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Encyclopaedia Judaica

The racist Zionist organization in Yugoland (Yugoslavia)

Emigration movements - racist Herzl - assimilationists converted into racist Zionists - youth abuse - racist Russian Zionists in Yugoslavia during WWI - "pioneering" - racist Zionist "Revisionists" - Sephardi anti-Zionists - racist Zionist women's organizations - racist Zionist "cultural" activities - emigration wave since 1944

from: Zionism; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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Racist Zionist madness says that Jewry would be a "nation" which is never possible because Jewry is a religion. Add to this the Arabs were never asked if a "Jewish State" would be built. But many Jews believed the Jewish racist Zionists and warmongers, called "Zionists" with it's racist Herzl booklet "The Jewish State". Zionist racism is legal until now (2008) and their racist books like "The Jewish State" from racist Herzl are not forbidden...]

[First emigration - racist Herzl - conversion of assimilationists into racist Zionists - youth abuse]

<Zionism in the countries that united on Dec. 1, 1918, to form the kingdom of the Serbs, Croatians, and Slovenes sprang from three main sources:

-- the traditional national-religious aspirations of Sephardi Jewry, which was permeated with messianic yearnings;
-- the youth of these countries who had studies in Vienna;
-- and the influence of the Hovevei (Ḥovevei) Zion movement, which penetrated into these regions from Galicia, especially after the conquest of Bosnia by the Austrian army in 1878.

Among the forerunners of [[racist]] Zionism were two rabbis in Croatia, although their activities had no reverberations in their immediate surroundings. Jekuthiel Hirschenstein, the rabbi of Varazdin, gave advice to Moshe Zaks, a Jerusalemite, who tried to engage in a kind of [[racist]] Zionist diplomacy in Vienna and Germany, as shown through their correspondence during the years 1835-38. Judah Hai *Alkalai actively engaged in the revival of Jewish nationhood, both philosophically and in practice, and tried in vain to bring the Jews of the Serbian city of Sabac to Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]] after the pogroms of 1865.

Viennese [[racist]] Zionism influenced the southern Slavic countries even before the advent of [[racist]] Herzl. David M. Alkalai, a relative of Judah Alkalai, was a member of the Viennese [[racist]] Zionist student group Kadimah, founded by Nathan Birnbaum. He and his wife, Rachel, Alkalai's granddaughter, were among the few representatives from the southern Slavic countries at the First [[racist]] Zionist Congress (1897). The others were Marcus (Mordecai) *Ehrenpreis from Djakovo and Armand *Kaminka from Osijek. Immediately after the Congress Alkalai founded an association named Zion in Belgrade and, in 1937, he became the second chairman  of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization of Yugoslavia.

At the turn of the century, Sephardi students from the southern Slavic countries, including Bulgaria, established the [[racist]] Zionist Esperanza Society [[Zionist Hope Society]] in Vienna. A [[racist]] student Zionist association, Bar Giora, uniting Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jewish students from the southern Slavic countries, was organized. In 1904 the two societies held meetings together and thus laid the foundation for cooperation between the [[racist]] southern Slavic Zionists. Judeja, a [[racist]] Zionist student organization from Zagreb, joined them in 1908.

Through the initiative of the [[racist]] Osijek Zionists (pioneers of [[racist]] Herzl's [[racist]] political Zionism in Croatia), led by Hugo Spitzer, the [[racist]] Yugoslav Zionist Federation was founded in 1909 within the borders of the Hapsburg monarchy. It united the [[racist]] Zionist groups that had been established in the cities and town. The first [[racist]] Zionist local group of (col. 1149)

this kind was founded in 1897 by Nathan Landau, a teacher in the town of Brcko in Bosnia. Other active [[racist]] Zionists of the early period were Gustav Seidemann, Yohannan (Yoḥanan) Thau, Raphael Poljokan, and A.D. Levi. Under the influence of the youth who had studied in Vienna, in 1898 a group of high school students in Zagreb formed an organization that produced a generation of leaders. Led by Alexander Licht, they transformed Zagreb fro a center of assimilationism into the center of [[racist]] Yugoslav Zionism and the seat of most of its institutions.

Licht's brother Herman organized the Jewish working youth.

In Belgrade, David Albala, a member of Bar Giora, founded the [[racist]] youth organization Gideon, which also raised a group of active [[racist]] Zionists. Between the Balkan War and World War I there was a discernible emigration of Jews from Bitolj (Monastir), Macedonia, some of whom reached Jerusalem. Active, organized [[racist]] Zionism actually began in Macedonia between the two world wars in close contact with the center in Zagreb. Leon Kamhi was the leader in Bitolj and Josef Behar in Skoplja. In Vojvodina, which belonged to Hungary, assimilationist trends prevailed until the end of World War I.

[1914-1918: Russian Jewish prisoners initiate racist Zionism movement in Croatia, Bosnia and Vojvodina]

World War I brought a temporary halt to all [[racist]] Zionist activities in the region, due to the government's prohibition, as well as the drafting of active [[racist]] Zionists into the army. Before the end of the war, however, the movement came to life in Croatia, Bosnia, and also in Vojvodina, partly because of the presence of a few Russian Jewish prisoners of war and Galician Jewish soldiers in the Austrian army garrisoned there. The leader of the [[racist]] Zagreb Zionists then was Lav Stern.

