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Water and groundwater 03: salinization of groundwater, oversalted wells

Destruction of natural coastal vegetation - groundwater wells near the coastline sucking saltwater - rising sea level brings more saltwater

Mangrove forest in Pichavaram in southern
                        India
Mangrove forest in Pichavaram in southern India [3]
Scheme
                        with saltwater and groundwater 2 with a doubled
                        groundwater system, and both are draining into
                        the ocean
Scheme with saltwater and groundwater 2 with a doubled groundwater system, and both are draining into the ocean [10]
Scheme with saltwater
                        and groundwater 02, groundwater well is
                        oversalted and a groundwater bubble has been
                        formed between the well and the coast line
Scheme with saltwater and groundwater 02, groundwater well is oversalted and a groundwater bubble has been formed between the well and the coast line [13]

  by Michael Palomino (2013)

Part 1: groundwater in general - part 2: pollution and contamination - part 3: salinization, oversalted wells
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Water contamination: salinization of water

Salinization of waters near the coast line (coastal waters)


The destruction of the original coastal areas

Industrialization with it's "rational manner of thinking" and with it's destruction of nature reached the aim not only "channeling" almost all rivers in the "industrialized" countries destroying almost all meanders and alluvial forests, but the "strategists" of "industrialization" also destroyed a big part of the coastal culture in the sea. Above all mangrove forests (also called "jungle of the coast" [web01]) which are protecting the coast lines from storms (tsunamis!, for example in Navuledapathi in India [web02]) and from erosion of the coast line (erosion by the force of the tides [web03]), these mangrove forests have been destroyed partly absolutely regardless during the last 30 years [1980-2010].

The example: destruction of mangrove forests at the seacoasts - and the consequences

Mangroves at an inner coastal
                                  road of Cartagena in Columbia
Mangroves at an inner coastal road of Cartagena in Columbia [1]
Fan like roots of mangrove trees,
                                  Cartagena in Columbia
Fan like roots of mangrove trees, Cartagena in Columbia [2]
Mangrove forest in Pichavaram in
                                southern India
Mangrove forest in Pichavaram in southern India [3]


World map with mangrove
                                        forests of the year 2000
World map with mangrove forests of the year 2000 [4]

Mangrove forests were destroyed regardless in big parts of the world. Numbers of 2010 compared with numbers of 1980 show a reduction of world wide mangrove forests by 20%. But in countries with many mangroves these are significant for economy as in Belize [web02]. Certain fishes, shells, shrimps and oysters are completely depending on mangrove forests Studies indicate that in South East Asia 30% of all fishes and almost 100% of shrimps come from mangrove forests. Fish industry of mangrove forests has got a value of 2,000 to 9,000 dollars per hectare, and this is more than any other water economy, forest economy or tourism [web04].

These precious mangrove forests are destroyed

-- in a little style for winning fire wood or for production of charcoal [web03]
-- in a little style for winning timber for houses because the wood of mangroves is resistant against termites [web04]
-- in a big style for the complete destruction so tourists on a beach have a "good view" to the horizon of the sea when mangroves are considered "bothering" [web03], this was the case for example in Cartagena in Columbia
-- in a big style for winning territories for shrimp farms with pesticides, antibiotics and fish food: From 1983 to 2003 35% of the mangrove forests were destroyed for the installation of shrimp farms. Shallow ponds were installed at the coast line, but these shrimps production sites were living only 5 to 10 years and had to be shut because of self intoxication [web01]
-- in a big style for winning territories for new houses and districts, or for the installation of cocos plantations [web03].


Mangrove forests in Dampier archipelago
                            in Australia
Mangrove forests in Dampier archipelago in Australia [5]


