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Encyclopaedia Judaica

The racist Zionist Jewish kibbutz "pioneer youth movement"
Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir


Racist Zionist Jewish youth movement since 1916 - the manipulation methods - ranks, publications - obligation for emigration to Palestine and to live in a kibbutz - mixed ideology with racist Zionism and class Marxism - world movement since 1920 and separatists - WW II with flight to "SU", with members in the Russian army and in Jewish resistance in NS territories - D.P. children activity, help for illegal immigration to Palestine - propaganda in Latin "America" - branches worldwide

from: Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir ; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 8

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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[[Introduction
Racist Zionist madness says that Jewry would be a "nation" which is never possible because Jewry is a religion. Add to this the Arabs were never asked if a "Jewish State" would be built. But many Jews believed the Jewish racist Zionists and warmongers, called "Zionists" with it's racist Herzl booklet "The Jewish State". The racist Zionist Jewish leaders abused the Jewish youth with "youth movements" like Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir)]].

[Two racist Zionist youth movements from Galicia merged in Vienna in 1916]
<Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir), Zionist-socialist pioneering youth movement whose aim is to educate Jewish youth for kibbutz life in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel. Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) had its roots in two youth movements that came into being in Galicia (then a province of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) before World War I:

-- Ze'irei (Ẓe'irei) Zion, which emphasized cultural activities; and

-- Ha-Shomer, primarily a scouting movement (based on the British model).

During the war, when many thousands of Jews from the eastern part of the empire took refuge in Vienna, the two movements merged and took on the name Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) (1916). At the same time a similar development took place among the Jewish youth movements in the Russian part of Poland.

[Ideological fantasies after 1918 - "peace and progress" - help for pogrom victims - mental inspiration by writings from racist Zionists in Palestine - and by Free Youth Movement]

The early years of the movement coincided with the immediate postwar period, which was marked by a national and social awakening among the peoples of Europe, the October Revolution in Russia, and the great hope of standing on the threshold of an era of peace and progress. The ideology of the new movement was also profoundly affected by the persecutions to which East European Jewry was exposed at the time (the Petlura pogroms in the Ukraine, the pogrom in Lvov, etc.).

On a spiritual level, Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) drew its inspiration from the *Ha-Shomer in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]; the writings of A.D. *Gordon, J.H. *Brenner, J. *Trumpeldor; as well as from the romantic aura surrounding the revolutionary anti-czarist underground and its heroes.

Other influences on the movement are to be found in the Free Youth Movement (the Wandervogel [[rolling stone]]) as it was first developed in [[racist kaiser]] Germany before World War I and in the new philosophy, literature, psychology, and pedagogy of the time, which called for a reevaluation of existing modes of life and thought.

Thus, Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) sought to create a synthesis between Jewish culture and the rebuilding and defending of Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]], on the one hand, and universal cultural and philosophical values, on the other, and this was to become a characteristic aspect of the movement's ideology.

Educational Method

[The manipulation method: "Special emphasis on the training of the individual and the development of the personality"]

Another characteristic of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) is its educational method, which provides for an organic combination of "training and study groups" with the independent culture and life of youth as practiced by the Free Youth Movement, and also utilizing the symbols and the discipline of scouting. The movement puts special emphasis on the training of the individual and the development of the personality (in its early years Nietzsche's Thus Spake Zarathustra was very popular in the ranks of the movement).

[Levels, branches, and publications]

The basic pedagogic unit of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) is the kevuzah (kevuẓah) [[kibbutz]] (in which the sexes are not mixed), several of which, of the same age groups, (co. 1372)

combine for certain activities to form larger, coeducational units, such as the peluggah ("company") and gedud ("batallion"). There are three age groups - the young level (age 11-14), known as kefirim ("cubs"), benei midbar ("sons of the desert"), or benei Massada (sons of Massadah); the intermediate level (15-16), known as zofim (ẓofim) ("scouts"); and the adult level (from 17 upward) known as bogerim ("adults"), as well as keshishim ("oldsters") and magshimim ("implementers, those who fulfill").

