europe, Israel, India, and Japan]] all of this, including Jewish cultural life in Birobidzhan, was brutally ended. But into the 1930s the reality of Jewish autonomy and the vision of state-sponsored Yiddish creativity in the Soviet Union [[with it's criminal mass murder Gulag system]], allied with its official outlawing of anti-Semitism, seemed to some Jews in the West, not only of the extreme political Left, an option to be preferred to [[racist]] Zionism. There is no longer any such ideology because repression in the Soviet Union [[with it's criminal mass murder Gulag system]] has ended every genuine expression of Jewish life in that country [[since 1948 since turned out that the racist Zionist Jewish Israeli government is collaborating with the CIA. So, the Jews in "Soviet Union" were "nationalized" and mostly became Russians speaking Russian]].

What does exist there [[in "Soviet Union" with it's criminal Gulag system]] now (1971) is conducted as an act of semi-clandestine resistance to an unfriendly repressive regime.

[AR.H.]> (col. 1069)


[[Addition: New anti-Zionism
Since 1945 racist Zionism was dominating anti-Zionism, but racist Herzl Israel does not come out of it's wars, and Arabs will accept a Jewish religious center but will never accept a "Jewish State". At the same time the criminal anti-Semitic church has changed it's rites and is not so anti-Semitic any more. By this more and more Jews see the useless war trap in Palestine and have an anti-Zionist line. It can be hoped that the Jews worldwide get to the consciousness that they are a religion and not a nation. And it can be hoped that the racist Herzl booklet will be forbidden, and that the war declaration in 1st Mose chapter 15 phrase 18 will be canceled, and also many racist phrases in Talmud should be canceled, dear rabbis]].
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Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol.
                        16, col.1065-1066
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col.1065-1066
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol.
                        16, col.1067-1068
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col.1067-1068
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol.
                        16, col.1069-1070
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col.1069-1070


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