2. Animals in the high atmosphere - detection of the radioactive radiation belts - Torre Bert - construction of Wostok and Mercury   
 
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"Moon plays": The moon was the Earth - Lies and Truth in the Atmosphere

2. Animals in the high atmosphere - detection of the radioactive radiation belts - Torre Bert - construction of Wostok and Mercury

and the first lost dogs and astronauts

A model
                "Vostok 3" in the fabrication hall. The
                hatches have the same size.
A model of "Wostok 3"

by Michael Palomino (2006)

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from:
-- www.lostcosmonauts.com, www.raumfahrer.net and further Internet sources<
-- Gerhard Wisnewski: Lügen im Weltraum ["Lies In Space"]. Knaur 2005


since 1957

"SU": The race about the first manned atmosphere flight - lost animals and astronauts

After Sputnik the "USSR" wants to prove the world the scientific leadership with a first man in the atmosphere ("first man in space").
(http://www.lostcosmonauts.com/man.htm)

"SU" wants to present heroes which can be celebrated. Failures resp. dead astronauts are not permitted (Wisnewski, p.23). The failures are not reported [but are only known in a tiny circle of cosmonauts and staff members of the "soviet" space control and of course there are rumours (Wisnewski, p.23). The national prestige is at risk (Wisnewski, p.24).

[Factor monopolized TV and factor general term "conspiracy theory"

Thanks of the state's monopolized TV until the 1980ies the censorship of the real events in the atmosphere can be maintained secret almost completely because the masses believe what the TV says. The asmosphere has at least 60 km height and nobody can leave this 60 km high atmosphere. But the humans cannot be brought away from this belief that astronauts are in space, and the state's TV also is lying on when the proofs against the shown events are bone-crushing. And the state's TV never admits that they had broadcasted wrong things. The editorial offices are defining every critical report as a "conspiracy theory" and criminalize by this the most important indications which could lead to the truth. But as long as the wages are in order the TV censorship at the state's TV stations will not change. Mostly the "conspiracy theories" are going the other way round with the lodges and the mass media as important tool].

[Factor military order
The astronauts stay under military order and are forced to be quiet. Within the "Soviet" astronaut crew military circumstances are dominating - and the same values for the astronaut crew of "USA" in the 1960s].

[Definition "atmosphere" and "high atmosphere" - the concealed Van Allen radiation belts

Science distinguishes an "atmosphere" (with oxygen) and a "high atmosphere" (without oxygen). Only with the exosphere in a height of about 1,000 km the atmosphere is left. But the media never make this distinction and are spreading space fantasies which are not true. All in all space flight cannot leave the high atmosphere because the Van Allen belts (in a height of 200 to 1,000 km) cannot be passed because of the radioactive radiation which would cause sudden heavy illnesses. But only one astronaut got cancer, and this long after his alleged flight without connection with his alleged "space flights". So space flight has never reached the space and all space fantasies are wasted money. The term "space travel" is wrong and has to be "atmosphere flight".

As the atmosphere flight is under military order, and also the cosmonauts ("SU") and the astronauts ("USA") stay under military order, so they can be ordered having been "on the moon". An the "cosmonauts" resp. "astronauts" do not say anything, and the state's controlled TV stations nothing either].

Turin: The wiretap of the Judica-Cordiglia brothers in their monitoring station "Torre Bert" near Turin

Since 1949 the two brothers Gian Battista and Achille Judica-Cordiglia are enthusiastic amateur radio operators. From "American" troops they can buy first radio operating facilities. In the end of the 1950s the family changes to Turin.
(http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/conspiracy/q0235.shtml)

Since the 1950s the two brothers Judica-Cordiglia near Turin are beginning to install a monitoring station for the detection of the secrets in the high atmosphere of the "SU" and of the "USA". The race in the atmosphere is in full progress. The atmosphere is also the base for a propaganda war between East and West, amidst in the Cold War.
(http://www.lostcosmonauts.com/)

[Considering that "American" banks are financing Communism the whole atmosphere race between East and West becomes a ridiculous gamble].

The brothers are watching the signals of "American" and "Soviet" satellites.
(http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/conspiracy/q0235.shtml).

First manned suborbital atmosphere flight ends with a death
According to the recordings of the Judica-Cordiglia brothers [at the monitoring station at Torre Bert near Turin] "SU" begins in 1957 with manned atmosphere flights with a suborbital range (without orbit). Capsules are launched more or less upright into the height to come back shortly afterwards. The astronauts are dying (Wisnewski, p.23).

[By the policy of secrecy in the "Soviet Union" in the 1960s the monitoring station of Torre Bert gets an important role. And Torre Bert reports also events which are not recorded by other monitoring stations, or the other monitoring stations conceal recordings all together to set Torre Bert in a bad reputation. Some recorded events of Torre Bert seem not possible].

"SU": "Tests" with dogs in the high atmosphere

The "SU" has the aim to have the first dog in the high atmosphere. By training in high heights and suborbital flights with the she dogs Albina, Mushka and Laika this project shall be realized. The high exposures during liftoff are simulated in centrifuges. The flight shall be performed in a satellite. A coming back of the dogs is not foreseen. Animal protection organizations are demonstrating before the flight already.
(http://de.wikipedia.org: Laika)

  
The she dog "Laika",
                          first passenger on an atmosphere flight,
                          determined to die.
vergrössern The she dog "Laika", first passenger on an atmosphere flight, determined to die.

Atmosphere flight is using roaming bastard dogs for it's experiments, e.g. "Kudrjawka" (engl. "little curl") to launch the dog with a new satellite "Sputnik 2" in to the high atmosphere. The "SU" propaganda names the dog "Laika".
(http://de.wikipedia.org: Laika)

So, "Sputnik 2" is not any more a "football" like "Sputnik 1", but the satellite is 4m high and in a conic form, with a base with a diameter of 2m. The satellite contains a big cabin for the dog, and some more areas for the radio transmission devices, for telemetric systems for the control of the regeneration and temperature in the cabin, and "scientific" instruments.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sputnik_II)

The capsule is full of radiation measuring systems and biological sensors. First aim is to measure the cosmic radiation in the high atmosphere. Second aim is to measure the effect of the cosmic radiation on the dog Laika (Wisnewski, p.206).

3 Nov 1957
"SU": Flight with the laboratory animal she dog "Laika" - radiation death in "Sputnik 2" / "Sputnik II"
(Wisnewski, p.27)

According to Wisnewski's research the cause of death for Laika is the cosmic radiation. Laika is brought into an elliptic orbit with 212 up to 1,660 km distance from the Earth. By this Laika is sent through the Van Allen radiation belts to find out, how and where the radiation is.