Each level has its own program, which is adapted to its emotional needs and intellectual capacity. A local branch is a ken ("nest"), and it is headed by hanhagat ha-ken ("ken leadership"); a district branch is ha-galil and is headed by hanhagat ha-gallil; while a national federation is headed by ha-hanhagah ha-rashit ("chief leadership") and the entire world movement is headed by ha-hanhagah ha-elyonah ("supreme leadership").

Before World War II, the Warsaw headquarters of the movement published two periodicals, both in Hebrew:

-- Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir), which served as the organ of the movement as a whole and its adult level, and

-- Ha-Mizpeh (Ha-Miẓpeh), which was the organ of the intermediate level.

There was also a Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) publishing house in Warsaw, which put out books of educational content. The various national branches also had their own organs, either in Hebrew or the local languages.

Personal Fulfillment

[Anti-assimilation movement - Hebrew culture - pioneering and emigration for Palestine - reasons to be kicked out]

Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) is also noted for its application of the principle of personally fulfilling the ideals of the movement. It fosters among its adherents radicalism in the original sense of the term - the search for the root of things and the demand for consistency of thought, analysis, and action; this leads to the principal obligation of the individual - that of personal fulfillment of ideals and conclusions. As a result, the movement took up the struggle against assimilation (including "Red" assimilation, i.e., the widespread phenomenon of Jewish youth and intellectuals being drawn entirely into communist or socialist movements, denying their Jewish identity, and abandoning Jewish values and their responsibility for the fate of the Jewish people).

It fostered the use of Hebrew - as opposed to the local language - and created pioneering Jewish atmosphere in its groups, a pedagogic measure culminating in the paramount obligation of its members - aliyah [[emigration to Palestine]] and life in a kibbutz. The strict application of the principle of personal fulfillment resulted in tens of thousands of young people passing through the ranks of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) and being forced to leave the movement for

-- failing to settle in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel,
-- failing to join a kibbutz,
-- or failing to fulfill other demands put upon them by the movement.

There were, of course, thousands who stood the test and settled in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] in kibbutzim of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir).

Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) insists on the organic continuity of its program, from the youngest level up to the personal fulfillment by its adult members in the form of membership in a kibbutz in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel. The principle of personal fulfillment also accounts for the profound educational influence exerted by the kevuzah (kevuẓah) [[kibbutz]] leader. This derives not only from his way of life and the quality of his performance as their instructor, but also from the conviction on the part of the young members that whatever their leader demands of them, he is about to fulfill himself - settling in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel and joining a kibbutz.

[[There were no Arabs in the kibbutz...]]

Beginnings in Erez Israel [(Land of Israel) since 1919 - ideology since 1926 with racist Zionism and class Marxism]

During the Third Aliyah, (1919-23) some 600 members of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) settled in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. There was no institutional link between the various groups of these settlers or between them and the movement abroad. As a result, the strength of this first wave of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) settlers was dissipat-degree (col. 1373)

were not absorbed in kibbutz life. Furthermore, the removal of the most mature and most active members from the tasks they had fulfilled as instructors and guides caused a general slackening in the activities of the movement abroad. A severe crisis of "individualism" set in, known in the annals of the movement as "the great drift". It was not until 1927, when the *Kibbutz Arzi Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Arẓi Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir) was founded, that a permanent framework was established for the organized absorption of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (ha-Ẓa'ir) settlers in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] and for the guidance of the movement abroad.

In the period of the Third and Fourth Aliyah (up to 1926), Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) evolved its ideology. Slanted toward Marxism, it represented a synthesis between [[racist]] Zionism and socialism, between pioneering construction and class war. When the *Histadrut was founded (1920), the Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) kibbutzim failed to find a common language with any of the existing parties, and, instead of joining any of them, they declared themselves an independent group. Apart from its tasks in the kibbutzim, in the settlement of newcomers, and in education, the Kibbutz Arzi (Arẓi) also became a framework for the joint development of political ideology ("ideological collectivism") and for joint political action in the Histadrut and the [[racist]] Zionist Movement.