The result of this worldwide destruction of mangrove forests is a big catastrophe:
-- animals and plants of the mangrove forests at the coast lines are loosing their space and are locally eliminated
-- certain fishes and aquatic animals loose their spawn territory in the mangrove forests and coastal fishermen loose their fishing grounds [web41, web03]
-- leaves, bark and fruits of mangrove forests ("organic waste") is part of the food chain of the coastal animals. Citation:
<Organic waste of mangrove forests is an important part of the food chain in the waters with fishes, birds and mammals at the end of this food chain. Without these nutrients from mangrove forests the animals cannot find enough food any more and the variety of animals is sinking much.> [web03]
(orig. German: 
<Der organische Abfall der Mangrovenwälder ist ein wichtiger Teil der Nahrungskette in den Gewässern, an deren Ende Fische, Vögel und Säugetiere stehen. Ohne die Nährstoffe aus den Mangrovenwäldern finden die Tierarten nicht mehr genügend Nahrung und der Artenreichtum der Mangroven geht stark zurück.> [web03]
-- shut shrimps farms go to another place but are leaving a desert, for example in Ecuador [web01]
-- after the destruction of mangrove forests the water table is sinking [and salt water can penetrate into coastal areas] and rains are reduced up to new dry seasons in the countryside [web03].

Additionally mangroves are destroyed
-- by oil leakages near the coast line, for example in Nigeria during the last 50 years so fishermen's families are more and more loosing their base of income [web02]
-- for broadening town and locations, for example in Karachi in Pakistan [web02]
-- for the construction of new industries at the coast [web02]
-- for the construction of new ports [web02].

There are some movements to reafforest the mangrove forests for example in Senegal and in Eritrea, or for taking measures for a recovery of damaged mangrove forests, for example in Thailand [web02]. Imagine that mangrove forests can PROTECT COAST LINES FROM TSUNAMIS. It's up to the governments and populations to protect their coastal territories.

Reforestation of
                          mangroves with seedlings
Reforestation of mangroves with seedlings [6]

By the destruction of mangrove forests the complete mixed zone between saltwater and coastline with drinking water is lost and the salty sea comes directly into contact with the coastline:


Scheme of a
                                destruction of a coast line and
                                penetrating saltwater
Scheme of a destruction of a coast line and penetrating saltwater [7]

Normally the overground coastal water and saltwater are forming a balance at the coastline with several mixed zones with lagoons, lakes or mangrove forests.

When these mixed zones like lagoons, coastal lakes or mangrove forests are destroyed, then saltwater can penetrate and coastal groundwater can be ousted. Industrial societies like "U.S.A." are finally installing floodgates against this saltwater invasion instead of renaturating the coast lines [web05].



Overground saltwater can also penetrate with a heavy storm with flood (storm tide) oversalting groundwater systems there for some time [web06].


Storm tide in
                                Hamburg Wilhelmsburg in 1962
Storm tide in Hamburg Wilhelmsburg in 1962 [8]

Saltwater is oversalting the grounds and the overground waters, creeks, rivers and ponds or lakes seeping through the ground down to the groundwater systems oversalting them.


Salinization of groundwater near the coats line


With normal conditions groundwater is draining into the sea


Normal conditions at coast lines are these: drinking groundwater and saltwater are in a balance, and drinking groundwater is draining into the sea because it is staying under pressure from other groundwater in the mountains. Additionally saltwater is more dense than drinking groundwater from the continent and is always placing itself UNDER the continental drinking groundwater.

Scheme with
                                saltwater and groundwater 1, groundwater
                                is draining into the sea, and below is
                                saltwater groundwater Scheme with saltwater and groundwater 1, groundwater is draining into the sea, and below is saltwater groundwater [9]

Fresh groundwater is always under pressure (because there is always coming more groundwater from the mountains) thus fresh groundwater is always draining into the sea. Below the sea is forming an own salty water table (sea groundwater) which cannot rise much because saltwater has got a higher density than fresh water and is automatically laying itself under the fresh water [web06].

Between fresh water and saltwater is a mixed zone. Water table on the continent is always over sea level and makes enough pressure pushing away the saltwater of the ocean.

Scheme with
                                saltwater and groundwater 2 with a
                                doubled groundwater system, and both are
                                draining into the ocean Scheme with saltwater and groundwater 2 with a doubled groundwater system, and both are draining into the ocean [10]

In this case there is an upper and a lower groundwater system being separated by an impermeable layer. Both groundwater systems are draining into the sea. The upper water table is over sea level and can push away salt water intrusion. The lower water table is reaching sea level after some kilometers. This lower groundwater system seems to have it's origin in central mountains of the continent.