(In: NSSDC Master Catalog: Spacecraft Sputnik 2 NSSDC ID: 1957-002A; Wisnewski, p.205)

The quick death of Laika is an earnest warning signal for the Russian atmosphere flight. In the following time the "Soviet" side is taking the radiation belts very earnest and never flights manned flights over 500 km.

(In: Peter L. Smolders: Soviets in Space; N.Y. 1974; Wisnewski, p.206)

The concealment of Laika's radiation death - concealment of the impossibility of a human "space flight"

The "Soviet" side is keeping secret the radiation death of the dog (Wisnewski, p.205) and the radiation is also kept secret of the "American" side (Wisnewski, p.191).

She dog Laika on a stamp with the
                        Sputnik rocket.
She dog Laika on a stamp with the Sputnik rocket.

  

The West names the flight as "Sputnik 2" though the satellite is a totally other model. Wikipedia maintains that the warmth regulation in the satellite had failed and Laika had died by the heat [?], and because of the flight path an because of the limited control of the "Soviet" technical systems the Van Allen belts had not been detected yet.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sputnik_II)

But now "SU" propaganda officially celebrates the Laika flight as a success. The satellite stays in its orbit for five months with the dead body of the dog making 2,570 Earth orbits.

Only on 14 April 1958 the satellite is entering the lower dense atmosphere and dies down. The remnants fall into the Caribbean Sea. The animal protection organizations are vehemently protesting against the lethal animal experience in the high atmosphere. As a consequence the "SU" is not releasing any information about the Laika flight any more.
(http://de.wikipedia.org: Laika)

Of course also the Laika flight is transformed into a cult tradition as the stamps is showing.

The quick death of Laika is admitted officially only in the 1990ies and is deplored by staff members as e.g. rocket engineer Oleg Gazenko.
(http://de.wikipedia.org: Laika)

Until 2002 there are rumours about the death of Laika. In 2002 Dimitri Malashenkov from the "Institute for biomedical sciences of the Russian Federation" indicates that Laika had been a test of zero gravity and had died within some few hours because of overheating in the capsule (Wisnewski, p.205).

But: To test zero gravity an elliptic orbit is not needed (Wisnewski, p.205) [and also the many measuring machines were not necessary]. A quick death because of heat after some few hours is not probable [because in the high atmosphere there are about minus 30 degrees Celsius], but the radiation death seems to be plausible.

(In: Peter L. Smolders: Soviets in Space; N.Y. 1974; Wisnewski, p.206)

[But the fantasy for a "space flight" has to go on on, and by this the radiation death is nod admitted officially until today. Some research centers could close when the truth came out the a human cannot survive in space because of the cosmic radioactive radiation until today (2006)].


   
"USA": Rocket crash with
                          satellite "Vanguard 1" on 6.12.1957,
                          foto no. VAN-9
vergrössern
"USA": Rocket crash with satellite  "Vanguard 1" on 6.12.1957, foto no. VAN-9.

6 Dec 1957
"USA": Launch failure with satellite "Vanguard 1"
Explosion and crash after two seconds
(http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/vanguard.htm)

because of a failure in the first rocket stage.
(http://sse.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=384)

February 1958
"USA": First satellite "Explorer I" in Earth orbit - radiation measuring
Explorer 1 shall find out for the "USA" how radioactive the space is. Therefor there is a Geiger counter integrated in the satellite (Wisnewski, p.190). Explorer I is  - like Laika with "Sputnik II" - sent into an elliptic orbit with 360 to 2,500 km distance from the Earth, amidst through the radiation belts (Wisnewski, p.191).

Head of the Explorer project is Van Allen (Wisnewski, p.191). Gaining more and more distance from the Earth the Geiger counter of Explorer 1 indicates rising data of radioactivity and suddenly comes back to 0. The other way round are the data during loosing the height: From 0 the Geiger counter indicates suddenly the highest rate and comes slowly down (Wisnewski, p.192).

Van Allen, portrait
Van Allen, portrait
Ph.D. William
                      Pickering, Ph.D. James Van Allen, and Ph.D.
                      Wernher von Braun showing a model of Explorer I
                      satellite, 31 January or 1 February 1958
Ph.D. William Pickering, Ph.D. James Van Allen, and Ph.D. Wernher von Braun showing a model of Explorer I satellite, 31 January or 1 February 1958

Beginning of 1958
"SU": Beginning of an intensive planning for a manned atmosphere flight - the "USA" announce they will have the "first human in space"
But "USA" officially don't have any booster rocket for such a project.
(Vostok missions, http://www.hyaden.de/inhalt/raumfahrt/wostok.htm)

5 March 1958
"USA": Explorer II / Explorer 2 without radiation measurement
There is again a Geiger counter integrated. But one of the booster stages is failing and satellite Explorer II cannot reach the projected orbit, and by this the satellite is not passing the Van Allen radiation belts and great radiation measurments are not possible (Wisnewski, p.192).

26 March 1958
"USA": Explorer III / Explorer 3: New radiation measurements confirming Explorer I - the Van Allen radiation belts remain secret
The Geiger counter indicates rising radiation, then suddenly no one any more, and during reentry suddenly high radiation and then slowly falling data, as it was with Explorer 1. The physicians admit that the Geiger counter was overcharged and indicated 0 because of this (Wisnewski, p.192).

The measuring devices are adapted and then they measure up to 1,000 times the normal radiation in the high atmosphere and above than on Earth.

(In: Space Science Institute: Earth is a Giant Magnet, p.3; www.spaceweathercenter.org/our_protective_shield/02/02_03.html (only with Macromedia Flash Player); Wisnewski, p.193).

The explorer satellites have a casing of 3 mm aluminium

-- and determine in the inner Van Allen radiation belt a maximum of 200 millisievert per hour, this is 1,2 mio. times more than a dose in Germany per hour

-- and determine in the outer Van Allen radiation belt a maximum of 50 millisievert per hour, this is 400,000 times more than a dose in Germany per hour.

(In: Koelzer, Winfried: Die Strahlenexposition des Menschen; Informationskreis KernEnergie [Radiation exposure of humans, information circle nuclear energy], November 2004, p.11; and: medicine worldwide: Strahlenbelastung in der Raumfahrt; OnVista Media GmbH [radiation exposure in space flight], revision 9 June 2004; Wisnewski, p.196)

Another source indicates that in the Van Allen radiation belts would exist an average radioactive radiation of 600 millisievert per hour.