The [racist Zionist kibbutzim] World Movement

[World wide branches of the kibbutz Ha-Shomer movement since the 1920s - kibbutz Arzi - separatists and  U.S.S.R., Latvia, and partly from Lithuania - Nezah scouting pioneers]

The World Federation of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) was founded in Danzig in 1924. It had been preceded by the establishment of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) movements in Rumania [[Romania]], Lithuania, Latvia, the U.S.S.R. (in addition to the existing movements in Galicia, Poland, and Austria), and by the initiation of efforts on the part of the kibbutzim in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] to cooperate in the organized and concentrated guidance of the movement abroad. More branches were founded in the period between the First and Second World Convention (the latter also held at Danzig in 1927) in Czechoslovakia, the U.S., Canada, Belgium, and Bulgaria.

The founding of the Kibbutz Arzi (Arẓi) greatly enhanced the influence of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) in Erez Israel upon the movement abroad.

Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) in the [[criminal Gulag]] U.S.S.R., Latvia, and, to some degree, in Lithuania, however, did not accept the independent political orientation of the majority of the movement, and members of the movement in these countries who settled in Israel [[Palestine before 1948]] found their way to the *Ahdut (Aḥdut) ha-Avodah Party (which in 1930 merged with *Ha-Po'el ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) to become *Mapai), and did not joint the Kibbutz Arzi (Arẓi) upon its establishment.

When the Kibbutz Arzi (Arẓi) was in its early stage, there was still hope that the split in the ranks of the movement would eventually heal, and thus the Second Convention decided to regard the Kibbutz Arzi (Arẓi) only as the "principal path for the movement". The Russian-Latvian minority in Israel [[Palestine before 1948]], however, not only failed to join Kibbutz Arzi (Arẓi), but became one of the founders of *Ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uhad (Me'uḥad) (linked to Ahdut (Aḥdut) ha-Avodah and later to Mapai); disappointed in its expectations, the Third Convention (held in Vrutky, Czechoslovakia in 1930) decided that the Kibbutz Arzi (Arẓi) was now the only correct path for the Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir). The Russian-Latvian minority responded by seceding from the movement and forming "Nezah" (Neẓaḥ) (No'ar Zofi-Halutzi-Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (No'ar Ẓofi-Ḥalutzi-Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir) - Scouting Pioneering Youth, see below).

[[It's clear that this kibbutz Ha-Shomer "pioneer" manipulation is a first grade of militarization]].

On the Eve of World War II and the Holocaust

[The branches of the racist Zionist kibbutz movement Ha-Shomer in 1935 - self-defense and underground conditions since 1938 appr.]

At the time of the Fourth World Convention (Poprad, Czechoslovakia, 1935), Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) had reached the height of its strength and achievements: groups in Hungary, Germany, Yugoslavia, France, Britain, Switzerland, Tunisia, Egypt, and South Africa had joined the movement, and there were encouraging beginnings in Latin America; membership totaled 70,000, with the majority about to go to Palestine or undergoing agricultural training, and with the adult members active in *He-Halutz the [[...]]. (co. 1374)

The rising tide of fascism in eastern and Central Europe forced the movement to organize itself for self-defense and for the continuation of its activities under conditions of semilegality or, if this should become necessary, as an underground movement.

[Poland and Baltic States Sep. 1939-1945: Mass flight to Vilna and to criminal Gulag "SU" - integration in the Soviet Army against the NS forces - or emigration before 1941 - or Jewish resistance fighters in NS territories]

When World War II broke out, large numbers of members seeking to escape from the invading German forces converged upon Vilna. A part of this Vilna group eventually joined other refugees in fleeing to the [[criminal Gulag]] Soviet Union, where they fought in the ranks of the Red Army. Some succeeded in reaching Erez Israel before the German-Russian war broke out (June 1941). Others, however, were ordered by the movement to return to Nazi-occupied territory, where they became outstanding activists of the Jewish resistance, the Jewish partisans, and the ghetto fighters.

Mordecai *Anielewicz, the commander of the revolt in the *Warsaw ghetto, was a member of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) movement, and elsewhere in the Polish ghettos and in other countries under Nazi occupation the movement's members were among the leaders of the uprisings.

[[Indications about casualties, victims or killed enemies are missing in the article]].