Scheme with
                                saltwater and fresh groundwater 03 with
                                V-formation Scheme with saltwater and fresh groundwater 03 with V-formation [11]

Scheme with
                                saltwater and fresh groundwater 04 with
                                additional cave systems below Scheme with saltwater and fresh groundwater 04 with additional cave systems below [12]

Sometimes groundwater is also passing complete cave systems draining into the sea like in this scheme when there is a limestone or a sandstone layer in which the groundwater can work out caves.

The scheme here shows the coast line principles in Florida with it's caves and underground fresh water springs in the sea.


And now comes industrialization:

Oversalted groundwater by overexploitation of groundwater near the coastline


When groundwater near the coastline is overexploited by groundwater wells - by coastal towns, by industries or by irrigation systems of agriculture in the coastal region - then the water table is collapsing at the location of the well. The groundwater stream is stopped and soaking is even turned around. The water table can even sink under sea level with this. In this way saltwater is facilitated to penetrate respectively the denser saltwater from the sea groundwater is really "invited" and is torn to the well which is placed near the coast line.

Scheme with saltwater
                        and groundwater 05, groundwater well is
                        oversalted, and a fresh groundwater blister has
                        been formed between the well and the coastline
Scheme with saltwater and groundwater 05, groundwater well is oversalted, and a fresh groundwater blister has been formed between the well and the coastline [13]

Scheme with saltwater
                        and groundwater 06 with a well near the
                        coastline, sea saltwater will reach the tube of
                        the well soon
Scheme with saltwater and groundwater 06 with a well near the coastline, sea saltwater will reach the tube of the well soon [14]

When the extraction of fresh groundwater near the coastline is going on, then the saltwater is reaching the well. The well is oversalted and is unusable. Between the well and the coastline a fresh water blister is formed, and the water table is falling UNDER sea level and the fresh groundwater is loosing with this any pressure against the saltwater (sea groundwater).

Scheme with saltwater
                        and groundwater 07: the groundwater well is
                        oversalted, and between the well and the
                        coastline a water blister has been formed
Scheme with saltwater and groundwater 07: the groundwater well is oversalted, and between the well and the coastline a water blister has been formed [15]


Agriculture in coastal regions with groundwater wells - and oversalted wells

The next three schemes show step by step the salinization of several groundwater wells by agriculture with irrigation systems near the coast line. It's no use when always more wells are drilled because salty sea groundwater is automatically attracted by the wells.

Scheme with
                      saltwater and groundwater 8, 3 groundwater wells
                      for agriculture
Scheme with saltwater and groundwater 8, 3 groundwater wells for agriculture [16]

Both wells at the coastline are near the mixed zone. Both wells are sucking the mixed zone (pink).
Scheme with
                      saltwater and groundwater 9, there are 4
                      groundwater wells now for agriculture
Scheme with saltwater and groundwater 9, there are 4 groundwater wells now for agriculture [17]

Both groundwater wells which were first at the coast line are oversalted with their ends in the mixed zone (pink). The water table of the last part of the groundwater system has dramatically lowered.

At the same time a new deep groundwater well into the lower groundwater system was drilled, and much water was pulled out thus the mixed zone of the lower groundwater system (pink) has pulled back, and the mixed zone of the lower system will be on the level of the first mixed zone soon.
Scheme with
                      saltwater and fresh water 10, now there are 7
                      groundwater wells for agriculture
Scheme with saltwater and fresh water 10, now there are 7 groundwater wells for agriculture [18]

Higher mixed zone (pink) has also reached the third well and also the third well is oversalted now. The water table of the upper groundwater zone is under sea level in big parts now. The first well is fully standing in salty sea groundwater. The second well which was oversalted was drilled deeper reaching the lower groundwater system, but both deep wells are also in danger of being oversalted now because the salty mixed zone (pink) is sucked in a strong way (red circles).


Intruding saltwater can be given a block by an injection well. This is happening for example in California and also in Shanghai.



Scheme with saltwater and groundwater
                              11 with 4 wells and an injection well

Scheme with saltwater and groundwater 11 with 4 wells and an injection well [19]

This injection well between the wells and the beach can reach that the water table is over sea level again pushing away the saltwater (sea groundwater).

