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Encyclopaedia Judaica

"Aid organization": National Jewish Welfare Board (JWB)

JWB as a "religious and welfare service organization" for the army in wars since 1917 - "religious services"in armies - JWB's Jewish Center movement of the Young Hebrew Association

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): National Jewish
                  Welfare Board (JWB), vol. 12, col. 876: Seder [[Passah
                  festival]] organized by the National Jewish Welfare
                  Board for U.S. servicemen in Saigon, 1967
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): National Jewish Welfare Board (JWB), vol. 12, col. 876: Seder [[Passah festival]] organized by the National Jewish Welfare Board for U.S. servicemen in Saigon, 1967

from: National Jewish Welfare Board (JWB); In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 12

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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[[Introduction
Within the big anti-Semitism waves in Europe (provoked by "nationalism") the racist Zionist National Council of Jewish Women was an island of help for the Jews. It was a help to the national tactics of racist Zionism. It can be that after 1948 the National Council of Jewish Women was a model for some countries in Europe]].

[JWB: "religious and welfare service organization"]
<NATIONAL JEWISH WELFARE BOARD (JWB), religious and welfare service organization for American Jewish military personnel, and coordinator of U.S. YMHAs and Jewish community centers.

[["Aid organizations" help people to be safe and to be prepared for the next war. "Aid organizations" also have the specialty that they can smuggle goods for war purposes of other persons. So, an "aid organization" generally is an instrument of the warmongers. When it is a Jewish "religious and welfare service organization" it's not far that this organization is working in a racist Zionist line within the Middle East Conflict which was already going on when JWB was founded in 1917...]]

World War I.

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): National
                          Jewish Welfare Board (JWB), vol. 12, col.
                          873-874: The founders and executive committee
                          of the National Jewish Welfare Board during
                          World War I.
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): National Jewish Welfare Board (JWB), vol. 12, col. 873-874: The founders and executive committee of the National Jewish Welfare Board during World War I.

Seated, left to right, are Maurice Harris, Louis Marshall [[advisor to President Theodore Rosevelt]], Harry Cutler, Cyrus Adler [[professor of history at Johns Hopkins University, U.S. educator, Jewish religious leader and scholar]], and Charles Hartman. Standing, left to right, are Chester Teller, David de Sola Pool [[Dr. rabbi]], Mortimer Schiff [[banker?]], Israel Unterberg, Henry Bernheim, and Joseph Rosenzweig.

[Jewish "religious service" in the army since 1917]

The JWB was founded in 1917 to meet the needs of large numbers of Jews in the armed forces who required religious services. The U.S. government was known to prefer for this task a single agency representative of the Jewish community, but no single American Jewish organization was authorized to act for the entire Jewish community. In 1917 prominent Jewish leaders, notably Louis Marshall, Felix Warburg, and Cyrus Adler, took the initiative in constituting the Jewish Board for Welfare Work in the United States Army and Navy, with the YMHAs and synagogue and rabbinic bodies as the representative agencies. A reorganization added national associations such as B'nai B'rith and the National Council of Jewish Women as affiliates, and numerous local community bodies as branches of JWB.

Under the leadership of Harry Cutler as president and Cyrus Adler and Irving Lehman as heads of committees, a program of activities developed rapidly. JWB secured recognition as the official agency for Jewish religious and welfare work in military establishments. Congress was induced to authorize by law the commissioning of Jewish chaplains and the JWB enlisted the chaplains. The JWB program included both religious and general activities. The former included the organization of religious services and holiday programs, obtaining furloughs for Jewish festivals, the preparation of an abridged prayer book, a book of (col. 872)

biblical readings, etc. The general program included recreational and cultural activities. In addition, contact was established with homes of soldiers and hospital visitation was arranged.

For the JWB Board and the Chaplaincy, see *Military Service: Chaplaincy.

With the end of the war the activities of JWB were sharply reduced, and in time a broader area of function in the Jewish community was found in the Jewish center field (see below). But at the close of 1941 the new war emergency with its vastly increased military establishment, again expanded the work of JWB.

World War II

["Cooperation" with non-Jewish "welfare agencies" - JWB committees in the whole "US" army - 311 rabbis in the war]

With the basic structure of JWB at hand, the organization prepared to meet increasing needs under the leadership of Frank Weil and Louis Kraft. Through the United Service Organizations for National Defense (USO), close relationships were established with non-Jewish welfare agencies serving military personnel. As during World War I, funds were raised cooperatively, and some welfare activities were also performed jointly, advancing intercultural cooperation.