(In: Cull, Selby: Giant Leap for Mankind or Giant Leap of Faith? Examining Claims That We Never Went to the Moon; The Journal of Young Investigators, Issue 2; January 2004; Wisnewski, p.195)

The stratosphere physicians conclude that a space flight is not possible for humans, but the humans are "blocked up" on the Earth (Wisnewski, p.192).

In the following time more satellites are detecting the two different radiation belts. They are named after Van Allen, the head of the project, Van Allen belts (Wisnewski, p.192).

But now Walt Disney has produced with Wernher von Braun all science fictions and has manipulated the "American" population with it. This provoked new hopes in the brains of the "Americans" that there will be space flights some day. So, Walt Disney and Wernher von Braun should change now and present the belts consisting of hard, radioactive radiation to their readers. They should admit that all "space flight" was a fantasy and a nonsense. So, they do not admit, but they are going on selling their space fantasies and make millions, and millions of tax money are wasted for more "space research" which actually is not at all necessary because the projects will never be realized (Conclusion Palomino, Wisnewski, p.192).

Satellite Sputnik III, weight over 1300
                        kg.
Satellite Sputnik III, weight
over 1300 kg.

   

15 May 1958
Second Sputnik shock for the "USA" with "Sputnik III"
Officially the new satellite - the Western side counts him as "Sputnik III" - is a research satellite to find out what's going on in the high atmosphere and in the near space. actually "Sputnik III" was foreseen as first satellite but the satellite was not ready so other satellites became "Sputnik I" and "Sputnik II" because head engineer Koroliev wanted to be before the "USA" at any rate.

Sputnik 3 is an automatic science laboratory atmosphere ship ("space ship"), 3,57m high, on the base 1,73m large, with a weight of 1,327 kg. 12 "scientific" instruments deliver data about pressure and composition of the high atmosphere, particle concentrations, photons and cosmic radiation, heavy cores in cosmic radiation is, magnetic fields, electrostatic fields, and meteor remnants.

The satellite discovers the outer Van Allen belt. But the tape recorder fails so there is no recording. "Sputnik III" dies down on 6th April 1960 during reentry into the lower dense atmosphere.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sputnik_III)

Now the "US" militarists are shocked: by the weight of the freight. They have to admit that the "Soviet Union" can bring a freight of over 1300 km into an orbit, and this is the weight of an atomic bomb of this time. Soon the word of the "rocket gap" is created and the race in the atmosphere ("race in space") begins, not in a peaceful form, but there are "American" fears about rocket launches from orbits.

(Werner Walter: Cenap report,  April 2004; http://cenap.alien.de)

1959-1964
Espionage satellites of the "USA": Discoverer / Corona program

"USA" starts an espionage program "Corona" under the covering name "Discoverer". Officially the racist "US" government indicates that these would be research satellites, but in reality it's an espionage program with CIA.
(Werner Walter: Cenap report,  April 2004; http://cenap.alien.de )

By the Discoverer / Corona program CIA and the racist "US" government can test how it's possible to manipulate the world by reports about space. The foto espionage with the Corona satellites is admitted officially only in the 1990ies. By this program a secrecy policy is installed which is lasting until today (Wisnewski, p.129-130, details see here).

vergrössern Rocket Vostok / Boctok, model making set.
Rocket Vostok / Boctok, model making set.

September 1960 ca.
The new "SU" atmosphere ships "Wostok"
The "Soviet Union" has three types of atmosphere ships:
-- type "Wostok 1": unmanned prototype
-- type "Wostok 2": espionage satellite (Wisnewski, p.26)
-- type "Wostok 3": an atmosphere ship ("spaceship") for manned flights (Wisnewski, p.27).

The manned Wostok model "Wostok 3"
During the landing with atmosphere ship "Wostok 3" an ejection seat has to be used. The astronaut is said to be ejected on a parachute and will land somewhere on Earth. According to Wisnewski this method of landing is absolutely strange (Wisnewski, p.53).

[The risk that a cosmonaut will land with his parachute in the sea or in a high mountain region is fairly big].

According to the guide lines of the International Flight Federation FAI (Fédération Aeronautique Internationale) an atmosphere flight ("space flight") with a parachute landing is not a real atmosphere flight ("space flight") (Wisnewski, p.53).

Wostok atmosphere ship model "Vostok 3" and diagram of the landing
Vostok
                        rocket with a Vostok atmosphere ship, profile,
                        drawing.
Vostok rocket with a Vostok atmosphere ship, profile, drawing.



Vostok atmosphere ship model
                        "Vostok 3" (manned): Manned cabin,
                        supply unit and landing engines.
Vostok atmosphere ship model "Vostok 3" (manned): Manned cabin, supply unit and landing engines.







Vostok 3: Manned cabin with ejection
                              seat.
vergrössernVostok 3: Manned cabin with ejection seat.



The model "Vostok 3" can take one person on board. The capsule has a diameter of 2.3 m and 1.6 m3 volume, the device module has a diameter of 2.43 m. The capsule has [at the end] a 18 cm thick protection layer of asbestos that the capsule will not die down during re-entry into the [lower dense] atmosphere. In the capsule walls are three hatches with 1.2 m diameter for entry, ejection seat with parachute and for installation of devices. And there are three little hatches of a diameter of 25 cm for watching the Earth and for navigation resp. they are visors.
(http://www.hyaden.de/inhalt/raumfahrt/wostok.htm)


A model
                        "Vostok 3" in the fabrication hall.
                        The hatches have the same size.
A model "Vostok 3" in the fabrication hall. The hatches have the same size.


Vostok Model "Vostok 3" in
                      space, example of a drawing. the hatches have
                      different diameters, so the drawing is wrong.
Vostok Model "Vostok 3" in space, example of a drawing. the hatches have different diameters, so the drawing is wrong.

Landing of a Vostok atmosphere ship model "Vostok 3" with parachute.

The separate landing with a parachute is officially necessary because the "Soviets" mean that the ball cannot be broken enough by the parachute.

(http://www.hyaden.de/inhalt/raumfahrt/wostok.htm)

[According to military informations it's only possible to eject the ejection seat when the atmosphere ship after the re-entry into the lower dense atmosphere would been brought down to a certain low speed. By this it's impossible to lever the ejection seat at the beginning of the re-entry because there would be a crash between capsule and ejection seat, or even a backstroke into space].