But such an injection well needs much energy and needs much fresh water and thus is very expensive. Mostly old oversalted wells near the coastline are used as injection wells. Other measures would be
-- water saving measures in agriculture with perforated tubes
-- construction of reservoirs in the mountains or installation of lakes as water reserves for coastal towns or coastal agriculture.




For example between 1900 and the 1950s California had huge problems with oversalted groundwater wells:

<Seawater intrusion
happens when there is too much overdraft near the ocean and saltwater seeps into the aquifer. When saltwater gets into the aquifer, that part of the aquifer is contaminated and can never be used again. Some coastal wells have been shut down because of seawater intrusion.> [web07]

Here is the history about oversalted groundwater in the region of Los Angeles from 1900 to the 1950s:

<In coastal areas where groundwater is used for potable or agricultural purposes such as the Central and West Coast Basins (CWCB), intrusion can be a serious problem resulting in the shut down of wells or necessitating expensive desalination treatment. In the early half of the 20th century, groundwater extractions in the CWCB were double natural replenishment, causing severe overdraft and lowering of the groundwater elevations to over 100 feet below sea level. This greatly increased the extent of the seawater intrusion inland (Figure 1b). Callison and Roth (1967) reported that seawater intrusion was first noted in Redondo Beach in 1912, Hermosa Beach in 1915, and El Segundo in 1921. The California Department of Water Resources (CDWR, 1962) estimated that up to 600,000 acre-feet (af) of seawater intruded into and contaminated the Los Angeles coastal aquifers by the late 1950s.

To address this problem, in 1951 the Los Angeles County Flood Control District (LACFCD) used an abandoned water well in Manhattan Beach to inject potable water to test whether pressure could be built up in a confined aquifer to block the intrusion (Lipshie and Larson, 1995). The test worked, so LACFCD performed subsequent tests with additional wells to successfully create a pressure ridge or "wall" along the line of injection wells to overcome the pressure of the intruding seawater (Figure 1c). The results are well documented in a report by CDWR (1957).> [web19]

Many coastal federal states of "U.S.A." have big problems with oversalted groundwater near the coast line until today [web06].


Oversalted groundwater by rising sea level

Rising sea level has it's effects
-- penetrating saltwater
-- higher water table on the continent which is always in connection with sea level, and in flat regions even swamps can be formed.



Scheme with risen sea level 01

Scheme with risen sea level 01 [20]

The effects of a higher sea level are

point 1: penetrating saltwater on the ground (sea groundwater) against the continental fresh groundwater

point 2: a rise of the continental water table in general

Tis means: flat coastal areas with big plains between only 0 and 1 m over sea level are in danger of forming swamps, and then the swamp is oversalted at the end.



Scheme with a risen sea level 02

Scheme with a risen sea level 02 [21]

The higher sea level has the effects

point 1: penetrating saltwater on the ground (sea groundwater) against fresh groundwater

point 2: a rise of the continental water table in general

In this case the coast line is a cliff and the continental water table is relatively deep under the surface thus a higher sea level does not provoke any swamp yet.

So there is a conclusion:

Cliffs will be important for surviving a higher sea level.

And landscapes with flat sandy beaches will be destroyed and oversalted.

And flat towns with sandy beaches are nowadays in danger of life: Shanghai, Rio, Sydney, sinking Bangkok etc.

What will happen with these towns?
-- in the case of sinking towns they must be partly rebuilt in safe areas with water systems from the rainy mountains without using groundwater (in the case of sinking metropolis)
-- in the case of safe and hard grounds the towns can rise their territory by 5 meters rebuilding the town on the same location
-- or dike systems can be built on hard and safe ground blocking any view but there is always the danger that the sea will fill up the basin one day.



Rising sea level and oversalted groundwater: example Micronesia

Flat islands and plains have hardly any chance against rising sea level. This shows us Micronesia, a group of islands with an extension of about 2,000 km, where some islands are already being oversalted.