Within the Jewish community, the base of JWB was broadened. The number of organizations affiliated with the Army and Navy Committee more than doubled. The chaplaincy service was reorganized, and hundreds of local army and navy committees and a Women's Division and a Bureau of War Records was set up.

The war work of the Jewish community under JWB sponsorship was massive in scope; 311 rabbis served as chaplains in the various war theaters and on board transports and hospital ships.

[[Aid organizations have the specialty that they can smuggle goods for war purposes of other persons. An aid organizations generally is an instrument of the warmongers...]]

Postwar Period

[More rabbis "helping" the "American" Jews in more wars in Korea and in Vietnam since 1945]

With the end of the war the scope of service to the military was curtailed, but unlike the period following World War I such service remained an important function of JWB. The large military establishment that (col. 873)

remained, the armies of occupation, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization bases, and the Korean and Vietnam wars continued to command extensive services to Jewish military personnel. However, the course taken after World War I was resumed: primary attention was again devoted to the function of JWB in the Jewish centers field.

[Fund raising]

To finance its operations, JWB has relied primarily upon Jewish community funds. From the late 1920s, JWB increasingly became the beneficiary of Jewish federations and welfare funds. In 1968 allocations from welfare funds and the New York City United Jewish Appeal accounted for about 60% of the $1,870,000 budget; other important sources of income were the constituent centers, contributions from JWB associates, and income from special services. Considerable sums were also received during World War I from a joint campaign with non-Jewish welfare organizations serving the military forces, and during World War II from the USO. After the war USO allocated modest sums for USO-JWB programs. (col. 874)

[JWB periodicals]

The JWB publishes the following periodicals:
-- Jewish Community Center Program Aids, quarterly (1940-   )
-- Jewish Book Annual (1942-   )
-- Jewish Chaplain (1943 / 44-   )
-- JWB Circle, seven times a year (1946-   )
-- JWB Year Book (1950/51-   ). (col. 878)

[[Aid organizations have the specialty that they can smuggle goods for war purposes of other persons. An aid organizations generally is an instrument of the warmongers...]]


The Jewish Center Movement [of JWB]

["Young Men's Hebrew Association" within the JWB for "educational, social, and recreational facilities" - "Americanization" of immigrants - leading Council founded in 1913 - "war work" since 1914]


The Young Men's Hebrew Association (YMHA), or the "Jewish community center" (the term which gained currency after World War I), is an indigenous American institution. YMHAs and similar associations arose after the mid-19th century in various parts of the [[criminal racist]] United States to provide educational, social, and recreational facilities for Jewish young men and women. When masses of East European Jewish immigrants arrived in the 1880s and 1890s, their "Americanization" became a primary function of these organizations.

[[In czarist racist Russia the czar was murdered in 1881 and the Jews generally were blamed for it. In 1892 the Jews were expelled from Moscow. The culprit was the racist Orthodox Church and Vatican. Instead to educate the Church and Vatican to tolerance to stop anti-Semitism the refugees were helped and "americanized"...]]

They varied in program and effectiveness, and to guide and stimulate the movement, the Council of Young Men's Hebrew and Kindred Associations (YMHA & KA) was founded in 1913 under the leadership of Cyrus Adler, Julian Mack, Louis Marshall, Felix Warburg, and others.

The Council encouraged the organization of local associations (col. 874)

and began to furnish guidance in programming, but its best energies were soon diverted to war work as an affiliate of JWB.

Development of the movement

[JWB serving the YMHA]

The leaders of the Council and of JWB were recognized elders of the community, some of whom wielded power in both organizations. A merger was effected in 1921, JWB absorbing the functions of the Council. Irving Lehman became president and Felix Warburg treasurer. The function of JWB as coordinating agency for Jewish centers was to stimulate the organization and functioning of Jewish centers and YMHAs, so as "to promote the religious, intellectual, physical, and social well-being and development of Jewish young men and women." The autonomy of the local centers and YMHAs was to be respected, JWB acting as a service organization "to assist, advise, and encourage" its constituent bodies.

The identity of the constituency was not easily established. Some 370 local associations were said to be functioning in 1921, but after amalgamation, which JWB encouraged, and disintegration, the number was reduced to 207. By 1946, 301 centers were regarded as affiliates. Affiliation, however, did not connote unity of purpose or quality of program during the 1920s and 1930.

Functioning with a small staff and meager budget, JWB attempted to provide service for all who desired assistance and to fill needs as they became evident, for the field was relatively new. Facilities, management, personnel, and campaigns for membership and funds figured prominently in JWB work. The building service of JWB assisted in the erection of center buildings which increased from 75 in 1921 to 238 in 1939. Manuals on administration were compiled. JWB assisted in the development of a professional service, and encouraged the National Association of Jewish Center Workers, organized in 1918. By 1940, there were 223 paid executives. Organized drives increased the estimates membership of the centers from 100,000 in 1921 to 425,000 in 1940.