Landing of a Vostok atmosphere
                        ship model "Vostok 3" with capsule and
                        parachute separately, drawing
Landing of a Vostok atmosphere ship model "Vostok 3" with capsule and parachute separately, drawing

[By this the Russian cosmonauts in "Vostok 3" who were killed by fire during their re-entry, they could not save themselves by their ejection seat because the capsule had not yet been brought down to the necessary low speed. But about Russian burnt cosmonauts never was published anything, but it was detected by Torre Bert...]

Unmanned Vostok model "Korabl 1" (in the counting of the missions: Vostok 1P)
-- P stands for Russian: "prostjeschij", English: "simple"
-- the atmosphere ship is only for unmanned atmosphere flight
-- and has got two solar panels like the Zenith satellites
-- and has got no life keeping supply module
-- and has got no landing systems
(Mission Wostok, http://www.hyaden.de/inhalt/raumfahrt/wostok.htm)

Vostok atmosphere ship type
                "Korabl" with solar panels for the unmanned
                atmosphere flight, drawing
Vostok atmosphere ship type "Korabl" with solar panels for the unmanned atmosphere flight, drawing

The Western count counts the Korabl atmosphere ships to the "Sputniks" what is totally wrong.
(Vostok Missions, http://www.hyaden.de/inhalt/raumfahrt/wostok.htm)

1 Oct 1958
"USA": Foundation of the military NASA as an answer to the "Soviet" atmosphere flight - atmosphere ship "Mercury"

Under racist president Eisenhower NASA is founded. Eisenhower wants to have NASA as a non military company. That's why NASA is not as far as the "Soviet Union" [perhaps because of lacking financial sources].
(http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/moon/timeline/index.html)

Different pilots are presented as the future astronauts. They shall fly in the one man capsule "Mercury" into the high atmosphere (officially "into space"). First the "Mercury program" plans animal flights.
(http://www.urbin.de/usa/mercury/mercury.htm)

NASA and Mercury atmosphere ship

NASA logo 1 with the moon mission
                        fantasy in it!
NASA logo 1 with the moon mission fantasy in it!

NASA logo 2
NASA logo 2
Atmosphere ship "Mercury",
                          profile, drawing
vergrössern
Atmosphere ship "Mercury", profile, drawing
The one man atmosphere capsule
                      "Mercury" in a production hall.
The one man atmosphere capsule "Mercury" in a production hall.


Mercury rocket.
Mercury rocket.
Comparison of the height between the
                          atmosphere ships "Vostok 3" and
                          Mercury
vergrössern Comparison of the height between the atmosphere ships "Vostok 3" and "Mercury"

1959
Torre Bert: Removal of the family Judica-Cordiglia to Turin
Between 1959 and 1961 the monitoring station in Turin is working in a former German war bunker. The brothers Achille and Gian are producing their own moving antennas to trap the signals from the atmosphere ships and satellites.
(In: J. D. Ratcliff: Italy's amazing amateur space watchers; Reader's Digest, April 1965).

Since 1960 the brothers from "Torre Bert" have installed a professional equipment in their monitoring station with new equipments with moving antennas for tracking the vehicles in the sky like satellites and atmosphere ships.

The brothers also maintain having found out methods to filter out sidetones so signals coming from the ground station or coming from the atmosphere ship (officially: "space ship") can be distinguished precisely.
(http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/conspiracy/q0235.shtml)

The geographic position near Turin is very appropriate for monitoring signals from "Soviet" atmosphere ships when they normally fly over Northern Italy in direction to the control center in the Caucasus region.

The Judica-Cordiglia brothers have the modernest equipment of that time. They find out frequencies and times of the flying times of the different atmosphere trials which only "Soviet" insiders know until that time.
(http://www.lostcosmonauts.com/)


Critics maintain that the antennas of the monitoring station Torre Bert would be much too weak to get signals from the atmosphere. That's why some critics reject all data from Torre Bert.
(http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/conspiracy/q0235.shtml)


1959-1961
"SU": Dead and lost cosmonauts - "phantom astronauts"
The "SU" plays with life of many astronauts to be a leading force in the higher atmosphere ("in space"). "SU" is covering-up the "butchery" in the higher atmosphere up to the 1990s. There are many "Soviet" astronauts who loose their lives in the 1960ies (Wisnewski, S.29).

On www.astronautix.com the lost astronauts are named "phantom astronauts".
(http://www.astronautix.com/astrogrp/phaonaut.htm)

[But this were not phantoms, but this were dying astronauts who are not listed e.g. in any official balance until today.

Presumption: It is probable that the "American" side knew about the lost astronauts by their lodge connections. It's probable that the "USA" waited for the first perfect landing before "American" astronauts were brought into an Earth orbit. By this the "USA" could minimize the risk during Earth orbit flights].

[But: "USA" also looses many astronauts: Probably murdered astronauts

Add to this also NASA looses many astronauts, but not by flights in the orbit, but probably by calculated murder by NASA and by the CIA on the ground, when an astronaut is not satisfied with the circumstances, when an astronaut is speaking too much, or also members of the family members are probably murdered when they know too much. Officially the dead person had always... an "accident", and autopsy in these cases is not performed...].

This is NO conspiracy theory, stupid Wikipedia, but these are heavy murder suspicions which are not investigated until today. See the example murdered astronauts at the Apollo 1 fire.

1960
The first orbital atmosphere flights of the "SU" and killed astronauts
According to the Judica-Cordiglia brothers "SU" is beginning with manned orbital atmosphere flights (around the Earth" in 1960. The astronauts are always dying (Wisnewski, p.23).

[The fatalities are happening not only by passing out of the astronaut during liftoff or by technical failure, but - as it seems - above all during re-entry into the lower dense atmosphere, because the heat protection shield is too thin yet].

11 Jan 1960
Foundation of an astronaut education center "Star City" near Moscow
For a balanced, high qualified education of astronauts the "SU" leadership makes the decision for a foundation of an astronaut education center "Zentr Podgotowki Kosmonawtow" (ZPK), later known as "Little Star City"
(Project Vostok, http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)


so "Star City". Head constructing engineer Koroliev / Koroljow is one of the main founder of the atmosphere center. The training center is hermetically separated by walls, barbed wire and armed guards. By this it's actually an extra territorial zone.
(http://www.voentour.com/space/star_city.shtml)


The "Soviet" atmosphere center Zvezdny Gorodok ("Star City")

The
                          "Soviet" atmosphere center
                          "Star City", air foto, with the
                          Gagarin astronaut education center. Until
                          Gorbachev the town was behind walls and barbed
                          wire.
The "Soviet" atmosphere center "Star City", air foto, with the Gagarin astronaut education center. Until Gorbachev the town was behind walls and barbed wire.