The Postwar Period

[Survivors helping for illegal racist Jewish Zionist immigration - rehabilitation (and manipulation) of Jewish children in D.P. camps - kibbutz Ha-Shomer propaganda in Latin America - conventions in racist Herzl Israel since 1948]

After the war, the surviving members of the movement prepared for aliyah [[emigration for Palestine]]

[[unfortunately there is no indication how many have survived]]

and took an active part in the organization of the "illegal" immigration to Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] and the rehabilitation and reeducation of the surviving refugee children in the displaced persons camps in Germany [[one of the D.P. centers was Munich, in Austria it was Vienna]] and Italy. In the wake of the political developments in eastern and Central Europe, the little that had remained of the movement soon dissolved.

Henceforth, Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) centered its activities particularly upon Latin America, and members from this area are to be found in most of the movement's kibbutzim in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel.

[[There are no Arabs in the racist Zionist kibbutz...]]

Branches of the movement continue to exist also in North America, western Europe, South Africa, and Australia. The Fifth World Convention, held in 1958, was the first to meet in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel, which had by then become the seat of the head-quarters of the movement. Branch offices also existed in Paris, New York, and Buenos Aires. Their task was to direct the work of the emissaries of Kibbutz Arzi (Arẓi) dispatched to the various countries.

Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir in Israel [in Palestine before 1948]

The Israel Federation of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) naturally occupies a special place among the various branches. When the federation was first established (in 1930), the principles and methods applied by the movement in its work in the Diaspora had to be adapted to the conditions prevailing in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]], where the problems of Jewish youth are radically different and were the kibbutz is not far away.

The relative importance of the Israel movement in the World Federation and as a reservoir of manpower for the Kibbutz Arzi (Arẓi) has grown from year to year, and it has also ben playing an ever-increasing role in the establishment of new Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) kibbutzim and the consolidation of existing kibbutzim. The first kibbutz founded by graduates of the movement in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] was Nir David in the Beth-Shean Valley, established in 1936. (See also *Mapam).

[[It can be admitted that the racist Zionist kibbutz friends of Ha-Shomer also were engaged in the actions against the Arabs and in the "War of Independence" to get new territory for more kibbutz]].

[Criminal racist] U.S.-Canada

The movement was founded in North America in 1923. Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) has found it difficult to make headway in the American Jewish community, with its economic prosperity, its lack of a youth-movement tradition, and the philanthropic character of its [[racist]] Zionist movement. Nevertheless, there are a number of kibbutzim in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel in which U.S. Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) graduates predominate (such as Ein ha-Shofet, Kefar Menahem, Hazor, Galon, Sasa, and Barkai). In the course of time, the American movement was also instrumental in the establishment of adult groups (Americans for Progressive [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel, linked to Mapam in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel), made up of people who were attracted by the [[racist]] Zionist-socialist orientation of Ha-Shomer (col. 1375)

ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir). In the U.S., the movement has its own [[racist Zionist]] organ, Young Guard and maintains branches in Detroit, Boston, New York, Los Angeles, and, in Canada, in Montreal and Toronto, as well as training farms for the specific purpose of preparing for aliyah [[emigration to Palestine]] and kibbutz life.

Great Britain

The [[racist Zionist]] movement was founded in great Britain in the late 1930s, by Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) members among the refugees from the continent, and by members of He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) and Habonim, who were attracted by Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) ideology. While it made progress during the war and the immediate postwar period, the movement has not succeeded in recovering the losses in its ranks caused by the aliyah [[emigration to Palestine]] of its founders and leading members (in the period 1946-1950), nor has it yet been able to reach the second generation, British-born Jewish youth.

Branches exist in Manchester and in London. In [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel, Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) settlers from Britain are found primarily in the kibbutzim Ha-Ma'pil, Ha-Zore'a, Yasur and Zikim.

South Africa
Founded in 1935, the movement has branches in Johannesburg and Capetown. In [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel, South African halutzim (ḥalutzim) [[pioneers]] of the movement have settled in Shuval, Barkai, Nahshon (Naḥshon), and Zikim.

Australia

Australian Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) was founded in 1953, with branches in Melbourne and Sydney. Its settlers in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel are concentrated mainly in Nirim.

[P.M.]