Program

[The manipulation program: "to serve cultural, intellectual, social, physical, and health needs" and "development of the total personality" - rabbi Kaplan]

Both a "balanced program" to serve cultural, intellectual, social, physical, and health needs and the development of the "total personality" were often professed as ideals. [[It can be admitted that this was done in a racist Zionist sense and by this racist Zionism was implemented more and more]]. But in most agencies neither the human energies nor the funds for translating such ideals into functioning reality were available. However, notable progress was made. The JWB lecture Bureau, established in 1922, encouraged lectures, forums, and classes and brought intellectual forces into intimate contact with the centers. Bulletins on program techniques and on the celebration of Jewish and civic holidays were distributed by JWB. From time to time pamphlets were prepared on Jewish historical personalities and on contemporary Jewish problems. Camping, when it became popular in the 1930s, received much attention. Also many surveys and self-studies were made, arousing local interest in the center and revealing needs.

During this period, the thinking of [[rabbi]] Mordecai M. *Kaplan had a marked influence on the field. Kaplan conceived of the Jewish community center as an all-embracing agency serving the religious, cultural, and recreational needs of the entire Jewish community - young and old, rich and poor, immigrant and native. Some individuals in the field grasped the cultural, if not the religious, implications of these ideas, but most emphasized only the values of unity and service to the entire Jewish community. A large majority of the local agencies styled themselves Jewish community centers, but program orientation was, for the most part, not materially affected.

Survey Report: Aims

[WW II]

World War II diverted the best efforts of JWB to the formidable task of serving the military, a task it discharged with distinction.

[[Every war makes the people vulnerable, and by this WW II was the best occasion to manipulate the soldiers and their families with "aid". Is seems there are many things about WW II and JWB and YMHA which are not told here...]]

[Since 1945]

After the war, (col. 875)

the Jewish centers again commanded primary attention, and to clarify this JWB function a survey was undertaken, Salo Baron serving as chairman of the survey commission and Oscar Janowsky as director, conducting the survey, and presenting a comprehensive report (the "Janowsky Report").

Appraising the dual function of JWB, the report found that the record of achievement in war work far surpassed that in the centers, and attributed the difference to disparity in conceptions of purpose. The aim of war work was clear: to serve the Jewish religious and welfare needs of Jewish personnel. [[The manipulation is clear: There are wars organized - and then is help organized - and the masses become your slaves]].

[The centers of the "Young Men's Hebrew Association" and their "programs" of manipulation]

In regard to the centers, however, no such sharp definition of purpose had emerged. Some affiliates offered Jewish programs; others did not. A considerable body of lay and professional opinion, particularly but not exclusively in the "nonsectarian" Jewish settlements, was dogmatically opposed to any Jewish emphasis, which was disdained as "sectarianism" and condemned as a segregation influence. Not a few of the agencies, though not averse in principle to Jewish orientation were content to pay lip service to "Jewish spirit" and "Jewish ideals". In fact, the development of program material fostering Jewish orientation and suitable for group work had been neglected. Despite this diversity or lack of clarity as to basic purpose, JWB attempted to serve all affiliates, and affiliation was a mere formality. The survey report envisaged the purpose of the Jewish center in terms of a positive and affirmative Jewish position, made manifest by emphasis upon Jewish programming. It argued that a "nonsectarian Jewish center is a contradiction in terms": either the center is indeed dedicated to a Jewish purpose, and its non sectarianism is a pose or a pretense; or, if the center is truly nonsectarian, its direction and maintenance should not be exclusively Jewish.

The recommendations on the various functions of the Jewish center were formulated in the report to underscore that the program should devote primary attention to Jewish content. These recommendations, or their substance, the report proposed, should be incorporated in a "statement of principles" which should govern (col. 876)

affiliation. Under the leadership of Philip Klutznick, then chairman of the Jewish Center Division of JWB, of Frank Weil, and of Louis Kraft, this was done. But after a year of discussion by local boards and staffs, a modified statement of principles was adopted in 1948.

Centers in 1960s

[Centers of the
"Young Men's Hebrew Association" in the criminal racist "USA" and in the whole world]

[[These Jewish "Centers" are a point to hinder integration and to hinder Human Rights to come up]].