Star City,
                          planetarium
Star City, planetarium
The front of the Gagarin cosmonaut
                        education center within the "Soviet"
                        atmosphere center "Star City".
The front of the Gagarin cosmonaut education center within the "Soviet" atmosphere center "Star City".
"Star City": Gagarin monument.
vergrössern
"Star City": Gagarin monument.


Star City's position is ca. 30 km North from Moscow. The astronaut education center is a parallel to the "American" astronaut education center "Johnson Space Center" of NASA at Houston, Texas. Among others the center offers survival training in all kinds of landscapes.

Only in 1968 the training center is renamed to Juri / Yuri / Uri Gagarin,
(http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4225/training/training.htm)


the "Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Center" (GCTC).
(http://www.voentour.com/space/star_city.shtml)


Aside the education of "Soviet" cosmonauts also international astronaut teams are educated. Until 1st April 1996 these are 25 international astronaut teams with 24 astronauts from 17 foreign countries.

(http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4225/training/training.htm).

15.5.1960
"SU": Simplified unmanned Vostok atmosphere ship brought to an orbit
The simplified unmanned capsule under the name "Wostok 1P" (the "P" stands for Russian: "prostjeschij", English: "simple") is launched in an almost circular orbit. Korabl 1 has no life keeping supply module or landing systems, but instead two solar panels. The West names the Vostok capsule also as "Sputnik 4" which is wrong. By a failure in an infra red transmitter the break engine are wrong orientated. By this "Korabl 1" gets into a higher orbit. Later the atmosphere ship is dying down regularly in the lower dense atmosphere (officially: The space ship is dying down regularly in the atmosphere).
(Vostok Missions, http://www.hyaden.de/inhalt/raumfahrt/wostok.htm)

9 March 1960
"SU" official report: Gagarin is integrated into the astronaut team on his 26th birthday
(http://bellsouthpwp.net/r/u/ruzwyshn/HTMLFolder/Gagbio.html)

since July 1960
"SU": Astronaut education at a Vostok simulator
The chosen astronauts are Gagarin, Titov, Nikolayev, Popovitsh, Kartashov and Varlamov.
(Project Vostok, http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)

[These listed persons are only the list for a moment].

The criteria for an astronaut training are the test results and charming attitudes and the "character" for the propaganda machinery against the "USA".
(Project Vostok, http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)


24 July 1960
"SU": Alleged swimming accident  of astronaut candidate Varlamov - Varlamov will not fly
Valentin Varlamov is said having hurt the cervical spine at diving during a swimming trip. He is replaced by Valen Bykovski. Varlamov becomes educator at the ZPK in the subject astral navigation.
(Project Vostok, http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)

28 July 1960
"SU": Explosion of a rocket after liftoff with the dogs Bars and Lisitshka
After 19 seconds the simplified Vostok atmosphere ship "Korabl 1" with the dogs Bars and Lisitshka on board explodes. The rocket crashes near the launch pad. This is a big set-back for "SU" atmosphere flight. The launch failure is kept secret and the world media don't know anything for a long time.

(http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)

The dogs Belka and Strelka.
The dogs Belka and Strelka.

   

19 Aug 1960
"SU": Atmosphere flight of the dogs Belka and Strelka
According to some websites the dogs survived. The "SU" atmosphere flight wants to prove that the explosion of 28 July 1960 can be corrected. A capsule "Korabl 2" starts with two dogs Belka and Strelka, with two rats and 40 mice on board and reaches the foreseen orbit. The animals are said having landed safe:

"On 20th August already after 10 orbits the capsule landed safe near the town Orsk. The animals on board were catapulted from the capsule and were exposed to an acceleration of maximum 10 g as it was planned. The animals survived the strain and proved the utilizability of the model R-7/Block E/Vostok."

   
She dog Strelka after landing.
vergrössernShe dog Strelka after landing.

(orig.: "Bereits am 20. August, nach rund 10 Erdorbits, landete die Kapsel sicher nahe der Ortschaft Orsk. Die an Bord befindlichen Tiere wurden wie geplant aus der Kapsel katapultiert und dabei einer Beschleunigung von bis zu 10 g ausgesetzt, überlebten aber die Strapazen und bewiesen die Einsatzfähigkeit des Verbundes R-7/Block E/Wostok."
(Project Vostok, http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)

11 Oct 1960
"SU": Manned Vostok atmosphere flight with pilot Piotr Dolgoff
(Wisnewski, p.25),

Dolgoff is a lost cosmonaut.
(www.lostcosmonauts.com/unknown.htm)

Official sources say that on 11 October 1960 the Central Committee CC and the Council of Ministers of the "SU" had made the decision to perform the first manned atmosphere flight ("space flight") in December 1960.
(Project Vostok, http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)

"SU" problem: The lethal ejection seat of the Vostok atmosphere ships
The ejection seat comes out as the most dangerous part of the "SU" atmosphere flight because there are "failures". During a test [without indication of the date] a "test person" is killed.
(Project Vostok, http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)


  
Baikonur 24 Oct 1960: Nedelin catastrophe:
                      Explosion of a prototype of the intercontinental
                      rocket R-16 on the ground with 100 to 200 deaths,
                      among the deaths marshal Nedelin.
Baikonur 24 Oct 1960: Nedelin catastrophe: Explosion of a prototype of the intercontinental rocket R-16 on the ground with 100 to 200 deaths, among the deaths marshal Nedelin.

24 Oct 1960
"SU": Explosion of an intercontinental rocket on the ground with 100 to 200 deaths
The prototype of the new rocket R-16 from construction office (OKB) Jangel / Yangel (the designer) is completed under pressure of time by the command of Nedelin. The rocket is planned to start on the anniversary of the Russian revolution (7th November). So, there are many tests and changings. At the end the rocket explodes on the launch pad by the disastrous combination of corrosive and toxic fuel with a circuit failure.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nedelin_catastrophe)


The explosion produces 100 to 200 deaths:
-- 200 leading atmosphere flight specialists are killed, among them the leader of the rocket troops, marshal Nedelin
(http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)


or: almost 100 persons killed
(http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Dictionary/BAIKONUR/DI171.htm)

or 126 persons killed.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_space_disasters).