Nezah (Neẓaḥ)

[Ha-Shomer splinter group since 1930 - underground Russian branch of Ha-Shomer with kibbutz on Lake Kinneret with other structure - inner struggle within Ha-Shomer]

Nezah (Neẓaḥ) was established in 1930 as the result of a split in Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) in Russia at the beginning of the [[criminal Gulag]] Soviet regime. During this period many groups of Jewish scouts existed in Russia; some were affiliated with *Maccabi, while others had no affiliations.

Ha-Shomer Ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) in Russia held its clandestine founding convention in Moscow in 1922 and established itself as a country-wide movement. During David *Ben-Gurion's visit to Russia in 1923 the movement's basic ideology became personal fulfillment through aliyah [[emigration to Palestine]] and pioneering in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. Although illegal and persecuted by the authorities, Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) grew in size and had as many as 20,000 adherents throughout [[criminal Gulag]] Soviet Russia. Its last "Information Page" was circulated as late as 1932, and there is evidence that some of its groups continued to exist even after that date.

The first halutzim (ḥalutzim) [["pioneers"]] of this movement went to Palestine in 1924 and founded Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) kibbutz from the [[criminal Gulag]] U.S.S.R. on the shores of Lake Kinneret (now kibbutz Afikim). Their underground existence in Russia had prevented their attending the founding convention of the world movement of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) and upon their arrival in Erez Israel they discovered that there were substantial differences between them and the movement that developed outside Russia.

They advocated membership in one of the existing labor parties (from 1930 this party was Mapai). They also opposed the creation of Ha-Kibbutz ha-Arzi (Arẓi) as a separate federation of kibbutzim of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) and proposed joining kibbutzim from other movements in a single federation (which later became ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uhad (Me'uḥad)); they disagreed with the ideological transformation which took place in Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir), and turned it from a pioneering youth movement into a political body advocating, in one of its planks, the "socialist revolution" in the leftist meaning of the term.

The struggle inside Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) went on for six years, ending in the secession of the Russian Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) from the movement and the creation of Nezah (Neẓaḥ), which adhered to the original ideology of the Russian Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir). The new movement was composed of the Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir) from Russia, Latvia, Estonia, and (col. 1376)

Lithuania, and was later joined by the *Blau-Weiss [[Blue-White]] (or Tekhelet Lavan) movement, in Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. It also maintained close ties with the Borissia movement of Transylvania, and, in its last years, with the *Ihud (Iḥud) Habonim in England and America. Members of Nezah (Neẓaḥ) may be found in Afikim, Kefar Giladi, Ein Gev, Kinneret, Ne'ot Mordekhai, and other kibbutzim. Most of them became members of Mapai (from 1968, the [[racist Zionist]] Israel Labor Party).

[J.I.]

[[The Arabs are never mentioned in this article. Arabs don't count. "Pioneers" can be turned into soldiers easily...]]

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Bibliography

-- D. Leon: The Kibbutz (1964)
-- A. Ben-Shalom: Deep Furrows (1939)
-- I.L. Lindheim: Parallel Quest (1962)
-- Israel Horizons (1953-   )
-- Young Guard (1934-   ; title varies)
-- Hashomer Hatzair (Johannesburg, 1936-56)
-- Labor Israel (1948-59)
-- Sefer Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir, 3 vols. (1956-64)
-- Sefer Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir, 3 vols. (1956-1964)
-- Sefer Ha-Shomerim 1913-1933 (1934)
-- P. Merhav: Toledot Tenu'at ha-Po'alim be-Erez-Yisrael (1967)
-- A. Ophir: Afikim be-Mahazit Yovelah (1951)
-- D. Horowitz: Ha-Etmol Shelli (1970), 73-152.> (col. 1377)



Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Ha-Shomer
                        ha-Za'ir, vol. 8, col. 1372
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir, vol. 8, col. 1372
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Ha-Shomer
                        ha-Za'ir, vol. 8, col. 1373-1374
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir, vol. 8, col. 1373-1374
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Ha-Shomer
                        ha-Za'ir, vol. 8, col. 1375-1376
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir, vol. 8, col. 1375-1376
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Ha-Shomer
                        ha-Za'ir, vol. 8, col. 1377
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir, vol. 8, col. 1377

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