Since 1948 the centers have grown in membership, attendance, budget, facilities, and variety of programs. There are Jewish centers in more than 180 cities and town of the [[criminal racist]] United States and Canada, and the large cities maintain multiple units - New York City no less than 60. Membership is said to have increased from 425,000 in 1946 to 729,000 in 1966. Estimated aggregate attendance was 31 million in 1966, an increase of 48% over 1956. The number of trained staff rose from 900 in 1947 to over 1,600 in 1965. Local expenditures for center work, exclusive of capital outlays, increased from less than $10 million in 1947 to over $34 million in 1965. Mass migration to central cities involved new construction: from 1946 to the mid-1960s, as many as 103 new center buildings were erected and 25 enlarged at a cost in excess of $100 million.

New trends in center programs are reflected in emphasis on family membership and family participation. Nursery schools have been established, teen-age activities stressed, and service to older persons greatly increased. Camps, notably day camps, have multiplied. A World Federation of YMHAs and Jewish Community Centers was organized in 1946 under the leadership of Louis Kraft and JWB. Through this federation, [[criminal racist]] United States program resources and guidance have been made available to interested groups overseas, and special efforts have aided materially in the establishment and support of the YMHA in Jerusalem.

The impact of the Jewish community center is felt in Jewish communities throughout the [[criminal racist]] United States. However, the fundamental question of purpose remains largely unresolved. The statement of principles, which recognized Jewish content as "fundamental to the program of the Jewish Center", has subdued overt "nonsectarianism" and silenced opposition to Jewish cultural activities on ideological grounds. Such activities, notably in the arts, have increased markedly. Israel figures prominently in many centers. The Lecture Bureau provides speakers and performers on a great variety of Jewish themes. The Jewish Book Council and Jewish Music Council (sponsored by JWB since 1944) have furnished occasions for Jewish programs during the annual Jewish Book month and Jewish Music Festival. It is difficult, however, to determine the impact or depth of influence of these activities.

There has been a notable change in attitude toward Jewish activities, especially among center workers, but potent factors have hampered the realization of emphatic and pervasive Jewish purpose in many centers. In 1948 the survey found the Jewish education of the majority of center workers grossly inadequate; it is doubtful that the situation has changed materially since then, particularly in an era of shortage of trained workers. Conferences and seminars on Jewish-content programming have been held. Some Israel educators and youth leaders have worked on center staffs. But these efforts could hardly compensate for basic deficiencies in preservice Jewish education.

[Help to non-Jews]

Even more serious has been the tendency to give high priority to programs related to the urban crisis (programs of service to underprivileged non-Jews) and to encourage or sanction non-Jewish membership. In 1967, non-Jewish membership exceeded 25% in seven centers, and, in the country as a whole, the average non-Jewish membership was 9.5%. Where membership or clientele is mixed, the Jewish purpose of a center must inevitably become blurred. A day camp or a nursery which invites the participation of non-Jewish children cannot emphasize Jewish content. (col. 877)

[The "root problem" with non-Jews - the centers are not Jewish any more]

The root problem is ambivalence on the function and purpose of the Jewish center. The rationale in center circles is that, unlike the synagogue, the center is not a religious institution. If so, and if Jewish content does not permeate the center, it is difficult to justify a sectarian institution on ethnic grounds. And once mixed membership or a mixed clientele is invited, Jewish content is inevitably affected adversely. "Nonsectarianism" has thus reappeared in a new guise. [[...]]

[[The centers become general aid centers. In combination with the Human Rights these centers could have a great future as Human Right Aid Centers, and the movement would become absolutely global]].

Bibliography

-- O.I. Janowsky: JWB Survey (1948)
-- O.I. Janowsky, L. Kraft, and B. Postal: Change and Challenge: History of 50 Years of JWB (1966)
-- L. Kraft: Selected Papers: Development of the Jewish Community Center (1967)
-- B. Rabinowitz: Young Men's Hebrew Association, 1854-1913 (1948)
-- Solender, in: Journal of Jewish Community Service, 34 (1957), 36-54
-- Stein, in: AJYB, 57 (1956), 3-98
-- Urbont: ibid., 68 (1967), 29-59

[O.I.J.]> (col. 787)
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Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): National Jewish
                    Welfare Board (JWB), vol. 12, col. 872
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): National Jewish Welfare Board (JWB), vol. 12, col. 872
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): National Jewish
                    Welfare Board (JWB), vol. 12, col. 873-874
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): National Jewish Welfare Board (JWB), vol. 12, col. 873-874
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): National Jewish
                    Welfare Board (JWB), vol. 12, col. 875-876
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): National Jewish Welfare Board (JWB), vol. 12, col. 875-876
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): National Jewish
                    Welfare Board (JWB), vol. 12, col. 877-878
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): National Jewish Welfare Board (JWB), vol. 12, col. 877-878

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