Map with Philippines, Australia and
                      Micronesia
Map with Philippines, Australia and Micronesia [22]
Flat islands in Micronesia, for example Yap
                      Islands
Flat islands in Micronesia, for example Yap Islands [23]

On islands which are in danger of being oversalted by rising sea level groundwater is oversalted. On different groups of islands of Micronesia in the Southern Sea [east of Philippines] groundwater is already oversalted and inedible as an article says clearly with the title "Rising sea level oversalting groundwater" (orig. German: "Steigende Meeresspiegel versalzen das Grundwasser")
(http://www.dw.de/steigende-meeresspiegel-versalzen-das-grundwasser/a-5463581)
<Groups of islands like Micronesia are in danger of drowning into the rising oceans. The precursors of the threat can be felt now already. Groundwater is oversalted and drinking water is scarce. [...] Rising sea provokes that saltwater is mixing into fresh groundwater. Fresh water deposits are made inedible and agricultural irrigation is always more complicated. Soil is also oversalted and cannot be used for years.>

(orig. German:
<Inselgruppen wie Mikronesien drohen in den steigenden Weltmeeren zu versinken. Die Vorboten der Bedrohung sind schon heute spürbar: Das Grundwasser versalzt und das Trinkwasser wird knapp. [...] Durch die steigenden Meere mischt sich Salzwasser ins Grundwasser. Die Trinkwasser-Vorräte werden so ungenießbar und die landwirtschaftliche Bewässerung immer schwieriger. Die Böden versalzen und sind damit oft auf Jahre unbrauchbar.>)

Next victims of rising sea level are Florida, Vietnam with the Mekong delta, and many other deltas in the world are affected. See the maps below:

Florida loosing territories with a rise
                            of sea level by 1 m
Florida loosing territories with a rise of sea level by 1 m [24]

Vietnam loosing territories with a rise
                            of sea level by 1 m, map
Vietnam loosing territories with a rise of sea level by 1 m, map [25]

Vietnam will loose territories in Mekong Delta and Red River Delta. Bangkok is sinking 5-8 cm per year, about 5 mm per month. But the Thai government is concealing this and no measures are taken until today (2013).

Losses of territories in Asia after a rise of sea level by 1m
Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesien und
                              Papua-Neuguinea, Gebietsverluste nach
                              einem Anstieg des Meeresspiegels um 1 m,
                              Karte
Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea will loose territories after a rise of sea level by 1 m, map [26]

In Vietnam Mekong delta will go. And more deltas will go on Borneo and on Papua New Guinea.

China und Japan, Gebietsverluste nach
                              einem Anstieg des Meeresspiegels um 1 m,
                              Karte
China and Japan with losses of territories after a rise of sea level by 1 m, map [26]

The lower part of Tokyo and some more lower parts of more Japanese towns will go [26].
Indien, Ceylon,
                              Bangladesh und Malediven, Gebietsverluste
                              nach einem Anstieg des Meeresspiegels um 1
                              m, Karte
India, Ceylon, Bangladesh and Maledives Islands will lose territories after a rise of sea level by 1 m, map [26]



Losses of territories in "America" after a rise of sea level of 1m

Alaska, Gebietsverluste nach einem
                              Anstieg des Meeresspiegels um 1 m, Karte
Alaska will lose some territories after a rise of sea level by 1 m, map [26]

Südost-"USA" und Karibik,
                              Gebietsverluste nach einem Anstieg des
                              Meeresspiegels um 1 m, Karte
South eastern "U.S.A." and Caribbean will loose territories after a rise of sea level by 1 m, map [26]

Parts of Florida, of Lousiana (Mississippi delta) and parts of Cuba and Belize will go.
Peru, Ecuador, Kolumbien und
                              Brasilien, Gebietsverluste nach einem
                              Anstieg des Meeresspiegels um 1m, Karte
Peru, Ecuador, Columbia and Brasil will loose territories after a rise of sea level by 1 m, map [26]

There are some plains no northern Peru and the delta of Guayas River near Guayaquil in Ecuador which will go. Also parts of the big delta of Orinoco River and of Amazonas River will go.



Losses of territories in Europe and northern Africa after a rise of sea level of 1m

Deutschland, Holland, England,
                              Dänemark, Norwegen und Schweden,
                              Gebietsverluste nach einem Anstieg des
                              Meeresspiegels um 1m, Karte
Germany, Holland, England, Denmark, Norway and Sweden will loose territories after a rise of sea level by 1 m, map [26]

Parts of the coast line in England, Wales, Holland, Germany and Denmark will drown. Holland has big dike systems, but if they can withstand a rise of sea level of 1 m may be put into question. Amsterdam and The Hague are in danger etc.