[1919-1941: racist Yugoslav Zionist Organization - "pioneering" and emigration to Palestine]

The first conference of the [[racist]] Yugoslav [[racist]] Zionist Organization assembled in Zagreb in January 1919, immediately after the establishment of the independent kingdom of Yugoslavia, with representatives from every part of the new monarchy. It served to renew the tradition of undefined unity and cooperation in the [[racist]] Zionist movement that had been prevalent before World War I and carried on in this role during the years between the two world wars.

In 1919 a union of Jewish youth associations was established, uniting most of the students and working youth who had ties with various [[racist]] world Zionist youth movements. The union organized youth assemblies and summer camps. IN 1920 the first hakhshara [["pioneer" training for Palestine]] and Palestine Office were founded under the chairmanship of Abraham Werber (Avishur), as a result of the influence of pioneers of the Third Aliyah who passed through Zagreb in 1919-20 and the conference of Ha-Po'el ha-Za'ir (ha-Ẓa'ir) in Prague (1920). Hakhsharot [["pioneering"]] existed until the Nazi occupation, training halutzim [["pioneers"]] from Central Europe. The first pioneers from Yugoslavia went to Palestine in 1921, and their aliyah [[emigration to Palestine]] continued until the Holocaust, with the numbers depending upon the Mandatory entry permits ("certificates") allocated to Yugoslavia.

[Split of the racist "Revisionists"]

Under the leadership of Julius Dohany, in 1929 the [[racist Zionist]] Revisionists broke away from the [[racist]] Yugoslav Zionist Organization and set up Betar; the [[racist]] Zionist Organization, however, preserved its encompassing influence under the leadership of Licht, covering the [[racist]] General Zionists and adherents of [[racist]] Labor Zionism, and youth movements from the left Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (ha-Ẓa'ir) and Tekhelet-Lavan (Nezah (Neẓaḥ)) to [[racist]] General Zionists. The number of [[racist]] religious Zionists was small and their influence minimal.

[Sephardi Jewish anti-Zionism because of discrimination of Sephardim Jews by Ashkenazi Jews in Palestine]

Although there was full cooperation between the Ashkenazi and Sephardi elements of the community from the end of the 19th century onward, part of the Sephardi community tended to oppose the [[racist]] Zionist Organization because of complaints voiced by the World Sephardi Organization about discrimination against Sephardim in Palestine. Already with the founding of independent Yugoslavia, the frictions between the majority in the movement and the Sephardi separatists deepened because of Yugoslav political issues.

[Racist Zionist women's WIZO groups and racist Zionist "cultural" activities and newspapers]

The [[racist]] Zionist movement produced [[racist Zionist]] women's WIZO groups, the [[racist Zionist]] Maccabi movement, and [[racist Zionist]] Jewish choirs, [[racist Zionist]] orchestras, and [[racist Zionist]] amateur theaters. It reinvigorated the existing elementary schools, founded Hebrew kindergartens (the first in Zagreb under the direction of Mirjam Weiller), and invited teachers from Palestine. Jewish poets, writers, and researchers consciously devoted their efforts to Jewish topics and thus developed a rich Jewish literature in the Serbo-Croatian language. A monthly [[racist]] Zionist publication ´idovska Smotra ("Jewish Review") appeared from 1906 to 1914.

In September 1917, before the publication of the Balfour Declaration, copies of the [[racist]] Zionist central weekly ´idov ("The Jew") began to appear, and it was printed up to the Nazi invasion. [[Racist Zionist]] ´idovska Svijest ("Jewish Consciousness") and [[racist Zionist]] Jevrejski ´ivot ("Jewish Life"), a separatist Sephardi publication, were initiated in Sarajevo in 1918 and united with the [[racist]] Zionists in 1928 as (col. 1150)

Jevrejski Glas ("Jewish Voice"). Gideon and other [[racist Zionist]] youth publications appeared from 1919. A monthly children's publication, Ha-Aviv, was published from 1922 until 1941. The monthly publication Ommanut, under the editorship of H. Gottlieb, appeared from 1937 until March 941. In Novi Sad, Vojvodina, various [[racist]] Zionist publications appeared in German, among them Juedisches Volksblatt [[Jewish Popular]]. Books and pamphlets were also published by the periodicals ´idov and Jevrejski Narodni Kalendar.

[Racist Zionist majorities since the mid-1930s - emigration wave 1944-52]

The [[racist]] Zionists of Yugoslavia worked to win control over the Jewish community councils. Almost all the Jewish communities (with the exception of the small, separate Orthodox communities) came into the hands of a stable [[racist]] Zionist majority until the mid-1930s. This majority was instrumental in the founding of the Federation of Jewish Communities in 1919 [[?]], led by Spitzer and afterward by Fridrich Pops. The Federation of Jewish Communities was an active force behind national Jewish education, the results of which were evident even after the Holocaust: most of the survivors settled in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel during 1944-52, and those who remained in Socialist Yugoslavia tried to retain their Judaism by keeping in close contact with the Jewish people and the [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] State of Israel.

[Y.EV. / C.RO.]> (col. 1151)

[[The racist Zionist manipulation had functioned and had lead 1000s of Yugoslav Jews into the eternal war trap against the Arabs...]]

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Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16,
                    col. 1149-1150
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1149-1150
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16,
                    col. 1151
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1151

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