The accident is kept secret and only in the 1990ies is generally known.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nedelin_catastrophe)

The plan for a first manned atmosphere flight ("space flight") in December 1960 cannot be realized because of lack of staff. The "SU" leadership decides that in December two unmanned flights will be performed.
(http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)

28 Nov 1960
Torre Bert: Morse signals from the atmosphere of a leaving atmosphere ship

The Judica-Cordiglia brothers record Morse signals from the atmosphere, a Morse message "SOS to the whole world", with a Doppler effect which gives an indication about the speed and the direction of the atmosphere ship. According to the data the atmosphere ship was not on an orbit but was leaving the Earth. According to Gian-Battista Judica-Cordiglia the Doppler effect is similar to the later "lunar probes" which are leaving the Earth. The Morse signals are weaker and weaker (Wisnewski, p.24) and stop at the end (Wisnewski, p.25).

The Morse message "SOS to the whole world" is also received by amateurs in Texas and Germany.

(In: J. D. Ratcliff: Italy's amazing amateur space watchers; Reader's Digest, April 1965).

The Cordiglia brothers conclude that the "SU" atmosphere ship had the wrong position during the re-entry and the landing engines were directed in the wrong direction so the atmosphere ship was accelerating instead of breaking, and by this the ship was pushed out into the space (Wisnewski, p.24).

The Cordiglia station "Torre Bert" is the only one which received the Morse cry for help officially. Doubters put the authenticity into question.
(http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/conspiracy/q0235.shtml)

[It can also be the other way round: The official monitoring stations have all received the Morse cry for help but all was ordered to keep secret because "space flight" should not be presented as a lethal affair. All speculations are possible...]

December 1960
Alexis Gracioff is ranked as a lost "SU" atmosphere pilot ("space pilot")
(www.lostcosmonauts.com/unknown.htm)

1 Dec 1960
"SU": Two dogs launched into the the high atmosphere - crash or self destruction?
On the flight of the atmosphere ship "Korabl 1" also the two dogs Ptsholka and Mushka are on board. As a result of a failure at the breaking mechanism during the re-entry into the lower dense atmosphere the flight path becomes essentially too long. The TDU 1 engine does not work well and so the descent path is too flat. But there has to be avoided a landing in a foreign country at any rate. So the mechanism of self-destruction is activated. The hope for a successful manned first atmosphere flight are sinking more and more.
(http://russlandonline.ru/schlagzeilen/morenews.php?iditem=21857)

The website www.raumfahrer.net does not indicate a self-destruction but speaks about a landing in Pacific:

"After 17 Earth orbits the capsule landed and was never found. It's admitted that the landing point was the Pacific."

(orig.: "Die Kapsel landete nach 17 Erdorbits und wurde nicht gefunden. Als Landeort wird der Pazifik angenommen."
(Project Vostok, http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)

What's true now?

Generally the "SU" leadership realizes that the atmosphere flight is not prepared for a landing in the sea. The engines TDU-1 have to be reengineered thoroughly.

(Project Vostok, http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)

2 Dec 1960
Or: The "SU" cover-up in the case of the lost dogs: An invented "Sputnik IV"

The "SU" leadership announces the start of a satellite "Sputnik IV" and declares shortly after that the satellite was lost (Wisnewski, p.25).

(from: www.lostcosmonauts.com/INTERVIEW.HTM)

What is right? Speculations are going on...

22 Dec 1960
"SU": One more flight with two dogs fails - two dead dogs Domka and Krasonka

The flight of "Korabl 4" with the two dogs Domka and Krasonka on board fails. During liftoff an engine of the booster rocket is burning too short. There is not enough energy and the planned orbit cannot be reached. The leadership decides to stop the flight. The capsule is blasted off and lands in Eastern Siberia. The dogs survive the emergency landing but they are dying within two days because the recovery needs two days.

(Project Vostok, http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)

"SU": The modification of the Vostok capsule: The fortification of the heat protection shield
After the new accident with the two dogs the aim of the "SU" leadership to present a perfect manned atmosphere flight seems to be in question. The capsule under the name 3KA is modified again. The heat protection shield is fortified from 3 to 13 cm.
(Project Vostok, http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)

[Conclusion:
The motivation for a fortification of the heat protection shield has to come from burnt astronauts or from burnt animals. In this case some versions of accidents indicated before must be wrong or some experiments are not reported until now].

"SU": The modification of the plan for a first official perfect manned atmosphere flight
The planning for a first perfect manned atmosphere flight ("space flight") is modified: Instead of 17 times the atmosphere ship shall orbit the Earth only one time (instead of 1 day only 90 minutes flight).

At the same time the "American" side announces the first suborbital flight for 28 April 1961. By this he "SU" party leadership wants to show "America's" weakness by a perfect manned atmosphere flight with a whole Earth orbit before 28 April 1961.
(Project Vostok, http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)

1961
Torre Bert: Removal to San Mauricio Canavese - the naming
The family Judica-Cordiglia changes to San Mauricio and can live in the villa Bertalazzona. The two radio operator brothers Achille and Gian invent the according name "Torre Bert". The monitoring recording installations are really professional now.

(In: J. D. Ratcliff: Italy's amazing amateur space watchers; Reader's Digest, April 1965).

The monitoring station of the Judica-Cordiglia brothers "Torre Bert "
The
                            Judica-Cordiglia brothers in their
                            monitoring station "Torre Bert"
                            near Turin, Gian Battista Judica-Cordiglia
                            right. In the background orbit protocols of
                            "American" and "Soviet"
                            satellites can be seen.
vergrössernThe Judica-Cordiglia brothers in their monitoring station "Torre Bert" near Turin, Gian Battista Judica-Cordiglia right. In the background orbit protocols of "American" and "Soviet" satellites can be seen.


The two brother were not working alone but had their staff.
The
                            Judica-Cordiglia brothers in their
                            monitoring center "Torre Bert"
                            with staff members. At the wall is a map
                            with a satellite path.
vergrössern The Judica-Cordiglia brothers in their monitoring center "Torre Bert" with staff members. At the wall is a map with a satellite path.
Antennas of the
                      monitoring station of the Judica-Cordiglia
                      brothers on the roofs of the monitoring station
                      "Torre Bert". Partly these were moving
                      antennas to snatch the signals of the fast
                      satellites and atmosphere ships.
Antennas of the monitoring station "Torre Bert" of the Judica-Cordiglia brothers on the roofs of the villa.
Partly these were moving antennas to snatch the signals of the fast satellites and atmosphere ships.