Mittleres und östliches
                              Mittelmeergebiet, Gebietsverluste nach
                              einem Anstieg des Meeresspiegels um 1m,
                              Karte
Medium and eastern Mediterranean, losses of territories after a rise of sea level by 1 m, map [26]

Camargue in France (in Rhone delta) and parts of Po plain in Italy will go. Also Alexandria in Egypt and parts of the region of Ajdabija in Libya will go.


Part 1: groundwater in general - part 2: pollution and contamination - part 3: salinization, oversalted wells
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Sources
[web01] Shrimps consumption destroys mangrove forests (Shrimps-Konsum zerstört Mangrovenwälder):
http://www.greenpeace.de/themen/meere/nachrichten/artikel/shrimps_konsum_zerstoert_mangrovenwaelder/
[web02] Mangrove: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangrove
[web03] Mangroven:
https://gc21.giz.de/ibt/gc21/area=portal/style=myso/paint=myso/de/usr/modules/gc21/ws-chatderwelten/info/ibt/portal/themen/klimawelten/113020.sxhtml
[web04] Mangroves are disappearing faster than other forests: http://www.planethopia.info/earth/mangroves-are-disappearing-faster-then-other-forests/
[web05] Saltwater intrusion: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saltwater_intrusion
[web06] Saltwater intrusion (orig. German: Salzwasserintrusion): http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salzwasserintrusion
[web07] Our groundwater, California: http://www.watersavingtips.org/groundwater.html
[web08] Battling seawater intrusion in the Central & West Coast Basins: http://www.wrd.org/engineering/seawater-intrusion-los-angeles.php

Photo sources

[1+2] Mangroves at an inner coastline in Cartagena, Columbia: photos by Michael Palomino 2012
[3] mangroves in Pichavaram, India: http://creative.sulekha.com/the-mangroves-of-pichavaram_379478_blog
[4] world map of mangrove forests 2000: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangrove
[5] mangroves on Dampier archipelago, Australia: http://wamuseum.com.au/dampier/explore_mangroves.asp
[6] reforestation of mangroves: http://www.planethopia.info/earth/mangroves-are-disappearing-faster-then-other-forests/
[7] scheme of impoverishment of coast lines and intruding saltwater: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saltwater_intrusion
[8] storm tide in Hamburg Wilhelmsburg District in 1962: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sturmflut_1962
[9] scheme with saltwater and groundwater 1: http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/circ1186/html/wq_factors.html
[10] scheme with saltwater and groundwater 2 with doubled groundwater systems both draining into the ocean:
http://www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/risingsealevel_more.htm

[11] scheme with saltwater and groundwater 3 in V-formation: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salzwasserintrusion
[12] scheme with saltwater and groundwater 4: http://watersome.blogspot.com/2012/09/groundwater-formation.html
[13] scheme with saltwater and groundwater 5 with groundwater wells and salinization:
http://earthsci.org/education/teacher/basicgeol/groundwa/groundwa.html
[14] scheme with saltwater and groundwater 6, wells provoking danger of salinization:
http://earthsci.org/education/teacher/basicgeol/groundwa/groundwa.html
[15] scheme with saltwater and groundwater 7, oversalted wells and bubble of fresh groundwater:  http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/301groundwater.html
[16, 17, 18] scheme with saltwater and groundwater 8, 9, and 10, agricultural wells are oversalted: http://www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/risingsealevel_more.htm
[19] scheme with saltwater and groundwater 11 with 4 wells and 1 injection well: http://intrusion.usegrid.net/
[20] scheme of intruding saltwater by higher sea level 01: http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v2/n5/full/nclimate1413.html

[21] scheme of intruding saltwater by rising sea level 02: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0309170811001187
[22] map with Australia, Philippines and Micronesia aside: http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/oceania/fm.htm
[23] Yap Islands in Micronesia: http://www.doaaraku.com/exotic-islands/tourist-information-yap-islands-micronesia/
[24] Florida with risen sea level by 1 m loosing territories: http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/environment/sealevel_multimedia_prt.htm


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