The affiance of Gian Battista is coordinating the world wide amateur radio operator net when rumours say that there is another atmosphere flight event. The sister Theresa learns Russian to translate the signals of the Russian atmosphere flight.
(http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/conspiracy/q0235.shtml)

During the 1960s the Judica-Cordiglia brothers found a worldwide private monitoring system, the Zeus network. But it's working only a year.
(http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/conspiracy/q0235.shtml)

Other monitoring stations of the "USA" an in England are also working, in England the official monitoring station at Jodrell Bank, in the "USA" the official monitoring station at Tyngsboro (Massachusetts).

(J. D. Ratcliff: Italy's amazing amateur space watchers; In: Reader's Digest, April 1965)

Some events are only recorded by "Torre Bert" and seem to be sensational or arguable.
(http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/conspiracy/q0235.shtml)


[The motive of secrecy about the deaths: Discredit Torre Bert
Torre Bert can be discredited by the super powers when the official monitoring stations all keep quiet. The reason is to present the atmosphere flights as safe sports without deaths. West and East are covering-up their deaths of their atmosphere programs ("space programs"). In the "Soviet" program the pilots are dying on the flights, in the "USA" people are murdered by NASA and CIA because of knowledge of the faking activities or because people speak too much about sloppiness and failures].

17 Jan 1961
"SU": Swiss amateur radio operator  Walter Kunz snatches Soviet astronaut voices from the high atmosphere
(Wisnewski, p.28).

20 Jan 1961
Western newspapers report a loss of two "Soviet" astronauts
Western newspapers report that two "Soviet" astronauts had not come back from their flight in the high atmosphere (Wisnewski, p.28).

25 Jan 1961
The "Oberrheinische Zeitung" (Newspaper from the Upper Rhine Valley) reports definitively the loss of two "Soviet" astronauts
reporting that the information source from Moscow and Helsinki are reliable: Two "Soviet" astronauts had not come back from space  (Wisnewski, p.28).

31 Jan 1961
"USA": The "USA" are launching a chimp into the high atmosphere - "chimponaut" "Ham"
(Wisnewski, p.29)

Chimponaut "Ham".
Chimponaut "Ham".

  

The chimp is on a ballistic flight of 17 minutes, almost 5 minutes in zero gravity.

(Christian Pinter: Schimpansen, Versuchskaninchen und Hühnerbeine; 9 April 1999;
www.wienerzeitung.at; http://members.aon.at/dr.c.pinter/artikel/artiwz.htm)

Chimponaut "Ham" survives his flight very well. In 1963 he is put out of the NASA program and is brought to Washington's National Zoo.
(Smithsonian: http://www.smithsonianmagazine.com/issues/2006/january/history.php)

The chimp is celebrated as "chimponaut" by the "US" media.
(Christian Pinter: Schimpansen, Versuchskaninchen und Hühnerbeine).

The chimp dies in 1983 in the North Carolina Zoological Park.
(Smithsonian: http://www.smithsonianmagazine.com/issues/2006/january/history.php)

The "USA" announces the first manned atmosphere flight - panic in the "SU"
The same of the chimponaut landing the "US" leadership announces the first manned "US" atmosphere flight for 24th March 1961. As a consequence the "SU" leadership comes into a panic (Wisnewski, p.29).

2 Feb 1961
Torre Bert: "SU": The death of an unknown cosmonaut - alleged radio recording of heart beats

During a manned "SU" atmosphere flight an unknown astronaut passes out and suffers a heart failure.
(http://www.lostcosmonauts.com/pioneers.htm)

During the first part of the flight is a failure and the pilot passes out. The cosmonaut makes two orbits around the Earth and cannot steer back to the Earth and remains 17 orbits in the high atmosphere.

The "SU" control center is not providing first aid and lets the atmosphere ship in the orbit first. By this an emergency landing on foreign territory and a disgrace for the "SU" can be avoided. Only for this reason the cosmonaut has to die in the high atmosphere.
(http://www.lostcosmonauts.com/ilyushin.htm)

The hobby radio operators and sons of a doctor of medicine, Gian-Battista and Achille Judica-Gordiglia can hear the heart beats and a moaning or a sigh from the high atmosphere by their monitoring station. Both brothers are convinced at this time that the "SU" has launched the first man into the high atmosphere. But officially the "SU" is not reporting anything (Wisnewski, p.19).

By this the died unknown cosmonaut is no hero. His victim is kept secret by reason of political propaganda. The heartbeats which are always weaker and weaker are recorded by the Judica-Cordiglia brothers. The leading heart researcher of that time, prof. Dogliotti, confirms that the heart beats would be the heart beats of a dying person.
(http://www.lostcosmonauts.com/man.htm)

The dead cosmonaut is General Mikhailoff (Wisnewski, p.25).

But there are doubts: The recordings of the heart beats are not sure

The Swedish space expert Sven Grahn doubts the heart beat recordings because up to that time there had never performed or transmitted any heart beat recording.
(In: http://astrosurf.org/lombry/qsl-torre-bert2.htm)

The "Soviet" atmosphere flight has never transmitted heart beats over a language channel. The biomedical data like heart beats and breathing rhythm are transformed into electric signals and are transmitted as numerical telemetric data. Over a radio channel telemetric data can be heard only as a permanent sound.
(http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/conspiracy/q0235.shtml)

As no other monitoring station but Torre Bert has received this signals the recorded signals are often doubted.
(http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/conspiracy/q0235.shtml)

9 March 1961
"SU": An alleged flight with a dog Tshernushka and a dummy is allegedly a success

The flight of 1 1/2 hour in a "Korabl 4" is performed as it is planned. The dog Tshernushka and the dummy are landing safe near the town Ishevsk.
(Project Vostok, http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)

According to official "SU" reports the dummy has landed on a parachute, the animal in the capsule [on a parachute] (Wisnewski, p.27).

Impossibility: Parachute landing of a dummy?
According to Wisnewski a parachute landing of a dummy is impossible because the ejection seat has to be activated actively. Add to this the animals would be harmed by the engine of the ejection seats with a heavy rise of temperature and pressure so the animals could not be used as test animal any more (Wisnewski, p.27).

[Speculations can go on...]

23 March 1961
The case of Bondarenko: A burnt astronaut

"SU": The cosmonaut Valentin Bondarenko is taken to the Botkin hospital at Moscow heavily injured - death of Bondarenko

  
Valentin
                        Bondarenko, burnt "SU" astronaut,
                        portrait.
Valentin Bondarenko, burnt "SU" astronaut, portrait.

Astronaut Valentin Bondarenko is taken to the Moscow Botkin hospital. The attending physician Dr. Vladimir Goljakovsky later reports that he determined that Bondarenko had some skin only on his feet where it had been possible to give an injection of pain-reliever. Bondarenko had looked as if he came from an oven (Wisnewski, p.29).
 
The staff of the ambulance bringing Bondarenko to hospital indicate the person would be lieutenant Sergeiev (Wisnewski, p.29).

Bondarenko dies on the same day on 23 March 1961.
(http://en.wikipedia.org: Valentin Bondarenko)

The case is kept secret. In 1968 there is a story presented: Bondarenko would have been in a space capsule for several days in a pure oxygen atmosphere. He handled with a rag or with a piece of cotton wool which was submerged into alcohol to remove remnants of a medicinal sensor. Then Bondarenko shall have thrown the alcoholic rag by chance on a heat cooker so the alcohol in the rag / piece of cotton wool would have caught fire immediately and the pure oxygen atmosphere had promoted the fire (Wisnewski, p.29-30).

And at the same time the Bondarenko's cabin is said having been closed hermetically.
(Project Vostok, http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)

[Strong argument for the oxygen cooker theory: The geographic neighbourship of "Star City" to Moscow
The fact that Bondarenko was alive yet arriving the hospital at Moscow is an argument that the accident happened in the atmosphere center "Star City", 30 km from Moscow].

Strong argument in favour of the oxygen cooker theory: Accident also on Apollo 1
Later also on Apollo 1 a fire catastrophe is happening in a pure oxygen atmosphere with a hatch which cannot be opened from the inner side by the astronauts.
(In: Wisnewski, see here).

But Wisnewski admits that Bondarenko was burnt by a re-entry into the lower dense atmosphere and had halfway vaporized by the burning capsule, and only after the landing Bondarenko could be rescued [in a unconscious condition] (Wisnewski, p.30). Bondarenko had been burnt probably during the re-entry (Wisnewski, p.35).

But it's not clear how the fast transport to the hospital at Moscow should have been possible. By this the story of the pure oxygen atmosphere and Bondarenko's cooker could be well possible. Speculations can go on...]

25 March 1961
"SU": Flight with a dog Svjosdotshka and a dummy is allegedly a success

The start of a capsule "Korabl 5" at Baikonur is running well. The dog Svjosdotshka and the dummy "Ivan Ivanovski no.2" are landing within the schedule 80 km from Ishevsk.
(Project Vostok, http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml)

According to the official "SU" report the dummy has landed by parachute, the animals with the capsule (Wisnewski, p.27).

Wisnewski doubts if a dummy can land on a parachute because an ejection seat has to be started by hand, and because the animals would be harmed by the engines by the heat and the pressure of the ejection seat (Wisnewski, S.27).


Speculations are going on, and there are even more such things which are not at all clear...

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Picture sources

Dogs in the atmosphere
-- she dog Laika, first passenger in the atmosphere: http://www.videocosmos.com/first.shtm
-- she dog Laika on a stamp: http://www.svetloyar.ru/index.php?id=000020

-- satellite "Vanguard 1", crash of the rocket, foto no.: VAN-9: http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/BROWSE/ALLGRIN_98.html; http://sse.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=384
-- Van Allen, portrait:
-- Ph.D. William Pickering, Ph.D. James Van Allen, Ph.D. Wernher von Braun showing a model of Explorer I:
http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Datei:Van_Allen_Explorer_1.jpg&filetimestamp=20060325113308

-- Sputnik III satellite: http://alrich.org/timeline/pages/sputnik3.html

Vostok atmosphere ship model "Vostok 3"

-- Vostok rocket (Wostok, Boctok): http://www.ninfinger.org/~sven/models/mpcvostok/MPC_Vostok.htm
-- Vostok rocket: http://www.oearv.at/wf-Dateien/wf2001-Dateien/gagarin.html
-- manned cabin, supply module, landing engine: http://www.oearv.at/wf-Dateien/wf2001-Dateien/gagarin.html
-- manned cabin, supply module, profile, drawing: Donna Bailey / Klaus Strienz: Raumfahrt. Raketen, Raumfähren und Satelliten; Neuer-Finken-Verlag, Oberursel 1992, S.10

-- a model of "Vostok 3" in the production hall: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/03/98/gagarin/71828.stm
-- a model of "Vostok 3" flying, drawing: http://www.stguardian.to/mixed/spacechron/index.html
-- landing with parachute, diagram: http://www.oearv.at/wf-Dateien/wf2001-Dateien/gagarin.html

-- Vostok atmosphere ship model "Korabl" with solar panel for unmanned atmosphere flight:

NASA and atmosphere ship "Mercury"

-- NASA logo 1: http://rohrabacher.house.gov/Photos/?PhotoID=20200
-- NASA logo 2: http://sprg.ssl.berkeley.edu/~cepheid/nasa_logo.gif

-- Mercury atmosphere ship, profile, drawing: Donna Bailey / Klaus Strienz: Raumfahrt. Raketen, Raumfähren und Satelliten; Neuer-Finken-Verlag, Oberursel 1992, S.11
-- Mercury rocket: http://www.jrl-engineering.com/Space_mercury2.html
-- Mercury atmosphere ship in fabrication hall: http://br.geocities.com/leandrobecc/mercury.htm

-- comparison of the atmosphere ships "Vostok 3" and Mercury: Brian Jones: Weltraumforschung; Herder-Verlag 1990, S.47

Star City

-- air foto and house front: http://www.hightechscience.org/star_city.htm
-- Star City: Planetarium: http://www.hightechscience.org/star_city.htm
-- Gagarin monument: http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4225/training/training.htm

Dogs in the atmosphere
-- dogs Belka and Strelka: http://forum.abestweb.com/showthread.php?t=62101&page=3
-- she dog Strelka after the landing: http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/bemannt/projekt_wostok.shtml


-- Baikonur: Nedelin disaster: http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/spacecraft/q0179.shtml

Torre Bert
-- Judica-Cordiglia brothers at Torre Bert near Turin: http://www.lostcosmonauts.com/pics.htm
-- Judica-Cordiglia brothers with staff members: http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/conspiracy/q0235.shtml
-- Judica-Cordiglia antennas at Torre Bert: http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/conspiracy/q0235.shtml

-- chimponaut "Ham": http://www.urbin.de/usa/mercury/mercury.htm

-- Valentin Bondarenko, portrait: http://ru.wikipedia.org


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